Bandas Criminales

Formed2006
DisbandedGroup is active.
First AttackSeptember 2008: Within a few weeks, BACRIM faction Aguilas Negras launched two attacks, killing three indigenous leaders in Cauca in the first attack and killed five other community members in the second attack. (8 killed, 1+ wounded). [1]
Last AttackSeptember 2014: The Colombian government suspected BACRIM faction Los Urabeños and the FARC of attacking police in Córdoba. (7 killed, unknown wounded) [2]
UpdatedAugust 28, 2015

Narrative Summary

Bandas Criminales (BACRIM) is a drug trafficking, criminal gang that emerged following the demobilization of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), a paramilitary group, in 2006.  [3] The Colombian government coined the term, BACRIM, for the AUC successor groups, considered criminal bands that partnered with drug cartels and continued illicit activity. [4]

 BACRIM is comprised of several small militant factions consolidated under the title BACRIM; some work closely together and some are rivals. The 16 criminal gangs identified as BACRIM include Aguilas Negras, Autodefensas Gaitanistas de Colombia, Banda Criminal de Uraba, Los Urabeños, Los Machos, Los Paisas, Renacer, Nueva Generación, Los Rastrojos, The Popular Revolutionary Anti-terrorist Army of Colombia (ERPAC), Cordillera, Cacique Pipinta, grupo de Martin Llanos, Los Nevados, and La Oficina de Envigado. [5] All of these groups are comprised of former AUC members and formed following its demobilization with the exception of Los Rastrojos, which originated from the military wing of the Norte de Valle Cartel. [6]  [7] Together, these groups as BACRIM filled the void in the drug trade following the AUC’s demobilization.  

 In 2008, BACRIM was present in 259 municipalities in Colombia. [8] The most predominant BACRIM groups, at that time, were the Urabeños, Los Rastrojos, and ERPAC. Historically, BACRIM factions Los Urabeños and Los Rastrojos fought one another over territory and drug corridors. In 2009, conflict between the two factions ended and left a total 2,300 people dead. [9] By 2010, BACRIM had become so large that it is believed that it contributed to the country’s violence as much as, if not, more than, leftist guerrilla groups. [10] However, the group’s violence was rarely politically motivated. Unlike paramilitaries, created specifically to fight leftist guerrillas, BACRIM is involved in the drug trade and illicit activities without a clear political agenda. [11]

 In 2010, BACRIM continued to grow, extending its presence to 360 municipalities, operating in over 75% of the country. [12] Of BACRIM’s component factions, Los Rastrojos were present in 207 municipalities, Los Urabeños in 181, and Aguilas Negras in 88.  [13] In 2011 and 2012, two large factions, ERPAC and Los Rastrojos began to weaken. Some ERPAC members surrendered to the Colombian government, but only less than half chose to do so; this left the other half of ERPAC members to join other rival BACRIM groups. In 2012, Los Rastrojos was weakened when leader Javier Calle Serna surrendered to United States Authorities. [14] In 2013, it became clear that Los Urabeños was the strongest of all the BACRIM factions. [15]

 In 2014, the Colombian government recognized the existence of only three BACRIM groups, Los Urabeños, Los Rastrojos, and the successor groups of ERPAC, including Libertadores del Vichada. In that same year, Los Urabeños made up over 70% of BACRIM and controlled the drug trade in Colombia. The group’s estimated size in 2014 was 3,400 but BACRIM contracts its operations to smaller criminal gangs. Therefore, the group’s total manpower and network is much larger. [16]

 

Since 2012 the Colombian government has engaged in peace talks with militant groups in the country in an effort to end the ongoing violent conflict. However, the Colombian government prohibits BACRIM’s entry into peace talks or amnesty process because it has never recognized BACRIM as a political motivated group. [17]

Leadership

BACRIM is comprised of smaller militant factions, the most well known being Los Urabeños, Los Rastrojos, and formerly, ERPAC. Below are leaders of those factions.

  1. "Jabon," legal name Wilber Varela (Unknown to 2008): Varela, originally leader of the Norte del Valle Cartel, became Los Rastrojos’ founding leader. He appointed Calle Serna as his closest assistant and, after conflict between the two started, Calle Serna had him killed in 2008.[18]
  2. "Tierra," legal name Cesar Daniel Anaya Martinez (Unknown to 2014): Tierra was a senior commander in Los Urabeños until his arrest in 2014; he was sentenced to 13 years in prison for the transport of illegal firearms.[19]
  3. "Pijarbey," legal name Martin Farfan Diaz Gonzalez (2006 to Present): Pijarbey was formally a member of the Colombian military, then of the AUC. Following the AUC’s demobilization, Pijarbey helped co-founded ERPAC with Chuchillo. Pijarbey was ERPAC’s military commander. He is currently the leader of Libertadores del Vichada, an ERPAC splinter group.[20]
  4. "Cuchillo," legal name Pedro Oliveiro Guerrero (2006 to 2010): Cuchillo co-founded ERPAC along with Pijarbey. In 2010, Colombian Special Forces wounded Cuchillo in a gunfight and he later died. Following Cuchillo’s death, Pijarbey took complete control of ERPAC.[21]
  5. Diego Perez Henao, also known as Diego Rastrojo (2006 to 2012): ): Diego was a part of the Norte de Valle militant wing and worked closely with Comba until the formal formation of Los Rastrojos. Before Colombian officials captured him in 2012, Diego headed rural security for Los Rastrojos.[22]
  6. "Comba," legal name Javier Calle Serna (2008 to Present): Comba was a member of the Popular Liberation Army (EPL) until its demobilization, at which time he became an assassin working for the militant wing of the Norte del Valle Cartel, later known as Los Rastrojos. Calle Serna ordered Wilber Varela, Los Rastrojos’ founding leader, be killed in 2008; following Varela’s death, Comba took leadership.[23]
  7. Otoniel, legal name Dario Antonio Usuga (2009 to Present): Otoniel was a member of the Popular Liberation Army (EPL) until the group officially disbanded in 1991. He then became an AUC member and, following the AUC’s demobilization, Otoniel and his brother took control of Los Urabeños.[24]

Ideology & Goals

BACRIM is considered the third generation of drug trafficking organizations; the first was comprised of large cartels, the second of paramilitaries, and the third of BACRIM, the successors of paramilitary groups. [25] Though BACRIM emerged predominantly from the AUC, it is different in that it has no clear political agenda. [26] While paramilitaries were criminal gangs, they actively combatted guerrilla groups and their supporters. BACRIM, on the other hand, is exclusively involved in cocaine production, smuggling, and extreme violence. [27]  BACRIM’s goal is territorial gain and control of the drug trade within its regions of control. BACRIM factions have frequently been in conflict with one another over territory, which has led to internal alliances and rivalries. [28] [29]

Size Estimates

Resources

BACRIM earns money primarily from the cocaine trade and also from extortion, gold mining, and domestic distribution of drugs. [37] [38] BACRIM factions specialize in cocaine production but do not produce the raw coca base themselves and are reliant on guerrilla groups, such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN), for coca base. Once BACRIM produces cocaine, it primarily trades with Mexican drug cartels and criminal groups. BACRIM receives $5,000 per kilo of cocaine it sells to Mexican drug cartels. In 2013, BACRIM reportedly was interested in operating directly in Europe, suspecting it could increase cocaine sale profits; it has been speculated that BACRIM can earn, per kilo of cocaine sold, three times as much in Spain than what it does in Mexico. In addition, BACRIM smuggles gasoline out of Venezuela for profit and supplies militants to the FARC to supplement specific attacks in exchange for payment. [39] [40]

External Influences

BACRIM traditionally trades with Mexican drug cartels and earns $5,000 per kilo of cocaine sold. In 2013, BACRIM explored the possibility of operating in directly in Italy and Spain in an effort to earn more per kilo of cocaine sold. [41] [42]

Geographical Locations

While the strength of BACRIM’s presence throughout Colombia is debated, BACRIM groups are believed to be active in between 130 to 170 municipalities across the country and in between 15 to 31 of the country’s 32 provinces. [43] [44] [45] [46] BACRIM is most active in Barbacoas, expanding further in Nariño, and its presence is growing in Cordoba, Antioquia, Vichada, and Guaviare. [47]

 Internationally, BACRIM leaders have been captured throughout Argentina, Bolivia, Honduras, Panama, Peru and Venezuela. BACRIM has a very strong presence in Ecuador and eastern Venezuela, particularly in partnership with guerrilla groups there. [48][49] There are also reports of BACRIM operating in Italy and Spain which is more profitable than trading with Mexican cartels. [50]

Targets & Tactics

BACRIM directly targets Colombian police, especially in retaliation to police attacks on BACRIM. [51] BACRIM factions have also been known to target indigenous communities. There appears to be little motivation behind these attacks besides instilling fear in communities. [52]

 BACRIM operations include extortion, gold mining, gambling, contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and the smuggling of gasoline. [53] [54] [55]

 Though the Colombian government condemns BACRIM’s activities, BACRIM members rely on public officials for assistance. Through corruption and the use of bribes, BACRIM involve police, security forces, municipal council members, and mayors to protect its own business interests. Allegedly, more than 200 anticorruption investigations of Colombian officials are due to suspected ties to BACRIM. [56]

Political Activities

BACRIM has no political agenda. [57] However, BACRIM members, particularly ex-paramilitary members, use ties to Colombian public officials in order to protect the group’s business interests. [58]    

Major Attacks

  1. September 2008: Within a few weeks, BACRIM faction Aguilas Negras launched two attacks, killing three indigenous leaders in Cauca in the first attack and killed five indigenous members in the second attack. (8 killed, 1+ wounded).[59]
  2. November 2012: A BACRIM faction, Los Rastrojos, killed 10 tree tomato farmers in a municipality northeast of Bogota, allegedly over an extortion fee to BACRIM. (10 killed, unknown wounded).[60]
  3. November 2012: A BACRIM faction, Los Rastrojos, killed 10 tree tomato farmers in a municipality northeast of Bogota, allegedly over an extortion fee to BACRIM. (10 killed, unknown wounded).[61]
  4. September 2014: The Colombian government suspected BACRIM (Los Urabeños), alongside the FARC, responsible for an attack on police in Córdoba. (7 killed, unknown wounded).[62]
  5. September 2014: The Colombian government suspected BACRIM (Los Urabeños), alongside the FARC, responsible for an attack on police in Córdoba. (7 killed, unknown wounded).[63]

Relationships with Other Groups

BACRIM’s involvement in the drug trade ties them to leftists guerrilla groups in Colombia, particularly the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and National Liberation Army (ELN). BACRIM trades and buys product, namely coca base, from the FARC. Should the FARC demobilize in the 2015 peace talks, Los Urabeños are poised to take control of what the FARC controls. [64] Additionally, the FARC reportedly contracts BACRIM’s ‘assassins for hire,’ to provide additional militants for its attacks. [65] In September 2014, BACRIM reportedly collaborated with the FARC in an attack on Colombian police. [66]

Community Relationships

BACRIM maintains control of communities in its territory through the use of violence. BACRIM groups have frequently engaged in forced displacement, sexual violence, and massacres. [67]


References

  1. ^ Kay, Michael. “Three indigenous Colombians killed by ‘Aguilas Negras.’” COLOMBIA REPORTS. N.p. 8 October 2008. Web. 22 August 2014. http://colombiareports.com/three-indigenous-colombians-killed-by-aguilas-negras/
  2. ^ “Ambush indicates local FARC-BACRIM alliance raises crime, extortion, and kidnap risks in Colombia’s Urabá region.” HIS Jane’s 360. N.p. 18 September 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.janes.com/article/43248/ambush-indicates-local-farc-bacrim-alliance-raises-crime-extortion-and-kidnap-risks-in-colombia-s-urab%E1-region
  3. ^ “Operation: BACRIM.” United Nations Online Volunteers. N.p. N.d. Web. 22 August 2015. https://www.unodc.org/cld/case-law-doc/drugcrimetype/col/operation_bacrim.html
  4. ^ “LAS BACRIM.” El Colombiano. N.p. 13 September 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.elcolombiano.com/las_bacrim-NFEC_206865
  5. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
  6. ^ The BACRIM and Their Position in Colombia’s Underworld.” InSight Crime. N.p. 2 May 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/investigations/bacrim-and-their-position-in-colombia-underworld
  7. ^ McDermott, Jeremy. “‘Comba’ Cuts a Deal and the Rostrojos Lose Ground.” InSight Crime. N.p. 8 May 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-analysis/comba-cuts-a-deal-and-the-rastrojos-lose-ground
  8. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
  9. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
  10. ^ “Profiles: Colombia’s Armed Groups.” BBC Latin America & Caribbean. BBC News. 29 August 2013. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-11400950
  11. ^ “Profiles: Colombia’s Armed Groups.” BBC Latin America & Caribbean. BBC News. 29 August 2013. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-11400950
  12. ^ “Responses to Immigration Requests.” Immigration Board of Canada. N.p. 22 March 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2013/11/07/COL104030.E.pdf
  13. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
  14. ^ McDermott, Jeremy. “Colombia’s BACRIM Count More Than 3400 Fighters.” InSight Crime. N.p. 8 September 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/colombia-bacrim-count-more-than-3400-fighters
  15. ^ McDermott Jeremy and Rico, Daniel. “Latin America Program in the News: Colombia’s BACRIM: On the Road to Extinction?” The Wilson Center. N.p. 11 April 2013. Web 22 August 2015. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/latin-american-program-the-news-colombia’s-bacrim-the-road-to-extinction
  16. ^ McDermott, Jeremy. “Colombia’s BACRIM Count More Than 3400 Fighters.” InSight Crime. N.p. 8 September 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/colombia-bacrim-count-more-than-3400-fighters
  17. ^ “Responses to Immigration Requests.” Immigration Board of Canada. N.p. 22 March 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2013/11/07/COL104030.E.pdf
  18. ^ {{“Javier Antonio Calle Serna, alias, ‘Comba.’” InSight Crime. N.p. N.d. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/colombia-organized-crime-news/javier-antonio-calle-serna-comba}}
  19. ^ {{Gagne, David. “Colombia’s Urabeños, FARC Collaborated in Police Attack: Govt.” InSight Crime. N.p. 17 September 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/new-alliance-farc-urabenos-police-attack}} {{Colorado, Nelso Matta.. “Cond
  20. ^ {{“Martin Farfan Diaz Gonzalez, alias “Pijarbey.” InSight Crime. N.p. N.d. Web. 27 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/colombia-organized-crime-news/pijarbey}}
  21. ^ {{“Colombian Police: ‘Cuchillo’ is Dead.” InSight Crime. N.p. 28 December 2010. Web. 27 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-analysis/colombian-police-cuchillo-is-dead}}
  22. ^ {{“Javier Antonio Calle Serna, alias, ‘Comba.’” InSight Crime. N.p. N.d. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/colombia-organized-crime-news/javier-antonio-calle-serna-comba}}
  23. ^ {{“Javier Antonio Calle Serna, alias, ‘Comba.’” InSight Crime. N.p. N.d. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/colombia-organized-crime-news/javier-antonio-calle-serna-comba}}
  24. ^ {{“Dario Antonio Usuga, alias ‘Otoniel.’” InSight Crime. N.p. N.d. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/colombia-organized-crime-news/dario-antonio-usuga-otoniel}}
  25. ^ The BACRIM and Their Position in Colombia’s Underworld.” InSight Crime. N.p. 2 May 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/investigations/bacrim-and-their-position-in-colombia-underworld
  26. ^ “Profiles: Colombia’s Armed Groups.” BBC Latin America & Caribbean. BBC News. 29 August 2013. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-11400950
  27. ^ “LAS BACRIM.” El Colombiano. N.p. 13 September 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.elcolombiano.com/las_bacrim-NFEC_206865
  28. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
  29. ^ “Responses to Immigration Requests.” Immigration Board of Canada. N.p. 22 March 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2013/11/07/COL104030.E.pdf
  30. ^ {{“Colombia’s Growing Organized Crime Threat.” STRATFOR. N.p. 18 April 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. https://www.stratfor.com/analysis/colombias-growing-organized-crime-threat}}
  31. ^ {{“Colombia’s Growing Organized Crime Threat.” STRATFOR. N.p. 18 April 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. https://www.stratfor.com/analysis/colombias-growing-organized-crime-threat}}
  32. ^ {{“Tres ‘bacrim’ tienen la mitad de hombres que FARC.” EL TIEMPO. N.p. 6 September 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.eltiempo.com/politica/justicia/integrantes-de-bandas-criminales/14495955}}
  33. ^ {{McDermott, Jeremy. “Colombia’s BACRIM Count More Than 3400 Fighters.” InSight Crime. N.p. 8 September 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/colombia-bacrim-count-more-than-3400-fighters}}
  34. ^ {{Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes}}
  35. ^ {{Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes}}
  36. ^ {{Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes}}
  37. ^ McDermott Jeremy and Rico, Daniel. “Latin America Program in the News: Colombia’s BACRIM: On the Road to Extinction?” The Wilson Center. N.p. 11 April 2013. Web 22 August 2015. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/latin-american-program-the-news-colombia’s-bacrim-the-road-to-extinction
  38. ^ “Tres ‘bacrim’ tienen la mitad de hombres que FARC.” EL TIEMPO. N.p. 6 September 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.eltiempo.com/politica/justicia/integrantes-de-bandas-criminales/14495955
  39. ^ McDermott Jeremy and Rico, Daniel. “Latin America Program in the News: Colombia’s BACRIM: On the Road to Extinction?” The Wilson Center. N.p. 11 April 2013. Web 22 August 2015. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/latin-american-program-the-news-colombia’s-bacrim-the-road-to-extinction
  40. ^ “LAS BACRIM.” El Colombiano. N.p. 13 September 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.elcolombiano.com/las_bacrim-NFEC_206865
  41. ^ McDermott Jeremy and Rico, Daniel. “Latin America Program in the News: Colombia’s BACRIM: On the Road to Extinction?” The Wilson Center. N.p. 11 April 2013. Web 22 August 2015. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/latin-american-program-the-news-colombia’s-bacrim-the-road-to-extinction
  42. ^ “LAS BACRIM.” El Colombiano. N.p. 13 September 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.elcolombiano.com/las_bacrim-NFEC_206865
  43. ^ Cawley, Marguerite. “Colombia’s BACRIM Expand as FARC Talks Peace.” InSight Crime. N.p. 5 November 2014. Web. 23 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/colombia-bacrim-expand-farc-talks-peace
  44. ^ “Tres ‘bacrim’ tienen la mitad de hombres que FARC.” EL TIEMPO. N.p. 6 September 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.eltiempo.com/politica/justicia/integrantes-de-bandas-criminales/14495955
  45. ^ “Así están distribuídas la Bacrim en Colombia.” El Tiempo. N.p. N.d. Web. http://www.eltiempo.com/multimedia/especiales/bandas-criminales-en-colombia/14853835/1
  46. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
  47. ^ Cawley, Marguerite. “Colombia’s BACRIM Expand as FARC Talks Peace.” InSight Crime. N.p. 5 November 2014. Web. 23 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/colombia-bacrim-expand-farc-talks-peace
  48. ^ McDermott Jeremy and Rico, Daniel. “Latin America Program in the News: Colombia’s BACRIM: On the Road to Extinction?” The Wilson Center. N.p. 11 April 2013. Web 22 August 2015. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/latin-american-program-the-news-colombia’s-bacrim-the-road-to-extinction
  49. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
  50. ^ Sullivan, John P. “BACRIM: Colombian Bandas Criminales Emergentes.” ACADEMIA. The Counter Terrorist. April/May 2014. Web. 20 August 2015. http://www.academia.edu/6942753/Bacrim_Colombian_Bandas_Criminales_Emergentes
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  52. ^ Kay, Michael. “Three indigenous Colombians killed by ‘Aguilas Negras.’” COLOMBIA REPORTS. N.p. 8 October 2008. Web. 22 August 2014. http://colombiareports.com/three-indigenous-colombians-killed-by-aguilas-negras/
  53. ^ The BACRIM and Their Position in Colombia’s Underworld.” InSight Crime. N.p. 2 May 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/investigations/bacrim-and-their-position-in-colombia-underworld
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  59. ^ {{Kay, Michael. “Three indigenous Colombians killed by ‘Aguilas Negras.’” COLOMBIA REPORTS. N.p. 8 October 2008. Web. 22 August 2014. http://colombiareports.com/three-indigenous-colombians-killed-by-aguilas-negras/}}
  60. ^ {{Garcia, Cesar. “Los Rastrojos, Colombia Drug Cartel, Massacre 10 Peasants Near Bogota.” The World Post. The Huffington Post. 8 November 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/08/los-rastrojos-colombia_n_2092890.html}}
  61. ^ {{Garcia, Cesar. “Los Rastrojos, Colombia Drug Cartel, Massacre 10 Peasants Near Bogota.” The World Post. The Huffington Post. 8 November 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/08/los-rastrojos-colombia_n_2092890.html}}
  62. ^ {{“Ambush indicates local FARC-BACRIM alliance raises crime, extortion, and kidnap risks in Colombia’s Urabá region.” HIS Jane’s 360. N.p. 18 September 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.janes.com/article/43248/ambush-indicates-local-farc-bacrim-allia
  63. ^ {{“Ambush indicates local FARC-BACRIM alliance raises crime, extortion, and kidnap risks in Colombia’s Urabá region.” HIS Jane’s 360. N.p. 18 September 2014. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.janes.com/article/43248/ambush-indicates-local-farc-bacrim-allia
  64. ^ Cawley, Marguerite. “Colombia’s BACRIM Expand as FARC Talks Peace.” InSight Crime. N.p. 5 November 2014. Web. 23 August 2015. http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/colombia-bacrim-expand-farc-talks-peace
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  67. ^ “Responses to Immigration Requests.” Immigration Board of Canada. N.p. 22 March 2012. Web. 22 August 2015. http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2013/11/07/COL104030.E.pdf

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