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Case-control studies of association in structured or admixed populations. J.K. Pritchard and P. Donnelly, 2001. Theor. Pop. Biol. 60:227-237 

Case-control tests for association are an important tool for mapping complex-trait genes. But population structure can invalidate this approach, leading to apparent associations at markers that are unlinked to disease loci. Family-based tests of association can avoid this problem, but such studies are often more expensive, and in some cases---particularly for late-onset diseases---are impractical. In this review article we describe a series of approaches published over the last two years which use multilocus genotype data to enable valid case-control tests of association, even in the presence of population structure. These tests can be classified into two categories. ``Genomic control'' (GC) methods use the independent marker loci to adjust the distribution of a standard test statistic, while ``structured association'' (SA) methods infer the details of population structure {\it en route} to testing for association. We discuss the statistical issues involved in the different approaches, and present results from simulations comparing the relative performance of the methods under a range of models. 

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