Badr Organization of Reconstruction and Development

Formed1982
DisbandedGroup is active.
First Attack1983: The Badr Organization aided Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps during the Iran-Iraq War. They served in the frontline and led attacks against Baath Party officials in southern Iraq. [1]
UpdatedAugust 11, 2014

Narrative Summary

The Badr Organization of Reconstruction and Development was formed in 1982 as the armed wing of the  largest Shiite party in Iraq, the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI), now known as the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI). 

 In its early phase the ISCI operated in exile in Iran against the Saddam Regime. They were credited with fighting against Iraq during the Iran-Iraq War. Furthermore, because of their classification as a  Shiite organization they received more support in Iran and continue to receive their support. [2]

 After their 20-year period of exile the Badr organization returned to Iraq during the US occupation of Iraq. [3] At this time, the US demanded that the ISCI disband the Badr Brigade because of its classification as a militia. However, the ISCI did not disband their militant wing, rather they changed the name of the Badr Brigade to the Badr Organization of Reconstruction and Development to appear less militant. 

 Recently the Badr Organization has been accused of torturing Sunni Arabs, murdering Sunni clerics, and kidnapping Sunnis, but they have denied all accounts of torture, murder, and kidnappings. [4]

Leadership

  1. Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir Al Hakim (1982 to August 29, 2003): Al Hakim headed ISCI and was devoted to opposing the Saddam Regime. He was killed by a car bomb in 2003. [5]
  2. Abdul Aziz Al Hakim (August 31, 2003 to August 26, 2009): Abdul Aziz Al Hakim was the successor and brother of SCIRI/ISCI leader Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir Al Hakim. He died from lung cancer. [6]
  3. Ammar Al Hakim (August 26, 2009 to 2012): Successor to Abdul Aziz Al Hakim and the current leader of ISCI.[7]

Ideology & Goals

The Badr Organization of Reconstruction and Development is the armed wing of the ISCI, the largest Shiite Party in Iraq. They follow a 

Shiite and Islamist ideology and have been accused of utilizing violent tactics to implement their ideology. 

Their goal is to have greater representation in Iraq, expand the Shiite presence in Iraq, and create an Islamic state. It has been suspected that Iran has heavily influenced the Badr Organization. 

Name Changes


Size Estimates

There are no accurate estimates of the Badr Organization's size, but it is noted that it is smaller than the Kurdish peshmerga group, which consists of 100,000 members. 

Resources

The Badr Organization receives its financial support from the ISCI. The ISCI receives funding from Shiites in Iraq, as well as Iran. Iran has been noted to be the largest supporter and financier in Iraq. [10]

External Influences

The Badr Organization is heavily influenced by Iran. At its inception the organization operated in Iran and continued to do so for two decades.  They have been accused of still receiving funding and ideological guidance from Iran. [11]

Targets & Tactics

The Badr organization has been alleged to utilize kidnappings of Sunnis, torture tactics, as well as murder of Sunni Arabs and clerics. [12]

Political Activities

The ISCI maintains representation in the Iraqi government and supports the Badr Organization.  However, It is not clear to what extent the Iraqi government supports the Badr Organization. [13]

Major Attacks

In the 1980s the Badr Organization coordinated with Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps on the frontline against Iraq. Since then they have coordinated with other Shiite organizations to lead attacks against Sunnis. However, many of these attacks have not been verified or claimed by the Badr Organization.  [14] 

Relationships with Other Groups

The Badr Organization maintains ties with the other Shiite groups in Iraq. In 2009, they  In 2009, they formed an alliance with Moktada al-Sadr’s organization, another prominent Shiite organization in Iraq. [15]. They are known to have a rivalry with the Mahdi army, another well-known and active Shiite organization. [16]


References

  1. ^ "Center for Army Lessons Learned - Thesaurus." Center for Army Lessons Learned - Thesaurus. N.p., 17 Sept. 2007. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/thesaurus/toc.asp?id=35473>.
  2. ^ "Iran Focus." Iran Focus. N.p., 16 Nov. 2005. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://www.iranfocus.com/en/?option=com_content>.
  3. ^ "Military." Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (ISCI) / Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI). Global Security, n.d. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/sciri.htm>.
  4. ^ Beehner, Lionel. "Council on Foreign Relations." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., 30 Nov. 2005. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.cfr.org/iraq/shiite-militias-iraqs-security-forces/p9316>.
  5. ^ Joffe, Lawrence. "Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir Al-Hakim." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 29 Aug. 2003. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2003/aug/30/guardianobituaries.iraq>.
  6. ^ Joffe, Lawrence. "Abdul Aziz Al-Hakim." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 27 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/aug/27/abdul-aziz-al-hakim-obituary>.
  7. ^ Romero, Frances. "Ammar Al-Hakim, Iraq's Newest Shi'ite Leader." Time. Time, 04 Sept. 2009. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1920446,00.html>.
  8. ^ Beehner, Lionel. “Iraq’s Militia Groups.” Council on Foreign Relations. October 2006. Available at: http://www.cfr.org/iraq/iraqs-militia-groups/p11824#p6
  9. ^ Mite, Valentinas. "Iraq: President, PM Praise Shi'a and Kurdish Militias." RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. N.p., 09 June 2005. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1059189.html>.
  10. ^ Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed, and Kyle Dabruzzi. "Know Thy Enemies: Who Are We Fighting, and Who Is Supporting Them?" Discover The Networks. N.p., 11 May 2007. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/Articles/Know%20Thy%20Enemies.html>.
  11. ^ Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed, and Kyle Dabruzzi. "Know Thy Enemies: Who Are We Fighting, and Who Is Supporting Them?" Discover The Networks. N.p., 11 May 2007. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/Articles/Know%20Thy%20Enemies.html>.
  12. ^ Curta, Francis. "Tit-for-tat Killings Inflame Sectarian Tensions in Iraq." Middle East Online. N.p., 19 May 2005. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=13544>.
  13. ^ Breehner, Lionel. "Council on Foreign Relations." Council on Foreign Relations. N.p., 09 June 2005. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.cfr.org/iraq/iraq-militia-groups/p8175>.
  14. ^ Abedin, Mahan. "Badr's Spreading Web." Asia Times Online. N.p., 10 Dec. 2005. Web. 22 Aug. 2012. <http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/GL10Ak01.html>.
  15. ^ “Supreme Iraqi Islamic Council.” Times Topics. The New York Times. August 2009. Available at: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/s/supreme_iraqi_islamic_council/index.html
  16. ^ Spiegel, Peter, "Badr v. Sadr Militia Rivalry Worries British There are Fears that Shia Militias May Come To Dominate Political Life Just As Saddam's Ba"ath Party Did," The Financial Times, December 15, 2005, p. 11, InfoTrac Academic OneFile

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