The Perkins Lab -- Neurospora Genetics and Biology
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University

Useful NEUROSPORA reference works, compilations, landmark papers, and reviews


Davis, R. H. 2000. Neurospora: Contributions of a Model Organism. Oxford University Press, New York.


Perkins, D. D., A. Radford, and M. S. Sachs. 2001. The Neurospora Compendium: Chromosomal Loci. Academic Press, San Diego.

Radford, A. 2006 (continuing). The Neurospora crassa 'gene list' e-Compendium: A compilation of genes, products, phenotypes, and genetic and physical mapping data.

Perkins, D. D., A. Radford, D. Newmeyer, and M. Björkman, 1982.  Chromosomal loci of Neurospora crassa. Microbiol. Rev. 46: 426-570.

Perkins, D. D.  1997. Chromosome rearrangements in Neurospora and other filamentous fungi. Adv. Genet. 36: 239-398. (pdf)

Genome annotation

Borkovich, K. A., L. A. Alex,  O. Yarden, M. Freitag, G. E. Turner, N. D. Read, S. Seiler, D. Bell-Pedersen, J. Paietta, N. Plesofsky, M. Plamann, M. Goodrich-Tanrikulu, U. Schulte, G. Mannhaupt, F. E. Nargang, A. Radford, A., C. Selitrennikoff, J. E. Galagan, J. C. Dunlap, J. J. Loros, D. Catcheside, H.Inoue, R. Aramayo, M. Plamann, E. U. Selker, M. S. Sachs, G. A. Marzluf, I. Paulsen, I., R. Davis, D. J. Ebbole, A. Zelter, E. R. Kalkman, R. O'Rourke, F. Bowring, J. Yeadon, C. Ishii, K. Suzuki, W. Sakai, and R. Pratt. 2004. Lessons from the genome sequence of Neurospora crassa: Tracing the path from genomic blueprint to multicellular organism. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68: 1-108. (pdf)

Radford, A. 2004. Metabolic highways of Neurospora crassa revisited. Adv. Genet. 52:165-216. (pdf)


Shear, C. L. and B. O. Dodge. 1927. Life histories and heterothallism of the red bread-mold fungi of the Monilia sitophila group. Jounrnal of Agricultural Research. 34: 1019-1042. (pdf)

Dodge, B. O. 1927. Nuclear phenomena associated with heterothallism and homothallism in the Ascomycete Neurospora. Jounrnal of Agricultural Research. 35: 289-305. (pdf)

Beadle, G. W. and E. L. Tatum. 1941. Genetic control of biochemical reactions in Neurospora. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 27: 499-506. (pdf)

Robbins, W. J. 1962. Bernard Ogilvie Dodge, April 18, 1872-August 9, 1960. Biographical. Memoirs Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 36: 85-124. (pdf)

Horowitz, N. H. 1990. George Wells Beadle, 1903-1989. Biographical Memoirs. 59: 27-52. (pdf)

Lederberg, J. 1990. Edward Lawrie Tatum, 1909-1975. Biographical Memoirs. 59: 357-386. (pdf)

Fincham, J. R. S. and B. John. 1995. David Guthrie Catcheside, 31 May 1907 - 1 June 1994. Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society. 41: 118-134. (pdf)

Radford, A., and R. H. Davis. 2005. John R. S. Fincham (1926-2005): A life in microbial genetics. Genetics 171: 1-5.

Horowitz, N. H. 1991. Fifty years ago: The Neurospora revolution. Genetics 127: 631-636. (pdf)

Perkins, D. D.  1992.  Neurospora: The organism behind the molecular revolution. Genetics 130: 687-701. (pdf)

Horowitz, N. H.  1973. Neurospora and the beginnings of molecular genetics. Neurospora Newsl. 20: 4-6. (pdf)

Horowitz, N. H. 1985. The origins of molecular genetics: One gene, one enzyme. BioEssays 3: 37-39. (pdf)

Fincham, J. R. S. 1985. From auxotropic mutants to DNA sequences. In Gene Manipulation in Fungi. (J. W. Bennett and L. L. Lasure, eds.). pp. 3-34. Academic Press. (pdf)

Perkins, D. D.,  1992  Neurospora chromosomes.  In The Dynamic Genome: Barbara McClintock's Ideas in the Century of Genetics (N. Federoff and D. Botstein, eds.)  pp. 33-44. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. (pdf)

Perkins, D. D., and R. H. Davis. 2000. Neurospora at the millennium. Fungal Genet. Biol. 31:153-167. (pdf)

Davis, R. H., and D. D. Perkins.  2002. Neurospora: A model of model microbes. Nature Rev. Genet. 3: 397-403.  (pdf)

Perkins, D. D., and R. H. Davis. 2002. Neurospora chronology -- 1843-2002. Fungal Genet. Newslett. 49:4-8. (pdf)


Fungal Genetics Stock Center.  Neurospora Bibliography.

Bachmann, B. J., and W. N. Strickland.  1965. Neurospora Bibliography and Index. Yale Univ. Press,. New Haven.

Bachmann, B. J.  1970. Neurospora bibliography and index: Number two, 1964-1969. Neurospora Newslett. 17: 3-80.

Perkins, D. D. 1994  Neurospora tetrasperma bibliography.  Fungal Genet. Newslett. 41:69-78.

Perkins, D. D. 2003. Neurospora tetrasperma bibliography -- Additions. Fungal Genet. Newslett.50:24-26.


The Neurospora Home page. 2006. Detailed set of Neurospora Protocols.

Davis, R. H., and F. J. de Serres.  1970. Genetic and microbiological research techniques for Neurospora crassa. Meth. Enzymol. 17: 79-143. (pdf)

Perkins, D. D., 1986  Hints and precautions for the care, feeding and breeding of Neurospora. Fungal Genet. Newslett. 33: 35-41. (pdf)

Ryan, F. J. 1950. Selected methods of Neurospora genetics. Methods Med. Res. 3: 51-75.

Perkins, D. D.  1999.  Neurospora genetic nomenclature.  Fungal Genet. Newslett. 46:34-41. (Reprinted in Davis 2000, Perkins et al. 2001)

Special topics

Mating type, the sexual cycle

Glass, N. L., and M. A. Nelson. 1994. Mating-type genes in mycelial ascomycetes. In The Mycota, Vol. I: Growth, Differentiation and Sexuality. (J. G. H. Wessels and F. Meinhardt, eds.) pp. 295-306. Springer-Verlag.

Shiu, P. K. T., and N. L. Glass.  2000. Cell and nuclear recognition mechanisms mediated by mating type in filamentous ascomycetes. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3 183-188.

Metzenberg, R. L. 1995. The sexual cycle in Neurospora from fertilization to ascospore discharge. In: Biotechnology of Ectomycorrhizae: Molecular Apporaches. (Stocchi, V., P. Bonfante, and M. Nuti, eds.). pp. 85-98 New York. Plenum Press.

Raju, N. B. 1992. Genetic control of the sexual cycle in Neurospora. Mycol. Res. 96: 241-262. (pdf)

Heterokaryons, vegetative incompatibility

Glass, N. L., and S. J. Saupe.  2002. Vegetative incompatibility in filamentous ascomycetes. In: Molecular Biology of Fungal Development. (H. D. Osiewacz, ed.). Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 109-131.

Glass, N. L., D. J. Jacobson, and, P. K. T. Shiu. 2000.  The genetics of hyphal fusion and vegetative incompatibility in filamentous ascomycete fungi.  Annu. Rev. Genet. 34:165-186. (pdf)

Davis, R. H.  1966. Mechanisms of inheritance. 2. Heterokaryosis. In The Fungi: An Advanced Treatise. Vol. 2 (G. C. Ainsworth and A. S. Sussman, eds.)  pp. 567-588. Academic Press.

Genetics and cytogenetics

Davis, R. H., 2004. Genetics of Neurospora.  In The Mycota, Vol. 2: Genetics and Biotechnology. 2nd edition. (U. Kück, ed.), pp. 295-306. Springer-Verlag.

Perkins, D. D., and E. G. Barry, 1977  The cytogenetics of Neurospora. Adv. Genet. 19: 133-285. (pdf)

Perkins, D. D., 1979  Neurospora as an object for cytogenetic research.  Stadler Genet. Symp. 11: 145-164. (pdf)

Raju, N. B.  1980. Meiosis and ascospore genesis in Neurospora. European J. Cell Biol. 23: 208-223. (pdf)

Raju, N. B. 1992. Genetic control of the sexual cycle in Neurospora. Mycol. Res. 96: 241-262. (pdf)

Emerson, S.  1966. Mechanisms of inheritance. 1. Mendelian. In The Fungi: An Advanced Treatise. Vol. 2. (G. C. Ainsworth and A.S. Sussman, eds.) pp.513-566. Academic Press.

Stadler, D. R.  1996. Meiotic recombination in filamentous fungi. J. Genet. 75: 265-280.

Metabolism, regulation, transport

Davis, R. H.  1986. Compartmental and regulatory mechanisms in the arginine pathways of Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol. Rev. 50: 280-313. (pdf)

Sachs, M. S.  1996. General and cross-pathway controls of amino acid biosynthesis  In The Mycota Vol. 3. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (R. Brambl and G. A. Marzluf, eds.), pp. 316-345. Springer-Verlag.

Mitochondria and mitochondrial plasmids

Kennell, J. C., R. A. Collins, A. J. F. Griffiths, and F. E. Nargang. 2004. Mitochondrial genetics of Neurospora. In The Mycota, Vol. 2: Genetics and Biotechnology. 2nd edition. (U. Kück, ed.), pp. 95-112. Springer-Verlag.

Griffiths, A. J. F. 1996. Mitochondrial inheritance in filamentous fungi. J. Genet. 75: 403-414.

Griffiths, A. J. F. 1995. Natural plasmids of filamentous fungi. Microbiol. Rev. 59: 673-85. (pdf)

RIP and silencing

Selker, E. U.  1990. Premeiotic instability of repeated sequences in Neurospora crassa. Annu. Rev. Genet. 24: 579-614. (pdf)

Selker, E. U.  2002. Repeat-induced gene silencing in fungi. Adv. Genet. 46: 439-450. (pdf)

Pickford, A. S., C. Catalanotto, C. Cogoni, and G. Macino.  2002. Quelling in Neurospora crassa. Adv. Genet. 46: 277-303. (pdf)

Cogoni, C. 2001. Homology-dependent gene silencing mechanisms in fungi.  Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55: 381-406. (pdf)

Cogoni, C. 2002. Unifying homology effects.  Nature Genet. 30:245-246. (pdf)

Natural populations

Turner, B. C., and D. D. Perkins. 2001. Neurospora from natural populations: A global study.  Fungal Genet. Biol. 32:67-92. (pdf)

Perkins, D. D., and B. C. Turner.  1988. Neurospora from natural populations: Toward the population biology of a haploid eukaryote. Exp. Mycol. 12: 91-131. (pdf)

Raju, N. B. 2002. Spore killers: Meiotic drive elements that distort genetic ratios. In Molecular Biology of Fungal Development. (H. D. Osiewacz, ed.), pp. 275-296. Marcel Decker. (pdf)

Turner, B. C., and D. D. Perkins, 1991  Meiotic drive in Neurospora and other fungi.  Am. Naturalist 137: 416-429. (pdf)

Circadian rhythms, photobiology

Dunlap, J. C., J. J. Loros, D. Denault, K. Lee, A. Froelich, H. Colot, M. Shi, and A. Pregueiro.  2004. Genetics and molecular biology of circadian rhythms.  In The Mycota III. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. (R. Brambl and G. A. Marzluf, eds.), pp. 209-229.  Springer-Verlag.

Roenneberg, T., Z. Dragovic and M. Merrow. 2005. Demasking biological oscillators: Properties and principles of entrainment exemplified by the Neurospora circadian clock. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102:7742-7747. (pdf)

Lakin-Thomas, P. L. and S. Brody. 2004. Circadian rhythms in microorganisms: New complexities. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 58: 489-519. (pdf)

Bell-Pedersen, D.  2002. Circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa. In: Molecular Biology of Fungal Development. (H. D. Osiewacz, ed.). pp. 187-214. Marcel Dekker.

Lakin-Thomas, P. L.  2000. Circadian rhythms: New functions for old clock genes. Trends Genet. 16 135-142. (pdf)

Lakin-Thomas, P. L., G. G. Cote, and S. Brody.  1990. Circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa: Biochemistry and genetics. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 17: 365-416.

Linden, H.  2002. Blue light perception and signal transduction in Neurospora crassa. In: MolecularBiology of Fungal Development. (H. D.  Osiewacz, ed.), pp. 165-185. Marcel Dekker.

Lauter, F.-R.  1996. Molecular genetics of fungal photobiology. J. Genet. 75: 375-386.

Mutation and DNA repair

Schroeder, A.L., H. Inoue, and M.S. Sachs.  1998. DNA repair in Neurospora. In: DNA Damage and Repair. Vol. 1: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Cell Biology. pp. 503-538. (J.A. Nickoloff and M.F. Hoekstra, eds.).  Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.

Toxic levels of drugs, antibiotics, and antagonists

Chalmers, J. H. 1974. Toxicity of antibiotics and other drugs to Neurospora. Neurospora Newslett. 21: 20-21.

Chalmers, J. H., and P. St. Lawrence.  1979. cpl.-1: a Neurospora mutant sensitive to chloramphenicol. Neurospora Newslett. 26: 8.

Curves showing growth rate as a function of temperature and of  pH

Ryan, F. J., G. W. Beadle, and E. L. Tatum.  1943. The tube method of measuring the growth rate of Neurospora. Am. J. Bot. 30: 784-799.

Curves showing ascospore germination as a function of the temperature and duration of heatshock

Goddard, D. R.  1935. The reversible heat activation inducing germination and increased respiration in the ascospores of Neurospora tetrasperma.  J. Gen. Physiol. 19: 45-60.


Goddard, D. R.  1939. The reversible heat activation of respiration in Neurospora. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 7: 362- 376.

Lindegren, C. C.  1932. The genetics of Neurospora. I. The inheritance of response to heat-treatment. Bull. Torrey Botan. Club 59: 85-102.

Curves showing size distribution among microconidia and macroconidia

Gillie, O. J.  1967. Use of the Coulter counter to measure the numbers and size distribution of macroconidia and microconidia of Neurospora crassa. Neurospora Newslett. 11: 16.

Pedigrees showing derivation of the standard N. crassa Oak Ridge wild type strains

Newmeyer, D., D. D. Perkins, and E. G. Barry.  1987. An annotated pedigree of Neurospora crassa laboratory wild types, showing the probable origin of the nucleolus satellite and showing that certain stocks are not authentic. Fungal Genet. Newslett. 34: 46-51.

Gavric, O. and A. Griffiths. 2004. Another inconsistency in the pedigree of the Oak Ridge wild types of Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genet. Newslett. 51: 9-11.

Sequence-based phylogenies

Berbee, M. L., and J. W. Taylor.  2001. Fungal molecular evolution: Gene trees and geologic time.  In The Mycota VII Part B. Systematics and Evolution. (D. J. McLaughlin, E. G. McLaughlin, and P. A. Lemke, eds.) pp. 229-245.

Bruns, T. D., R. Vilgalys, S. M. Barns, et al. 1992. Evolutionary relationships within the fungi: Analyses of nuclear small subunit rRNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet. Evol. 1: 231-241.

Dettman, J. R., F. M. Harbinski, and J. W. Taylor.  2001. Ascospore morphology is a poor predictor of the phylogenetic relationships of Neurospora and Gelasinospora. Fungal Genet. Biol. 48: 10-11.

Dettman, J. R., D. J. Jacobson and J. W. Taylor. 2003. A multilocus geneological approach to phylogenetic species recognition in the model eukaryote Neurospora.  Evolution 57: 2703-2720.

Dettman, J. R., D. J. Jacobson, E. Turner, A. Pringle, and J. W. Taylor. 2003. Reproductive isolation and    phylogenetic divergence in Neurospora:  Comparing methods of species recognition in a model eukaryote.  Evolution 57: 2721-2741.

Poggeler, S.  1999. Phylogenetic relationships between mating-type sequences from homothallic and heterothallic ascomycetes. Curr. Genet. 36 222-231.

Spatafora, J. W., and M. Blackwell. 1993. Molecular systematics of unitunicate perithecial ascomycetes: The Clavicipitales-Hypocreales connection. Mycologia 85: 912-922.

Garcia, D., A. M. Stchigel, J. Cano, J. Guarro, and D. L. Hawksworth. 2004. A synopsis and re-circumscription of Neurospora (syn. Gelasinospora) based on ultrastructural and 28S rDNA sequence data.  Mycol. Res. 108: 1119-1142. (pdf) (See also Cai et al. 2006.)

Cai, L, R. Jeewon, K. D. Hyde. 2006. Phylogenetic investigations of Sordariaceae based on multiple gene sequences and morphology. Mycol. Res. 110: 137-150. (pdf)



This page updated on 13 October 2006 

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