Jaish-e-Mohammad

FormedJanuary 30, 2000
DisbandedGroup is active.
First AttackApril 19, 2000: JeM militants conduct a suicide car bomb attack on an Indian army base in Badami Bagh, Srinagar, India (1 killed, 7 wounded).[1]
Last AttackAugust 2009: Suspected JeM militants opened fire, targeting police and Central Reserve Police Force personnel in Srinagar (1 killed, 2 wounded).[2]
UpdatedAugust 3, 2012

Narrative Summary

Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM) was founded in 2000 by Maulana Masood Azhar, a former leader of Harat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM), a Pakistan-based extremist group formed to support jihad in Afghanistan against Soviet forces. While a leader of HuM, Azhar was arrested in 1994 during a mission in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.[3] Following his release from jail in late 1999, Azhar and his following of Punjabis split from HuM in light of internal divisions with other ethnic groups. Because Punjabis formed the main base of HuM, Azhar's departure severely depleted HuM's operations and resources.[4] 

Over time, JeM has cultivated important relationships with other prominent jihadi organizations including Al Qaeda, the Taliban, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, and Al-Rashid Trust. The group has allegedly received financial support from Osama bin Laden and other Al Qaeda leaders.[5]Prior to 2002, JeM also received support from Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).[6] 

JeM primarily uses suicide attacks, focusing on high-security government targets in Kashmir and India. JeM was the first jihadi organization to launch suicide attacks in Kashmir, starting with the April 2000 attack on an Indian army base in Badami Bagh.[7] JeM also targets Christians and Shiites and has perpetrated attacks on members of the Pakistani state and the Western presence in Pakistan.

Toward the end of 2001, the U.S. Department of State placed JeM on its list of foreign terrorist organizations. In January 2002, the Pakistani government banned JeM and detained several of its members.[8] In response to the official ban, JeM launched sectarian attacks against Shiites and Christians within Pakistan and "many of its activists became foot soldiers for Al Qaeda operations in Pakistan."[9] These attacks represented the transition to a new strategy that targeted the government of Pakistan (GOP). As of 2010, many groups have similarly changed their policies and now target GOP. 

In 2003, a faction within JeM splintered from the group and became Jamaat-ul-Furqan (JuF). JeM subsequently renamed itself Tehrik Khuddam-ul-Islam (KuI).[10] Pakistan has banned both groups. As of spring 2011, JeM is said to be one of the most violent active terrorist organizations within Pakistan.[11]

Leadership

According to Pakistani newspaper reports, Azhar expelled his Karachi chief Abdullah Shah Mazhar in 2003 following clashes over control of a mosque in Karachi.[12] Mazhar and Abdul Jabbar created the splinter group, Jamaat-ul-Furqan. Azhar continued on as leader of JeM, and the group shortly changed its name to Tehrik Khuddam-ul-Islam.[13]

  1. Masood Azhar (2000 to Present): Azhar is the founder and current leader emir of JeM. Azhar was born in 1968 in Bahawalpur, Pakistan's Punjab province, to a religious Sunni family. As a child, Azhar was sent to the Binori Town madrasa in Karachi, where he studied from 1980 to 1989. He subsequently became a teacher there for two years. The madrasa was the home of the Deobandi movement in the 20th century. and gave birth to some of the first radical Islamists who were inspired to pursue jihad during the Soviet-Afghan war. During the 1980s, Azhar joined a group of young mujahedeen from Binori Town fighting the Soviets in Khost, Afghanistan and became a member of the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM). Assigned to propaganda and organizational assignments within HuM, Azhar gained prominence due to his hardline rhetoric and speeches. As a member of HuM in the early 1990s, it is believed that Azhar came into contact with Osama bin Laden during trips to Europe and Africa, and even fought with bin Laden and Arab veterans of the Afghan war in Somalia. Indian security forces arrested and imprisoned Azhar in 1994 for his activities in Jammu and Kashmir. Nevertheless, he maintained a high profile in jail and continued to write prolific jihadist literature. Azhar was released in December 1999 in exchange for Indian hostages following HuM's hijacking of an Indian plane.Upon his release, Azhar broke away from HuM and founded JeM. [14]
  2. Abdul Jabbar (2003 to Present): Jabbar is the current leader of JeM splinter faction Jamaat-ul-Furqan.

Ideology & Goals

JeM is a Deobandi organization that aims to unite Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan.[15] JeM also advocates the "destruction" of America and India.[16][17] JeM has also targeted sectarian minority groups in Pakistan.[18] 

Three prominent scholars of religious schools have endorsed Azhar: Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai of the Majlis-e-Tawan-e-Islami (MT), Maulana Mufti Rashid Ahmed of the Dar-ul Ifta-e-wal-Irshad, and Maulana Sher Ali of the Sheikh-ul-Hadith Dar-ul Haqqania.[19] [20]

Name Changes

In 2001, following reports that the U.S. State Department was considering declaring JeM a foreign terrorist organization, the group renamed itself Tehrik-ul-Furqan and transferred money from its bank accounts to low-profile supporters to hide its assets. In January 2002, the Government of Pakistan banned a number of Islamic terrorist organizations, including JeM, and detained several of its members. JeM's assets were also reportedly frozen; however, by this time JeM was already operating under the name Tehrik-ul-Furqan. [21] [22].


In 2003, JeM was officially changed its name from Tehrik-ul-Furqan to Khuddam-ul-Islam (KuI) after a clash occured over control of a mosque in Karachi. The splinter of the Karachi faction became Jamaat-ul-Furqan (JuF). Kul and JuF are often referred as JeM. [23].

Size Estimates

Designated/Listed

JeM was designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the UN on October 17, 2001 [26] and by the United States on December 26, 2001.[27] 

Pakistan's President Musharraf banned JeM in January 2002.[28] Pakistan banned KuI and JuF in November 2003. JeM is also listed by the UK [29], EU [30], Canada, New Zealand, and India.[31]

Resources

JeM is known to have received support from Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI),[32] which has long been accused by those inside and outside of Pakistan of supporting terrorist groups to advance its own agenda.[33] According to some accounts, the ISI encouraged Azhar to establish JeM and helped set up the organization.[34] The extent of the ISI's continuing ties to JeM have not been as clear since President Musharraf banned the organization in 2002. The ISI is said to have cracked down on elements of JeM after a 2003 assassination attempt against Musharraf.[35] However, the ISI reportedly continues to have links to JeM.[36]JeM also allegedly has strong support among soldiers and lower-ranking military officials in Pakistan.[37] JeM also raises funds through Islamic charitable foundations including the Al-Rashid Trust.

External Influences

JeM is believed to have received support from al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden, possibly due to preexisting ties.[38] Azhar reportedly met with Osama bin Laden and other Al Qaeda leaders a number of times and obtained financial support from bin Laden to form JeM.[39] JeM also receives support from Pakistani and Kashmiri expatriates in Britain.[40] Supporters also include some Arabs and Afghans.[41]

Geographical Locations

JeM is predominantly a Pakistani organization, centered and focused on Pakistan and Kashmir. Prior to the fall of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan in 2001, the outfit also reportedly maintained terrorist camps in Afghanistan.[42]

Targets & Tactics

JeM primarily targets high-security government targets, including army bases, camps, and public places in Kashmir and India. The group has also targeted Christians and Shiites, which differentiates them from other extremist Sunni groups such as Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ).[43] Although Indian Administered Kashmir (IAK) remains JeM's primary focus, elements within JeM have broadened the group's targets to members of the Pakistani state and Western presence in Pakistan.[44] 

JeM's tactics are often suicide attacks aimed at killing the maximum number of security force personnel and civilians.[45] JeM is notorious for being the first group to use such tactics in Kashmir.[46] Additionally, published reports suggest that rocket grenades, kidnappings, bombings, and shoot-outs are also extensively used for targeted acts of terrorism against Indian security forces and civilians.[47]

Political Activities

JeM is aligned politically with Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Fazul Rehman (JUI-F), a prominent, radical Islamic party in Pakistan and Kashmir. This association provides an interface between JeM and mainstream Pakistan society, allowing JeM to garner support and funding.[48]

Major Attacks

 Overtime, JeM's activities have become increasingly anti-government. In December 2003, the group attempted to assassinate President Musharraf. This plan was allegedly initiated by Al Qaeda affiliates Ahmad Omar Saeed Sheikh and Amjad Hussain Farooqi. Sheikh was another prisoner released in December 1999 in exchange for Indian hostages following the HuM's hijacking of an Indian plane,and reportedly established ties to Al Qaeda after his release from prison.[49] Farooqi is thought to be one of the main individuals involved in the hijacking of the Indian plane that led to Azhar and Sheikh's release from Indian custody.[50] Farooqi had fought with Al Qaeda in Afghanistan and was a close ally of Khalid Sheikh Muhammad after September 11th.[51]

  1. April 19, 2000: Suicide car bomb attack on the main army base in Indian-administered Kashmir (1 killed, 7 wounded).[52]
  2. October 1, 2001: Suicide car bomb attack on state assembly building in Srinagar. (35 killed).[53]
  3. December 13, 2001: Firearm attack on Parliament building in India. (14 killed).[54]
  4. January 2002: Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl abducted and later murdered in Pakistan. (1 killed).[55]
  5. August 4, 2002: Gunman attack on a convent school near Islamabad. (6 killed).[56]
  6. August 9, 2002: Grenade attack on a Christian hospital near Islamabad. (4 killed, 23 wounded).[57]
  7. December 25, 2002: Grenade attack in Pakistan's Punjab province during a Christmas day service. (3 killed).[58]
  8. December 25, 2003: Attempted assassination of Pakistani President Musharraf by car bomb in Pakistan. (0 killed).[59]
  9. October 25, 2004: Coordinated with HuM on a firearm attack on the motorcade of the divisional commissioner for Kashmir. (1 wounded).[60]
  10. November 2, 2005: Suicide car bomb attack outside the Srinagar home of outgoing Chief Minister of Indian-administered Kashmir Mufti Mohammad Sayeed. (7 killed).[61]
  11. April 14, 2006: Grenade attacks on police targets in Srinagar. (5 killed, 41 wounded).[62]
  12. May 22, 2006: Three grenade attacks on police targets in Srinagar. (34 wounded).[63]
  13. May 30, 2006: Grenade attack on a Human Rights Commission escort vehicle near the Iqbal Park area of Srinagar kills a police constable. (1 killed, 6 wounded).[64]
  14. July 19, 2006: Three distinct firearm attacks on police officers in Srinagar. (2 killed, 1 wounded).[65]
  15. August 17, 2006: Three distinct firearm attacks on police officers in Srinagar. (2 killed, 2 wounded).[66]

Relationships with Other Groups

Prior to the crackdown on Afghan camps after September 11, 2001, JeM members trained in Afghanistan. JeM came into contact with Al Qaeda during this time.[67] The extent and type of assistance that Al Qaeda provides JeM is at present unknown. 

JeM's relationship with the Taliban is well documented. JeM has had close ties with the Afghan Taliban since its inception as a result of Azhar's alliance with the Afghan Taliban. Over time, JeM's official newspaper, Zarb-e-Momin, emerged as a Taliban mouthpiece.[68] 

Zarb-e-Momin was originally founded in the 1990s by the Al-Rashid Trust (ART), a social welfare organization that also serves as a front for jihadi activities, particularly for funding and propaganda. ART's founder had been student in Karachi, where Masood Azhar also studied.[69] ART's funding has allowed JeM to expand its activities and gain influence in Afghanistan. Zarb-e-Momin continued to publish even after JeM's proscription, but the Pakistani government has now banned it. Prominent articles that were featured in the newspaper are available online.[70] ART was banned along with JeM in 2002.[71] 

JeM has strong links with the Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) due to the relationship between Azhar and the SSP President Maulana Azam Tariq.[72] Tariq joined a "Crush India" rally organized by JeM on February 5, 2000 and announced, "One hundred thousand Sipah-e- Sahaba workers will join Jaish-e-Muhammad to fight the infidels."[73] In October 2000, SSP Chairman, Maulana Ziaul Qasmi, participated in another jihad conference organized by JeM and SSP where he took a vow of jihad on the hand of Azhar. Azhar also performed a ceremonial tying of the head dress (called dastarbandi) of SSP leaders on this occasion.[74] The members of JeM have nearly identical profiles as those of the SSP, as they both recruit from madrasas and the rural and urban lower middle class.[75] However, JeM denies its links with SSP. 

JeM has ideological and strategic ties with Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ), a feared and prominent terrorist organization in Pakistan.[76] A number of JeM members received training at LeJ camps in Afghanistan. 

JeM became a rival of Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM) after Azhar split from HuM to form JeM in 2000 in light of internal divisions between Punjabis and other ethnic groups. The HuM and JeM continued to coexist despite the fact that several top members from HuM left the organization to join JeM. Even with similar ideologies, frequent clashes reportedly occurred between the groups over matters such as financial allotments and HuM's assets.[77] The conflict was resolved in 2000 when the two organizations submitted a hakam (arbitration) to their elders.[78] The result of this hakam was that JeM would return all buildings in Punjab in exchange for money. However, this created further tensions, leading JeM to attack and kill a small number of HuM operatives during the period of the split.[79] 

In 2003, JeM was renamed Khuddam-ul-Islam and divided after Azhar expelled the Karachi unit chief, Abdullah Shah Mazhar. The splinter group is known as Jamaat ul-Furqaan. 

JeM is to some degree a rival of Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) for ISI support. Some sources report that JeM received ISI support when it was founded in 2000 to balance LeT, which the ISI believed had become too powerful in Kashmir.[80] 

JeM also rivals with Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HM) for influence in Kashmir.

Community Relationships

JeM primarily recruits members from small towns and madrasas in the rural areas of Pakistan. Since 2000, JeM members have organized a series of recruitment rallies throughout Pakistan, allegedly motivating Islamic youth to wage jihad.[81] The group also recruits internationally among Kashmiri and Punjabi emigrants in Britain and has a number of veteran Afghan members.[82] JeM does not provide social services but is allied with Al-Rashid Trust, which does provide social welfare services.


References

  1. ^ Global Terrorism Database, "Jaish-e-Muhammad." Web. April 24, 2011. http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?perpetrator=20233. Global Terrorism Database lists sources as "More on Suicide Attack in Kashmir," Daily Excelsior, April 20, 2000. "Report: Suicide Bomber Belongs to Azhar's Militant Outfit," The Indian Express, April 21, 2000.
  2. ^ South Asia Terrorism Portal – Jaish-e-Muhammad accessed at: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/jaish_e_mohammad_mujahideen_e_tanzeem.htm accessed on: July 30, 2010.
  3. ^ South Asia Terrorism Portal. "Jaish-e-Muhammad" http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/jaish_e_mohammad_mujahideen_e_tanzeem.htm accessed on: April 2, 2011.
  4. ^ GlobalSecurity.org. "Jaish-e-Mohammed." http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/jem.htm (accessed July 1, 2005).
  5. ^ South Asia Terrorism Portal. "Jaish-e-Muhammad." http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/jaish_e_mohammad_mujahideen_e_tanzeem.htm accessed on: July 29, 2011. R. Honawar, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," IPCS Special Report No. 4, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (November, 2005).
  6. ^ Jayshree Bajoria and Eben Kaplan, "The ISI and Terrorism: Behind the Accusations." Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder, July 26, 2010. Web. April 24, 2011. http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/isi-terrorism-behind-accusations/p11644
  7. ^ R. Honawar, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," IPCS Special Report No. 4, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (November, 2005).
  8. ^ Kashmir Herald. "Jaish-e-Mohammed." <http://www.kashmirherald.com/profiles/jaisheMohammed.html> (accessed October 20, 2005). Government of the United Kingdom, "Explanatory Memorandum to the Terrorism Act 2000 (Proscribed Organisations) (Amendment) Order," available at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/draft/em/uksidem_0110734246_en.pdf
  9. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 67.
  10. ^ Government of the United Kingdom, "Explanatory Memorandum to the Terrorism Act 2000 (Proscribed Organisations) (Amendment) Order," available at: www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN00815.pdf
  11. ^ Daud Khattak, "Talks with the Taliban in Pakistan?" The AfPak Channel, a project of Foreign Policy and the New American Foundation, April 7. 2011. Web. April 25, 2011. http://afpak.foreignpolicy.com/poasts/2011/04/07/talks_with_the_taliban_in_pakistan
  12. ^ P. Bora, "Jaish-e-Mohammad splits into warring factions," Express India, July 5, 2003 available at: http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=22776 (accessed April 7, 2011).
  13. ^ Government of the United Kingdom, "Explanatory Memorandum to the Terrorism Act 2000 (Proscribed Organisations) (Amendment) Order," available at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/draft/em/uksidem_0110734246_en.pdffckLRand Kashmir Herald. "Jaish-e-Mohammed." http://www.kashmirherald.com/profiles/jaisheMohammed.html. Accessed October 20, 2005.
  14. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 64.
  15. ^ Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses, "Whither Pakistan? Growing Instability and Implications for India," June 2010, New Delhi, India, p. 143.
  16. ^ M.A. Zahab and Olivier Roy, "Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004
  17. ^ Hussain, Zaid. "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam." Columbia University Press, New York (2007)
  18. ^ Jamal Afridi, "Kashmir Militant Extremists," Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder, updated July 9, 2009. http://www.cfr.org/kashmir/kashmir-militant-extremists/p9135
  19. ^ GlobalSecurity.org. "Jaish-e-Mohammed." http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/jem.htm (accessed June 20, 2005).
  20. ^ Hussain, Zahid,  (2007) "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam." Columbia University Press, New York; pp 64.
  21. ^ "Explanatory Memorandum to the Terrorism Act 2000." Home Office, Government of the United Kingdom. 2005. Available at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/draft/em/uksidem_0110734246_en.pdf
  22. ^ Raman, B. "Jaish-e-Mohammad Rebaptised?" South Asia Analysis Group. 2001. Available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html
  23. ^ "Chapter 8: Foreign Terrorist Organizations." State Department. Available at: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/65479.pdf
  24. ^ R. Honawar, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," IPCS Special Report No. 4, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (November, 2005); pp 3
  25. ^ Government of Australia, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," (2010) in "Counter-Terrorism White Paper, Securing Australia – Protecting our Community" available at: http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/www/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing accessed on June 30, 2010
  26. ^ "Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities." The consolidated list is available here http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/consolist.shtml.
  27. ^ Definition from http://www.state.gov/s/ct/list/.
  28. ^ Government of Australia, Australian National Security, "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)" accessed May 19, 2011. http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Jaish-i-Mohammed.
  29. ^ "Proscribed organisations confirmed," M2 PressWire, March 28, 2001.
  30. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 881/2002 of 27 May 2002 imposing certain specific restrictive measures directed against certain persons and entities associated with Usama bin Laden, the Al-Qaida network and the Taliban, and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 467/2001 prohibiting the export of certain goods and services to Afghanistan, strengthening the flight ban and extending the freeze of funds and other financial resources in respect of the Taliban of Afghanistan. Accessed May 27, 2011. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do
  31. ^ Government of Australia, Australian National Security, "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)" accessed May 19, 2011. http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Jaish-i-Mohammed
  32. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007).
  33. ^ Jayshree Bajoria and Eben Kaplan, "The ISI and Terrorism: Behind the Accusations." Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder, July 26, 2010. Web. April 24, 2011. www.cfr.org/pakistan/isi-terrorism-behind-accusations/p11644
  34. ^ Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos, Penguin Books, 2008, p. 114.
  35. ^ Anatol Lieven, Pakistan: A Hard Country, Public Affairs, 2011, accessed May 19, 2011.  http://books.google.com/books?id=fEZt49MVZIAC
  36. ^ Anatol Lieven, Pakistan: A Hard Country, Public Affairs, 2011, accessed May 19, 2011.  http://books.google.com/books?id=fEZt49MVZIAC.
  37. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 69.
  38. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 68.
  39. ^ South Asia Terrorism Portal – Jaish-e-Muhammad accessed at: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/jaish_e_mohammad_mujahideen_e_tanzeem.htm accessed on: July 29, 2011. R. Honawar, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," IPCS Special Report No. 4, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (November, 2005).
  40. ^ R. Honawar, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," IPCS Special Report No. 4, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (November, 2005), p. 5.
  41. ^ Government of Australia, Australian National Security, "Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)" accessed May 20, 2011. http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/WWW/nationalsecurity.nsf/Page/What_Governments_are_doing_Listing_of_Terrorism_Organisations_Jaish-i-Mohammed
  42. ^ Anti-Defamation League, "Jaish-e-Mohammed," available http://www.adl.org/terrorism/symbols/Jaish-e-Mohammed.asp.
  43. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 68.
  44. ^ See list of Major Attacks.
  45. ^ South Asia Terrorism Portal – Jaish-e-Muhammad accessed at: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/jaish_e_mohammad_mujahideen_e_tanzeem.htm accessed on: July 30, 2010.
  46. ^ R. Honawar, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," IPCS Special Report No. 4, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (November, 2005).
  47. ^ A. Jamal, "Shadow War: The untold story of Jihad in Kashmir," Melville House Publishing, 2009.
  48. ^ R. Honawar, "Jaish-e-Muhammad," IPCS Special Report No. 4, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (November, 2005).
  49. ^ http://cdnedge.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/584729.stm.
  50. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3692882.stm and Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 68.
  51. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 68.
  52. ^ Global Terrorism Database, "Jaish-e-Muhammad." Web. April 24, 2011. http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=200004190002. Global Terrorism Database lists sources as "More on Suicide Attack in Kashmir," Daily Excelsior, April 20, 20
  53. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam" Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 67.
  54. ^ South Asia Terrorism Portal – Jaish-e-Muhammad accessed at: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/jaish_e_mohammad_mujahideen_e_tanzeem.htm accessed on: July 30, 2010.
  55. ^ According to the Daniel Pearl Foundation, Pearl was "abducted in Karachi on January 23, 2002… Several weeks elapsed without word of his fate; his murder was confirmed on February 21, 2002." Web. April 28, 2011. http://www.danielpearl.org/about_us/danielpe
  56. ^ Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos, Penguin Books, 2008, p. 159 and United States Department of State Publication Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, "Country Reports on Terrorism 2009," August 2010, p. 257. BBC, "Gunmen attack Pakistan school,"
  57. ^ Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos, Penguin Books, 2008, p. 159.
  58. ^ Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos, Penguin Books, 2008, p. 159.
  59. ^ South Asia Terrorism Portal – Pakistan Timeline Year 2003 accessed at http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/timeline/2003.htm accessed on April 24, 2011. See also "Pakistan's Musharraf blames extremists for attack," China Daily, December 26, 20
  60. ^ Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, "Review of the re-listing of Ansar al-Sunna, Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Islamic Army of Aden (IAA), Asbat al Ansar (AAA
  61. ^ Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, "Review of the re-listing of Ansar al-Sunna, Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Islamic Army of Aden (IAA), Asbat al Ansar (AAA
  62. ^ Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, "Review of the re-listing of Ansar al-Sunna, Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Islamic Army of Aden (IAA), Asbat al Ansar (AAA
  63. ^ Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, "Review of the re-listing of Ansar al-Sunna, Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Islamic Army of Aden (IAA), Asbat al Ansar (AAA
  64. ^ Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, "Review of the re-listing of Ansar al-Sunna, Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Islamic Army of Aden (IAA), Asbat al Ansar (AAA
  65. ^ Parliament of Australia Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, "Review of the re-listing of Ansar al-Sunna, Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Islamic Army of Aden (IAA), Asbat al Ansar (AAA
  66. ^ Global Terrorism Database. Web. April 24, 2011. http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?perpetrator=20233. GTD's source for all three incidents is "New 'Hit and Run' Terrorism Proving Worrisome To Authorities," The Srinagar Times, August 18, 200
  67. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam," Columbia University Press, New York (2007), M.A. Zahab and Olivier Roy, "Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
  68. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam," Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 66.
  69. ^ Z. Hussain, "Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam," Columbia University Press, New York (2007); pp 66.
  70. ^ http://zarbpk.blogspot.com/
  71. ^ B. Raman, "Pakistan and Terrorism: The Evidence," South Asia Analysis Group, Paper No.  390 (2002) available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper390.html.
  72. ^ M.A. Zahab and Olivier Roy, "Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. p. 30.
  73. ^ M. A Rana, "A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan," Mashal Publishing; Lahore, Pakistan. (2005); p. 146.
  74. ^ M. A Rana, "A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan," Mashal Publishing; Lahore, Pakistan. (2005); p. 146.
  75. ^ Bartley, Caleb M. "A Review of: "Zahab, Marian Abou and Olivier Roy. Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." -- Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004." Comparative Strategy 24.4 (2005). 04 Jul. 2010; pp 30.
  76. ^ BBC, "Pakistani militants return to roots with Lahore attack," July 2, 2010, available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10491799.
  77. ^ B, Raman, "Jaish-e-Muhammad rebaptized," South Asia Analysis Group, paper no. 377 available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html
  78. ^ B, Raman, "Jaish-e-Muhammad rebaptized," South Asia Analysis Group, paper no. 377 available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html.
  79. ^ B. Raman, "Jaish-e-Muhammad rebaptized," South Asia Analysis Group, paper no. 377 available at: http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers4/paper337.html.
  80. ^ M.A. Zahab and Olivier Roy, "Islamist Networks: The Afghan-Pakistan Connection." Translated by John King. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. p. 54.
  81. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, "Terrorist Organization Profile: Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM)" availablehttp://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=58 accessed on July 29, 2011.
  82. ^ Hussain, Zahid,  2007  Frontline Pakistan : the struggle with militant Islam / Zahid Hussain  Columbia University Press, New York; p. 64. Ministry of External Affairs, India. "L.K. Advani's Speech after Terrorist Attack on Indian Parliament." http://meaindia.nic.in/speech/2001/12/18spc01.htm (accessed October 20, 2005).

Print this page

Contents

Search