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Videos of our research

Nonlinear optics in photonic crystals

The Idea:

To use photonic crystal cavities and waveguides to enhance nonlinear frequency conversion.


III-V semiconductors, such as GaAs and GaP, are considered promising candidates for nonlinear optical devices because of their large second order nonlinearity, transparency over a wide wavelength range, and ease of integration with semiconductor processing. The cubic symmetry of the zincblende lattice of III-V semiconductors does not exhibit birefringence, therefore engineering the dispersion or using sub-coherence length optical microcavities is especially important. High quality factor micro-cavities offer a means to achieve high conversion efficiencies on-chip with a vastly reduced size, and could be integrated with nanophotonic technology. Furthermore, these can be used to provide an interface between quantum emitters and telecommunications networks, or alternatively for providing a platform for high efficiency photo-detection via frequency conversion to the visible wavelengths, where single photon counters have maximum detection efficiency.


We have demonstrated second harmonic and sum frequency generation in photonic crystal nanocavities and waveguides fabricated in gallium phosphide [1-4, 8] and gallium arsenide [9] at ultra-low powers. We observe second harmonic radiation at 750 nm with input powers of only nanowatts coupled to the cavity. We have also integrated quantum emitters with our nonlinear conversion platform, and demonstrated a telecommunications wavelength pumped single photon source operating at speeds of up to 300 MHz [5], as well as quasiresonant excitation of the quantum dots using generated second harmonic [10].


  1. Second harmonic generation in gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities with ultralow continuous wave pump power, Kelley Rivoire, Ziliang Lin, Fariba Hatami, W. Ted Masselink, Jelena Vuckovic,Optics Express, Vol 17, pp22609-22615 (2009) (arXiv:0910.4757)
  2. Sum-frequency generation in doubly resonant GaP photonic crystal nanocavities, Kelley Rivoire, Ziliang Lin, Fariba Hatami, and Jelena Vuckovic, Applied Physics Letters, 97, 043103 (2010).
  3. Tunable-wavelength second harmonic generation from GaP photonic crystal cavities coupled to fiber tapers, Gary Shambat, Kelley Rivoire, Jesse Lu, Fariba Hatami, and Jelena Vuckovic, Optics Express, Vol 18, pp. 12176-12184 (2010).
  4. Second harmonic generation in GaP photonic crystal waveguides, Kelley Rivoire, Sonia Buckley, Fariba Hatami, and Jelena Vuckovic, Applied Physics Letters 98, 263113 (2011). (arXiv:1106.0046)
  5. Fast quantum dot single photon source triggered at telecommunications wavelength, Kelley Rivoire, Sonia Buckley, Arka Majumdar, Hyochul Kim, Pierre Petroff, and Jelena Vuckovic, Applied Physics Letters, 98, 083105 (2011) (arXiv:1012.0300)
  6. Multiply resonant photonic crystal nanocavities for nonlinear frequency conversion, Kelley Rivoire, Sonia Buckley, and Jelena Vuckovic, Optics Express 19, pp. 22198-22207 (2011).
  7. Multiply resonant high quality photonic crystal nanocavities, Kelley Rivoire, Sonia Buckley, and Jelena Vuckovic, Applied Physics Letters, 99, 013114 (2011). (arXiv:1105.6134)
  8. Photoluminescence from In0.5Ga0.5As/GaP quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal cavities, Kelley Rivoire, Sonia Buckley, Yuncheng Song, Minjoo Larry Lee, and Jelena Vuckovic, Physical Review B 85, 045319 (2012). (arXiv:1201.1258)
  9. Second Harmonic Generation in Photonic Crystal Cavities in (111)-Oriented GaAs, Sonia Buckley, Marina Radulaski, Klaus Biermann, and Jelena Vuckovic (arXiv:1308.6051)
  10. Quasiresonant Excitation of InP/InGaP Quantum Dots Using Second Harmonic Generated in a Photonic Crystal Cavity, Sonia Buckley, Kelley Rivoire, Fariba Hatami, and Jelena Vuckovic, Applied Physics Letters 101, 161116 (2012) (arXiv:1210.1247)


last modified on Tuesday August 04, 2015