Activation of int-1 and int-2 mammary oncogenes in hormone-dependent and -independent mammary tumors of GR mice.

TitleActivation of int-1 and int-2 mammary oncogenes in hormone-dependent and -independent mammary tumors of GR mice.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1987
AuthorsMester J, Wagenaar E, Sluyser M, Nusse R
JournalJ Virol
Date PublishedApr
ISSN0022-538X (Print); 0022-538X (Linking)
AbstractMammary tumors in the GR mouse strain are caused by the expression of an endogenous provirus of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The tumors progress from a hormone-dependent growth phase to autonomous, hormone-independent growth. We studied proviral insertion of MMTV at the int-1 and int-2 mammary oncogenes and the transcription of these genes during progression of a series of transplanted mammary tumors. During the hormone-dependent phase, 6 of 15 transplanted tumors were positive for proviral insertion at int-1 or int-2 or both. These tumors were oligoclonal with respect to the fraction of tumor cells with novel int-1 and int-2 restriction fragments and, apparently, consisted of different tumor cells with proviruses integrated at different oncogenes, including genes that are not yet known. In 10 tumors we detected expression of the int genes, indicating that most tumors contain minor populations of cells with int-1 or int-2 activations. On transplantation the tumors remained oligoclonal during the hormone-dependent phase. The hormone-independent variants of the tumors emerged as clonal outgrowths of cells with MMTV proviruses that could be traced back in the hormone-dependent tumors, but not always those of cells that were positive for insertions near int-1 or int-2. The maintenance of oligoclonality during the hormone-dependent phase suggests a growth-controlling effect of different populations of cells on each other. The clonal, hormone-independent tumors that arise later seem to be the result of mutations that are unrelated to int activation.