Harkat-ul-Jihadi al-Islami

Formed1984
DisbandedGroup is active.
First Attack1984: 1984-1989: HuJI was the first Pakistani-based jihadist group to fight Soviets in Afghanistan. [1]
Last AttackSeptember 7, 2011: September 7, 2011: Bombs exploded at the Delhi High Court (15 killed, 90 wounded). [2] [3]
UpdatedJuly 11, 2016

Narrative Summary

Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI), meaning Islamic Jihad Movement or Movement of Islamic Holy War, is a Pakistan-based Deobandi militant group with the current stated goal of secession of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) from India and the region’s eventual incorporation into Pakistan.  [4] HuJI also propagates the idea of Islamic rule over all parts of India. [5] Originally named Jamiat Ansarul Afghaneen (JAA), the Party of the Friends of the Afghan People, HuJI was founded by Qari Saifullah Akhtar and his associates from Karachi to fight Soviet troops in Afghanistan.  In 1984, JAA renamed itself Harkat-ul-Jihadi al-Islami, and in 1989, at the end of the Afghan-Soviet war, the organization reoriented its focus to the cause of Muslims in the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir. [6] [7]

In the early 1990s, HuJI member Fazlur Rehman Khalil broke away to form another militant organization, Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen (HuM). However, in 1993, under pressure from ISI and Deobandi clerics, HuJI combined forces with HuM and formed Harkat-ul-Ansar (HuA) to begin operations in Jammu and Kashmir. [8] Following the U.S. designation of HuA as a terrorist organization in 1997, the group split and reverted to operating independently in order to evade authorities. [9]

HuJI’s most active unit is known as HuJI Bangladesh, or HuJI-B.  Founded in 1992, HuJI-B was associated with Osama bin Laden’s World Islamic Front for Jihad and operated through the Jihad Movement in Bangladesh led by Fazlur Rahman throughout its early years.  The current extent of HuJI-B’s connection to Al Qaeda is not known. [10] [11]

Beginning in the 1990s, HuJI reportedly received financial and logistical support from the Pakistani government and its intelligence agency, Inter Services Intelligence (ISI), to promote instability in Kashmir. HuJI operations in J&K began in earnest in 1991, led by Muhammad Ilyas Kashmiri. [12] Though unconfirmed, LeT and JeM are believed to have ties to HuJI’s Pakistani founder, Qari Saifullah Akhtar.  HuJI frequently operates alongside Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). [13] HuJI has been known to provide manpower for JeM operations and there is written evidence that JeM compensated the families of HuJI members killed on JeM missions.  [14] 

Qari Saifullah Akhtar’s close relationship with Taliban leader Mullah Omar allowed the group to flourish after the Taliban’s rise in Afghanistan. At least 25 HuJI members served at the ministerial level in the Taliban government and Mullah Omar authorized six HuJI camps for joint training of HuJI, Taliban police, and Taliban army recruits. [15] From a base in Kandahar, Qari Saifullah Akhtar served as a link between the Taliban and Al Qaeda, including bringing Mullah Omar and Osama bin Laden together for meetings. [16] [17] [18] Osama Bin Laden used HuJI as part of his support network inside Pakistan, specifically to convey messages, instructions, and funds.   Some evidence indicates HuJI operatives may have been involved in hiding or transporting Bin Laden inside Pakistan. [19] 

At the start of U.S. military operations in 2001, HuJI was forced to flee its activity base in Southern Afghanistan.  Many of its leaders including Qari Saifullah Akhtar took refuge in South Waziristan, Pakistan. Some members relocated to Central Asia to evade U.S. forces. [20] [21] Although HuJI activity in Jammu and Kashmir has noticeably declined since 2001, the Bangladesh-based unit, HuJI-B, has steadily increased attacks in urban centers throughout India. [22] HuJI remains highly active in Bangladesh, with most of the group’s attacks are planned from the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka, even those allegedly directed by the ISI. [23] [24]  One source claims the group has up to 15,000 members, almost entirely recruited from madrassas in Bangladesh and Pakistan. [25]

HuJI reportedly has several sleeper cells across India in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.  The group’s efforts in India have been supported by the Student Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) in the form of recruits, lodging, and logistical assistance.  [26] HuJI also maintains links with militant groups operating in India's northeast, including the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) and the People’s United Liberation Front (PULF). HuJI is reportedly running some of ULFA's camps situated in Bangladesh. [27]

HuJI presence has been reported in as many as 24 nations outside of South Asia including Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Iran, Malaysia, UK, US, the Philippines and parts of Africa, although the extent of coordination among these units is unkown. [28]  [29] HuJI maintains revenue collection offices across Pakistan and has a main office in Islamabad.  [30] 

HuJI’s last claimed attack was a bombing at the Indian High Court in Delhi in 2011, but the United Jihad Council still claims HuJI as an active affiliate. [31]

Leadership

  1. Qari Saifullah Akhtar (1985 to Present): Qari Saifullah Akhtar is a founding leader of HuJI and a current leader of HuJI in Pakistan. He is of Pashtun tribal descent, from Waziristan, and was educated in the Jamia Banoria Madrasa in Karachi, a madrasa noted for allegedly producing several high profile terrorists. Following the end of the Cold War, Akhtar ran operations from a base in Kandahar. He maintained a low profile until 1995, when he was implicated along with several senior Pakistani army officials in an attempt to overthrow Benazir Bhutto’s Pakistani government. The charges against him were dropped after he testified against his conspirators. After U.S. military operations commenced in 2001, he took refuge in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). He has been implicated in every major terrorist attack in Pakistan and India, including the 2008 Marriott Islamabad bombing. He has never been sentenced for any of the charges and was last released from police custody in December 2010. His current whereabouts are unknown.[32]
  2. Muhammad Ilyas Kashmiri (1991 to 2011): Kashmiri served as the operational commander of HuJI. In 2009, Kashmiri operated a militant training center in Miram Shah, North Waziristan in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. He ordered the October 2008 assassination of the former commander of the Pakistani Special Services Group, General Amir Faisal Alvi. Kashmiri was killed in a U.S. Predator drone strike in South Waziristan on June 4, 2011. [33]
  3. Shah Sahib (2011 to Present): Shah Sahib, a Taliban commander, was selected to replace Kashmiri after the former commander’s death. Shah Sahib is also chief of the Al Qaeda-linked 313 Brigade.[34]

Ideology & Goals

HuJI is associated with Deobandi school of thought within Sunni Islam, a movement that originated in Uttar Pradesh, India, where HuJI has extensive operations. The group describes itself as the "second line of defense for every Muslim,” and aims to establish Islamic rule in Pakistan and India by waging attacks and promoting the Islamization of Pakistani societyOriginally established to fight Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, HuJI reoriented itself to challenge Indian control of Jammu and Kashmir in 1989. [35] 

HuJI’s Bangladesh unit has listed the establishment of Islamic rule in Bangladesh as one of its aims. [36] 

 

HuJI has been known to share Taliban ideology, evidenced by a slogan it allegedly issued, "Amra Sobai Hobo Taliban, Bangla Hobe Afghanistan (We will all become Taliban and we will turn Bangladesh into Afghanistan)." [37] 

Name Changes


Size Estimates

Designated/Listed

Resources

Harkat-ul-Jihadi al-Islami receives patronage and much of its support from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence.  [45] HuJI has provided militants for JeM operations as late as 2008 and has an agreement with the group to compensate the family members of any HuJI member killed in a JeM attack.  [46]   HuJI has also operationally coordinated its attacks with the cooperation of the Students' Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).  SIMI cadres have provided shelter and logistical help to HuJI’s Bangladesh unit (HuJI-B) prior to attacks and some SIMI cadres have joined HuJI-B. [47] Al Qaeda and HuJI are known to share some training camps. [48] Addtionally HUJI-B funding comes from a variety of sources. Several international Islamic non-governmental organizations may have funneled money to HUJI-B and other Bangladeshi militant groups. [49]

External Influences

HuJI's anti-India operations are supposedly planned by Pakistan's Inter Services Intelligence (ISI), mostly from the Bangladeshi capital Dhaka.  Reports indicate that ISI provides military training to recruits in camps in Bangladesh. [50] [51]
 

Geographical Locations

Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) is currently a Pakistan-based militant group with units and cells across the world. Originally founded to fight Soviet troops in Afghanistan, HuJI was headquartered in Kandahar until U.S. military operations against began in 2001. Most of HuJI’s leaders took shelter in South Waziristan in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas. [52] Some members relocated to Central Asia and Chechnya to escape being captured by U.S. forces. HuJI continues to operate in Chechnya, making up a significant portion of the foreign mercenary force in Chechnya. [53] [54]

Additionally, HuJI was involved in training Muslim Rohingya insurgents from Myanmar in the 1990s. [55]

HuJI appears to maintain a strong network in western Uttar Pradesh. Several arrests and attacks indicate the depth of HuJI's involvement in this area. HuJI also reportedly has a presence throughout India.  [56]

HuJI has not yet perpetrated known attacks in western regions, but actively recruits in western countries.  In 2009, HuJI leader Qari Saifullah Ahktar convinced five Americans to join the jihad after they found recruitment videos on Youtube. [57]

Targets & Tactics

Little is known about HuJI’s involvement in the Soviet-Afghan war.  One report describes Mullah Omar’s appreciation for HuJI fighters in a battle against the Northern Alliance in which 300 HuJI members were killed.  [58]

HuJI is known for carrying out attacks on secular and progressive individuals including intellectuals, writers, politicians, and journalists in India and greater South Asia. In 2000, it assassinated a senior Bangladeshi journalist for making a documentary on the plight of Hindus in Bangladesh. HuJI was the prime suspect in the 2000 assassination attempt on then Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, who was also the leader of the secular, center-left Awami League. [59] HuJI's violent tactics have ranged from single assassinations to medium and large-scale explosions. The group operates in small, autonomous cells, each carefully picking its own targets. [60]

Political Activities

HuJI has been linked to the deceased Taliban leader Mullah Omar, and at least 25 HuJI members were part of the Taliban cabinet and judiciary in Afghanistan before the September 11, 2001. [61] [62]


Major Attacks

  1. 1984: HuJI was the first Pakistani-based jihadist group to fight Soviets in Afghanistan. (Unknown).[63]
  2. April 14, 2001: A series of bombs were detonated at a cultural event celebrating the Bengali New Year at Ramna Batamul in Dhaka, Bangladesh. HuJI claimed responsibility for the attack, which killed a police officer and a HuJI militant. (9 killed, 17 wounded).[64]
  3. January 22, 2002: HuJI was involved in the attack on American Center in Kolkata. The Asif Reza Commando Force (ARCF), which claimed responsibility for the attack, was affiliated to HuJI. Three HuJI militants were arrested and told authorities the attack was carried out by a combination of Bangladeshi migrants and HuJI militants in India who were trained at ISI-backed training camps in Pakistan. (5 killed, 20 wounded).[65]
  4. March 2, 2006: HuJI was responsible for the suicide bombing of the U.S. Consulate in Karachi, Pakistan, which killed U.S. diplomat David Foy. (4 killed, 48 wounded).[66]
  5. March 7, 2006: HuJI was allegedly responsible for three synchronized bombings across the Hindu holy city of Varanasi. Two blasts occurred at Sankat Mochan, a temple where hundreds of pilgrims were visiting. The third blast occurred at the railway station in Varanasi. Six additional bombs were reportedly diffused throughout the city. (28 killed, 101 wounded).[67]
  6. September 7, 2011: A briefcase bomb exploded in the Indian high court reception hall. Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami claimed responsibility for the attack but this was not confirmed by India’s National Investigation Agency. (15 killed, 90 wounded).[68]

Relationships with Other Groups

Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami has developed affiliates and merged with other organizations throughout its existence. In the early 1990s, HuJI member Fazlur Rehman Khalil broke away to form another militant organization, Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen (HuM).  In 1993, under pressure from ISI and Deobandi clerics, HuJI combined forces with HuM and formed Harkat-ul-Ansar (HuA) to begin operations in Jammu and Kashmir. [69] Following the U.S. designation of HuA as a terrorist organization in 1997, the group terminated their union and reverted to operating independently in order to evade authorities. [70]

HuJI has historically been connected with groups that share similar goals and ideologies, including Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), and similarly, receives patronage and support from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence. HuJI provided militants for JeM operations as late as 2008.  According to an accord between the two groups, JeM compensated the family members of any HuJI member killed in an attack.  [71]  

The group’s most active unit, based in Bangladesh, continued operations under the name HuJI and is often referred to as HuJI Bangladesh (HuJI-B).  In its early years, HuJI-B was associated with Osama bin Laden’s World Islamic Front for Jihad and operated through the Jihad Movement in Bangladesh led by Fazlur Rahman. [72] HuJI has also operationally coordinated its attacks with the cooperation of the Students' Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).  SIMI cadres have provided shelter and logistical help to HuJI’s Bangladesh unit (HuJI-B) prior to attacks and some SIMI cadres have joined HuJI-B. [73]

At least 25 HuJI members served in the Taliban government in Afghanistan, and Taliban leader Mullah Omar provided joint training for HuJI, Taliban police, and Taliban army recruits. [74] Qari Saifullah Akhtar served as a link between the Taliban and Al Qaeda, including arranging meetings between top leaders of the two groups. [75] [76] [77]

Al Qaeda and HuJI share some training camps and the relationship between the groups is strengthened by their mutual ties to the Taliban.   Osama Bin Laden used the group as part of his support network inside Pakistan, specifically to convey messages, instructions, and funds.   Some evidence indicates HuJI operatives may have been involved in hiding or transporting Bin Laden in Pakistan. [78]

HuJI maintains links with militant groups operating in India's northeast, including the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA) and the People’s United Liberation Front (PULF). HuJI is reportedly running some of ULFA's camps situated in Bangladesh. [79]

Community Relationships

HuJI’s community relationships revolve around recruiting funding and members to support their operations.  Unlike other militant groups operating in Jammu and KashmirHuJI is not known to provide community services. [80]



References

  1. ^ Hussain, Zahid. Frontline Pakistan The Struggle With Militant Islam. New York City: Columbia Univ, 2008. 71. Print.
  2. ^ "Terror Attack: Powerful Blast outside Delhi High Court Kills 11." The Indian Express 7 Sept. 2011: n. pag. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  3. ^ "The Decoder: The Anatomy of Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 08 Oct. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  4. ^ Ramachandran, Sudha. "PART 2: Behind the Harkat-ul Jihad Al-Islami." Asia Times Online. N.p., 10 Dec. 2004. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  5. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  6. ^ Hussain, Zahid. Frontline Pakistan The Struggle With Militant Islam. New York City: Columbia Univ, 2008. 71. Print.
  7. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  8. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  9. ^ Tucker, Spencer, and Paul G. Pierpaoli. U.S. Conflicts in the 21st Century: Afghanistan War, Iraq War, and the War on Terror. Print.
  10. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  11. ^ United States of America. U.S. Department of State. Office of the Spokesman. U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, 06 Aug. 2010. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  12. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  13. ^ Hussain, Zahid. Frontline Pakistan The Struggle With Militant Islam. New York City: Columbia Univ, 2008. 71. Print.
  14. ^ Thakur, Pradeep. "J&K May See Fresh Influx of Bomb-makers." Times of India. Times of India, 14 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  15. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  16. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  17. ^ Ahmed, Khaled. "THE GHOST OF OSAMA BIN LADEN." Newsweek Pakistan. Newsweek, 28 July 2013. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  18. ^ Raman, B. Lancer Paper. Vol. 7. N.p.: Lancer & Distributors, 2002. 63. Print.
  19. ^ Gall, Carlotta, Pir Zubair Shah, and Eric Schmitt. "Seized Phone Offers Clues to Bin Laden’s Pakistani Links." The New York Times. The New York Times, 23 June 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  20. ^ Misra, A., and M.E. Clarke. Pakistan’s Stability Paradox: Domestic, Regional and International Dimensions. Taylor & Francis, 2013. Web. Routledge Contemporary South Asia Series.
  21. ^ Verma, B. Indian Defence Review. Lancer International Lancer Press, 2011. Web. Vol. 25.4.
  22. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  23. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  24. ^ "The Decoder: The Anatomy of Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 08 Oct. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  25. ^ Ramachandran, Sudha. "PART 2: Behind the Harkat-ul Jihad Al-Islami." Asia Times Online. N.p., 10 Dec. 2004. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  26. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  27. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  28. ^ Thakur, Pradeep. "J&K May See Fresh Influx of Bomb-makers." Times of India. Times of India, 14 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  29. ^ United States of America. U.S. Department of State. Office of the Spokesman. U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, 06 Aug. 2010. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  30. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  31. ^ Ash, Peerzada. "United Jihad Council Claims Responsibility for Pathankot Attack." The Hindu. The Hindu, 04 Jan. 2016. Web. 21 Jan. 2016.
  32. ^ Roggio, Bill. "Al Qaeda-linked Suspects Emerge in Islamabad Marriott Attacks."?The Long War Journal. The Long War Journal, 25 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  33. ^ "US Strike 'kills' Key Pakistan Militant Ilyas Kashmiri." BBC News. BBC, 4 June 2011. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  34. ^ "Shah Sahib New Chief of 313 Brigade." Pakistan Today. Pakistan Today, 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  35. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)."South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  36. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)."South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  37. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)."South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  38. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  39. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  40. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  41. ^ Tucker, Spencer, and Paul G. Pierpaoli. U.S. Conflicts in the 21st Century: Afghanistan War, Iraq War, and the War on Terror. Print.
  42. ^ Tucker, Spencer, and Paul G. Pierpaoli. U.S. Conflicts in the 21st Century: Afghanistan War, Iraq War, and the War on Terror. Print.
  43. ^ Ramachandran, Sudha. "PART 2: Behind the Harkat-ul Jihad Al-Islami." Asia Times Online. N.p., 10 Dec. 2004. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  44. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  45. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  46. ^ Thakur, Pradeep. "J&K May See Fresh Influx of Bomb-makers." Times of India. Times of India, 14 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  47. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  48. ^ Gall, Carlotta, Pir Zubair Shah, and Eric Schmitt. "Seized Phone Offers Clues to Bin Laden’s Pakistani Links." The New York Times. The New York Times, 23 June 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  49. ^ "Foreign Terrorist Organizations." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  50. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)."South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  51. ^ "The Decoder: The Anatomy of Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami."Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 08 Oct. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  52. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  53. ^ Misra, A., and M.E. Clarke. Pakistan’s Stability Paradox: Domestic, Regional and International Dimensions. Taylor & Francis, 2013. Web. Routledge Contemporary South Asia Series.
  54. ^ Verma, B. Indian Defence Review. Lancer International Lancer Press, 2011. Web. Vol. 25.4.
  55. ^ Ramachandran, Sudha. "PART 2: Behind the Harkat-ul Jihad Al-Islami." Asia Times Online. N.p., 10 Dec. 2004. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  56. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  57. ^ Roggio, Bill. "Top Al Qaeda Leader Linked to 5 Americans on Trial in Pakistan." The Long War Journal. The Long War Journal, 17 Apr. 2010. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  58. ^ Sareen, Sushant. The Jihad Factory: Pakistan's Islamic Revolution in the Making. New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation in Association with Har-Anand Publications, 2005. Print.
  59. ^ Ramachandran, Sudha. "PART 2: Behind the Harkat-ul Jihad Al-Islami." Asia Times Online. N.p., 10 Dec. 2004. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  60. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  61. ^ Roggio, Bill. "Pakistan Releases Top Al Qaeda-linked Terrorist Leader | The Long War Journal." The Long War Journal. The Long War Journal, 4 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  62. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  63. ^ Hussain, Zahid. Frontline Pakistan The Struggle With Militant Islam. New York City: Columbia Univ, 2008. 71. Print.
  64. ^ "9 Killed in Bomb Attack in Bangladesh." Rediff. Rediff, 14 Apr. 2001. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  65. ^ "3 HUJI Activists Held in Gujarat for Kolkata Attack." Times of India. Times of India, 16 Feb. 2002. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  66. ^ United States of America. U.S. Department of State. Office of the Spokesman. U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, 06 Aug. 2010. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  67. ^ "Timeline: Major Attacks in India." IBNLive. N.p., 7 Sept. 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  68. ^ Thakur, Pradeep. "J&K May See Fresh Influx of Bomb-makers."Times of India. Times of India, 14 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  69. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  70. ^ Tucker, Spencer, and Paul G. Pierpaoli. U.S. Conflicts in the 21st Century: Afghanistan War, Iraq War, and the War on Terror. Print.
  71. ^ Thakur, Pradeep. "J&K May See Fresh Influx of Bomb-makers." Times of India. Times of India, 14 Sept. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  72. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  73. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  74. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  75. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  76. ^ Ahmed, Khaled. "THE GHOST OF OSAMA BIN LADEN." Newsweek Pakistan. Newsweek, 28 July 2013. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
  77. ^ Raman, B. Lancer Paper. Vol. 7. N.p.: Lancer & Distributors, 2002. 63. Print.
  78. ^ Gall, Carlotta, Pir Zubair Shah, and Eric Schmitt. "Seized Phone Offers Clues to Bin Laden’s Pakistani Links." The New York Times. The New York Times, 23 June 2011. Web. 20 Jan. 2016.
  79. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)." South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016
  80. ^ "Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)."South Asia Terrorism Portal. N.p., 4 Sept. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2016

Print this page

Map Harkat-ul-Jihadi al-Islami

Click on the maps below to visualize this group's interactions with other militant organizations

On Global Al Qaeda map

CakePHP

On Pakistan -- All map

CakePHP

On Pakistan map

CakePHP

Contents

Search