“Garrison’s fluke infection”


(Photograph by S.J. Upton)


Phylum: Platyhelminthes

Class: Trematoda

Order: Echinostomatida

Family: Echinostomatidae

Genus: Echinostoma


Human echinostomiasis is caused by digenetic trematodes of the genus Echinostoma (“echino” = spiny; “stoma” = mouth).  Garrison first discovered this food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic, snail-mediated parasitosis in 1907 in Manila (Go, 2003).  Many echinostome trematodes are found in the intestines of birds and mammals throughout the world.  At least 16 different species of this intestinal fluke is attributed to human cases of echinostomiasis with E. ilocanum as the most common cause of human echinostomiasis.  In humans, it is usually seen as a rare intestinal parasite of little clinical importance except in heavy infections.


-         Some of the species of Echinostoma:

o       E. ilocanum

o       E. malayanum

o       E. revolutum

o       E. hortense

o       E. caproni

o       E. paraensei

o       E. trivolvus


What does the echinostome look like?

Where in the world does echinostomiasis occur?

What is the life cycle?

How do I get it and how do I know if I got it?

How do you treat and prevent echinostomiasis?



Useful Web Links

Ohio State University

Kansas State University

A - Z Guide to Parasitology

Olympus Digital Microscope Website




Carlo Denegri Foundation,


Carney, WP, 1991.  “Echinostomisas—a snail-borne intestinal trematode zoonosis.” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 22: 206-211.


Eduardo, SL, 1991.  “Food-borne zoonoses in the Philippines.” Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 22: 16-22.


Go, Chi Hiong U, 2003. “Intestinal flukes.” eMedicine,


Graczyk, TK and Fried, B, 1998. “Echinostomiasis: a common but forgotten food-borne disease.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 58(4): 501-504.


Graczyk, TK and Fried, B, 1994. “ELISA method for detecting anti-Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) immunoglobulins in experimentally infected ICR mice.” Journal of Parasitology Aug 80(4): 544-9.


Kansas State University,


Kansas State University,


Li, X, 1991.  “Food-borne zoonoses in the People’s Republic of China.”  Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 22: 31-35.

Markell, Edward K., David T. John, & Wojciech A. Krotoski. Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. W.B. Saunders Co: Philadelphia, 1999.

Ohio State University,


Olympus Digital Microscope Website,