Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Brigade

Formed1999
Disbanded2009
First AttackOctober 26, 2002: Riyadus-Salikhin collaborated with SPIR and IIPB to conduct an attack on Moscow's Dubrovka Theatre. They held over 800 people hostage and demanded Chechen liberation from the Russian Federation. Russian security forces rescued the hostages. (130-140 Killed, Unknown Wounded) [1]
Last AttackJanuary 24, 2011: Riyadus-Salikhin, functioning under the Caucasus Emirate, claimed responsibility for the Domodedovo Airport suicide attacks in Moscow, Russia. (35 killed, 130 injured) [2]
UpdatedFebruary 19, 2014

Narrative Summary

Shamil Basayev, co-founder of the International Islamic Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB), founded the Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Brigade in 1999. Previously known as the Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Battalion of Chechen Martyrs, the group aims to create an independent Chechnya. [3]

Riyadus-Salikhin built close relationships with other prominent  North Caucasian terrorist organizations including the IIPB, the Special Purpose Islamic Regiment (SPIR), the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and Al Qaeda. It eventually expanded its original goal of Chechen independence to include independence for the whole North Caucasus.  

To achieve Chechen independence, Shamil Basayev promoted collaboration among these groups and planned  small-scale and major attacks, including the 2002 Moscow theatre siege. The group took credit for the December 2002 attack at the pro-Chechen government headquarters, killing 80 people and wounding over 150. [4] Riyadus-Salikhin's presence diminished substantially under the leadership of Aslan Butukayev, Basayev's successor. [5]

IIn 2009, Doku Umarov reactivated Riyadus-Salikhin under the Caucasus Emirate. Since its reactivation, Riyadus-Salikhin has taken credit for several small-scale attacks and two large-scale attacks: the 2010 Moscow Metro bombings [6] and 2011 Domodedovo Airport attacks. [7]

Leadership

  1. Shamil Basayev (1999 to July 10, 2006): Chechen rebel and the founder and leader of Riyadus-Salikhin and the International Islamic Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB). He developed close relations with Al Qaeda through his friend Ibn Al-Khattab, co-founder of IIPB. Basayev was killed by Russian security forces in 2006.[8]
  2. Aslan Butukayev (July 2006 to Unknown): Aslan Butukayev was the successor to Shamil Basayev. Little is known about Butukayev. [9]

Ideology & Goals

Riyadus-Salikhin originally aimed for Chechen independence and later expanded its mission include all of the North Caucasus. In the mid-2000’s Riyadus-Salikhin expanded its ideology again and adopted radical Islamism and global jihad, largely due to outside influence from Al Qaeda.

 

Operating under the Caucasus Emirate, Riyadus-Salikhin continues to support a global jihad and targets anyone who opposes the mission of the mujahedeen. [10]

Size Estimates

The group's current size is unknown as Riyadus-Salikhin operates from within the Caucasus Emirate. 

Designated/Listed

The Secretary of State of the United States listed Riyadus-Salikhin as a terrorist entity in February of 2003 under Executive Order 13224. [11] One month later,  in March 2003, the UN listed Riyadus-Salikhin as a terrorist entity. [12]



United States of America: February  2003 to Present
United Nations: March 04, 2003 to Present

Resources

Riyadus-Salikhin, like the other prominent Chechen terrorist groups, received most of its financial support from Al-Qaeda. [13]

External Influences

Al Qaeda (AQ) exerted a strong influence on Riyadus-Salikhin. AQ offered training camps for Chechen rebels in Afghanistan, funded training camps in the North Caucasus and sent hundreds of their own fighters to the North Caucasus. Due to this extensive support from AQ, Riyadus-Salikhin adopted a global jihadist ideology instead of focusing solely on Chechen independence. 

Targets & Tactics

Riyadus-Salikhin targets all those who oppose independence for the North Caucasus. It uses suicide attacks, bombings, hostage-takings, and kidnappings for ransom. [14] The group’s most recognizable attacks, the Moscow theatre hostage crisis in 2002 and the 2010 Moscow metro bombings, employed female suicide bombers, otherwise known as the Black Widows. [15]

Major Attacks

  1. October 26, 2002: Riyadus-Salikhin collaborated with SPIR and IIPB to conduct an attack on Moscow's Dubrovka Theatre. They held over 800 people hostage and demanded Chechen liberation from the Russian Federation. Russian security forces rescued the hostages. ((130-140 killed, Unknown wounded)).[16]
  2. September 3, 2004: Basayev masterminded a hostage crises at a school in Beslan, North Ossetia. He demanded that Russia end its atrocities in Chechnya (the Second Chechen War) or more people would be killed at the hands of Riyadus-Salikhin. Russian security forces entered the school to end the three-day siege, sparking a battle. ((332 killed, 780 wounded)).[17]
  3. March 29, 2010: Riyadus-Salikhin, directed by the Caucasus Emirate’s leader Doku Umarov, conducted suicide bombings in the Moscow Metro at two major stations. ((40 killed, 100 wounded)).[18]
  4. January 24, 2011: Riyadus-Salikhin, operating under the Caucasus Emirate, claimed responsibility for the Domodedovo Airport suicide attacks. ((35 killed, 130 wounded) ).[19]

Relationships with Other Groups

Riyadus-Salikhin had a strong relationship with Al-Qaeda (AQ) because Shamil Basayev built a close relationship with AQ member Ibn Al-Khattab, the co-founder of IIPB. Furthermore, Basayev received training through AQ in Afghanistan, where he brought other Chechen recruits to receive training. He also supported AQ’s mission of a global jihad by allowing them to operate training camps in the North Caucasus. Riyadus-Salikhin also collaborated with other groups in the region, including the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, International Islamic Peacekeeping Brigade and Special Purpose Islamic Regiment, to launch attacks against the Russian Federation. [20]


References

  1. ^ "Riyadus-Salikhin (Gardens of the Righteous)." Agentura.ru. N.p., 2011. Web. July 2012. <http://www.agentura.ru/english/terrorism/organizations/Riyadus-Salikhin/>.
  2. ^ Harding, Luke, and Tom Parfitt. "Domodedovo Airport Hit by Deadly Bombing." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 24 Jan. 2011. Web. July 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/24/domodedovo-airport-bombing-moscow>.
  3. ^ "Terrorist Organization Profile - START - National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism." Terrorist Organization Profile - START - National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland, 2010. Web. July 2012.<http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=3673>.
  4. ^ "Taliban, Al-Qaida, Sanctions Committee, United Nations 1267 Committee, Resolution 1267." UN News Center. UN, 04 Mar. 2003. Web. July 2012. <http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE10003E.shtml>.}

    Russian security forces killed Shamil Basayev, Riyadus-Salikhin's leader and founder, in 2006. This constituted a major blow to Riyadus-Salikhin and to all terrorist organizations in the North Caucasus. Basayev served as the mastermind behind countless attacks and as the primary link to Al-Qaeda. {{Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed. "The American Spectator." The American Spectator. N.p., 14 July 2006. Web. July 2012. <http://spectator.org/archives/2006/07/14/the-death-of-shamil-basayev>.

  5. ^ "Riyadus-Salikhin (Gardens of the Righteous)." Agentura.ru. N.p., 2011. Web. July 2012. <http://www.agentura.ru/english/terrorism/organizations/Riyadus-Salikhin/>.
  6. ^ "Female Suicide Bombers Blamed in Moscow Subway Attacks." CNN. CNN, 29 Mar. 2010. Web. July 2012. <http://articles.cnn.com/2010-03-29/world/russia.subway.explosion_1_suicide-bombers-chechen-rebels-subway-stations?_s=PM:WORLD>.
  7. ^ "Taliban, Al-Qaida, Sanctions Committee, United Nations 1267 Committee, Resolution 1267." UN News Center. UN, 04 Mar. 2003. Web. July 2012. <http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE10003E.shtml>.}}

  8. ^ Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed. "The American Spectator." The American Spectator. N.p., 14 July 2006. Web. July 2012. .
  9. ^ "Riyadus-Salikhin (Gardens of the Righteous)." Agentura.ru. N.p., 2011. Web. July 2012. .
  10. ^ Dolnik, Adam. "Riyadus-Salikhin Suicide Battalion." Understanding Terrorist Innovation Technology, Tactics and Global Trends. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 127-45. Print.
  11. ^ "Appendix C: Background Information on Terrorist Groups." US State Department. US Department of State, 2003. Web. <www.state.gov/documents/organization/31947.pdf>.
  12. ^ "Taliban, Al-Qaida, Sanctions Committee, United Nations 1267 Committee, Resolution 1267." UN News Center. UN, 04 Mar. 2003. Web. July 2012. <http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE10003E.shtml>.}}. One month later, in March 2003, the UN listed Riyadus-Salikhin as a terrorist entity. {{"Terrorist Exclusion List." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, 29 Dec. 2004. Web. July 2012. <http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123086.htm>.
  13. ^ "Taliban, Al-Qaida, Sanctions Committee, United Nations 1267 Committee, Resolution 1267." UN News Center. UN, 04 Mar. 2003. Web. July 2012. <http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE10003E.shtml>.}
  14. ^ Dolnik, Adam. "Riyadus-Salikhin Suicide Battalion." Understanding Terrorist Innovation Technology, Tactics and Global Trends. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 127-45. Print.
  15. ^ Hodge, Nathan. "Russia’s ‘Black Widow’ Suicide Bombers Make a Return." Wired.com. Conde Nast Digital, 30 Mar. 2010. Web. July 2012. <http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2010/03/words-of-the-day-russias-black-widow-suicide-bombers/>.
  16. ^ Leung, Rebecca. "Terror In Moscow." CBSNews. CBS Interactive, 11 Feb. 2009. Web. July 2012.
  17. ^ Milic, Corina. "Beslan School Hostage Crisis." Worst Terrorist Attacks in History. MSN News, 06 Sept. 2011. Web. July 2012. .
  18. ^ "Female Suicide Bombers Blamed in Moscow Subway Attacks." CNN. CNN, 29 Mar. 2010. Web. July 2012.
  19. ^ Harding, Luke, and Tom Parfitt. "Domodedovo Airport Hit by Deadly Bombing." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 24 Jan. 2011. Web. July 2012. .
  20. ^ Moore, Cerwyn. "The Radicalisation of the Chechen Separatist Movement: Myth or Reality?" WebCite Query Result. Prague Watchdog, 16 May 2007. Web. July 2012. <http://www.webcitation.org/5zi2iyMcD>.

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