Health and Mental Health

Source and Methodological Information

List of Indicators

Health Insurance Coverage Rate

Percent of Poor Children without Health Insurance

Number of People Covered by Medicaid and CHIP

Health Expenditures per Capita

Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among People Age 12 and Over

Percent of Adults Reporting Serious Psychological Distress in the Past Month

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Medical Care

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Dental Care

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Eyeglasses

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Prescription Medications

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Mental Health Care

Percent of Children Who have Asthma

 


Health Insurance Coverage Rate

Description

Percent of people covered by private or government-funded health insurance. 

Source

U.S. Census Bureau, Health Insurance Historical Tables, HIB Series. The Census Bureau’s estimates are based on the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. 

Methodological Notes

In 2002, there were substantial changes in the racial categories used by the Census Bureau. Time series by race that include data from both racial classifications should be interpreted with care. More details on the changes in racial categories.

 


Percent of Poor Children without Health Insurance

Description

Percent of poor children under 18 who are not covered by health insurance. 

Source

U.S. Census Bureau, Health Insurance Historical Tables, HIB Series. The Census Bureau’s estimates are based on the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement. 

 Methodological Notes

To classify people as poor, the Census Bureau uses a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. If a family's total income is below the poverty threshold relevant to that family, then every individual in the family is classified as poor. The official poverty thresholds do not vary geographically, but they are updated for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U). The official poverty definition uses money income before taxes and does not include capital gains or noncash benefits such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps. For more information, see the Census Bureau's poverty definitions

In 2002, there were substantial changes in the racial categories used by the Census Bureau. Time series by race that include data from both racial classifications should be interpreted with care. More details on the changes in racial categories.

 


 

Number of People Covered by Medicaid and CHIP

Description

Total number of people of all ages covered by Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP).

Source

U.S. Census Bureau, Historical Health Insurance Tables. The Census Bureau’s estimates are based on data from the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Methodological Notes

Medicaid is a public program administered at the state level, which provides medical assistance to the needy. Families with dependent children, the aged, blind, and disabled who are in financial need are eligible for Medicaid. The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), formerly called the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), is a program administered at the state level that provides health care for low- and moderate-income children who do not qualify for Medicaid (in many states the income and age thresholds for ineligibility are higher for CHIP than for Medicaid). 

 


 

Health Expenditures Per Capita

Description

The sum of public and private health expenditures, in constant dollars, divided by the total population.

Source

The World Bank, World Development Indicators.

Methodological Notes

Health expenditures cover the provision of health services (preventative and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health. It does not include the provision of water and sanitation. 

Expenditures are adjusted for inflation using the price index for Gross Domestic Product. See Bureau of Economic Analysis National Income and Product Accounts.

 


 

Heavy Alcohol Use in the Past Month among People Age 12 and Over

Description

Percent of people age 12 and over who report heavy alcohol use in the past 30 days. 

Source

National Center for Health Statistics, Health, United States. The estimates are based on data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. 

Methodological Notes

Heavy alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks at a time on each of five or more days in the past 30 days. 

 


 

Percent of Adults Reporting Serious Psychological Distress in the Past Month 

Description

Percent of people age 18 and over reporting serious psychological distress in the past 30 days. 

Source

National Center for Health Statistics, Health, United States. The estimates are based on data from the National Health Interview Survey. 

Methodological Notes

Serious psychological distress is measured by asking respondents how often they experienced each of six symptoms of psychological distress in the past 30 days. The question reads, “During the past 30 days, how often did you feel... So sad that nothing could cheer you up? Nervous? Restless or fidgety? Hopeless? That everything was an effort? Worthless?” Possible answers are “All of the time” (4 points), “Most of the time” (3 points), “Some of the time” (2 points), “A little of the time” (1 point”), and “None of the time” (0 points). The points are added together, yielding a total of 0 to 24 points. A threshold of 13 points or more is used to define serious psychological distress. 

 


  

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Medical Care

Description

Percent of people age 18 and over who report that, at some point during the past 12 months, they needed medical care but didn’t get it because they couldn’t afford it. 

Source

Estimates are produced by the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, using microdata from the National Health Interview Survey, Integrated Health Interview Series (Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center, 2012).

Reference 

Minnesota Population Center and State Health Data Assistance Center, Integrated Health Interview Series: Version 5.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2012.

Methodological Notes

In the National Health Interview Survey people are asked, “During the past 12 months, was there any time when you needed medical care, but did not get it because you couldn’t afford it?” Response choices are yes and no. A small number of people each year refuse to answer the question or don’t know the answer; those people are not included in Stanford CPI’s estimates.

 


 

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Dental Care

Description

Percent of people age 18 and over who report that, at some point during the past 12 months, they needed dental care, including check-ups, but didn’t get it because they couldn’t afford it. 

Source

Estimates are produced by the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, using microdata from the National Health Interview Survey, Integrated Health Interview Series (Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center, 2012).

Reference 

Minnesota Population Center and State Health Data Assistance Center, Integrated Health Interview Series: Version 5.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2012.

Methodological Notes

In the National Health Interview Survey people are asked, “During the past 12 months, was there any time when you needed any of the following, but did not get it because you couldn’t afford it? ...Dental care (including check ups).”  Response choices are yes and no. A small number of people each year refuse to answer the question or don’t know the answer; those people are not included in Stanford CPI’s estimates.

 


 

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Eyeglasses

Description

Percent of people age 18 and over who report that, at some point during the past 12 months, they needed eyeglasses but didn’t get them because they couldn’t afford them. 

Source

Estimates are produced by the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, using microdata from the National Health Interview Survey, Integrated Health Interview Series (Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center, 2012).

Reference 

Minnesota Population Center and State Health Data Assistance Center, Integrated Health Interview Series: Version 5.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2012.

Methodological Notes

In the National Health Interview Survey people are asked, “During the past 12 months, was there any time when you needed any of the following, but did not get it because you couldn’t afford it? ...Eyeglasses.”  Response choices are yes and no. A small number of people each year refuse to answer the question or don’t know the answer; those people are not included in Stanford CPI’s estimates.

 


 

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Prescription Medications

Description

Percent of people age 18 and over who report that at some point during the past 12 months, they needed prescription medicines but didn’t get them because they couldn’t afford them. 

Source

Estimates are produced by the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, using microdata from the National Health Interview Survey, Integrated Health Interview Series (Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center, 2012).

Reference 

Minnesota Population Center and State Health Data Assistance Center, Integrated Health Interview Series: Version 5.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2012.

Methodological Notes

In the National Health Interview Survey people are asked, “During the past 12 months, was there any time when you needed any of the following, but did not get it because you couldn’t afford it? ...Prescription medicines.”  Response choices are yes and no. A small number of people each year refuse to answer the question or don’t know the answer; those people are not included in Stanford CPI’s estimates.

 


  

Percent of Adults Who Needed but Couldn’t Afford Mental Health Care

Description

Percent of people age 18 and over who report that at some point during the past 12 months, they needed mental health care or counseling but didn’t get it because they couldn’t afford it. 

Source

Estimates are produced by the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, using microdata from the National Health Interview Survey, Integrated Health Interview Series (Minnesota Population Center and State Health Access Data Assistance Center, 2012).

Reference 

Minnesota Population Center and State Health Data Assistance Center, Integrated Health Interview Series: Version 5.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2012.

Methodological Notes

In the National Health Interview Survey people are asked, “During the past 12 months, was there any time when you needed any of the following, but did not get it because you couldn’t afford it? ...Mental health care or counseling.”  Response choices are yes and no. A small number of people each year refuse to answer the question or don’t know the answer; those people are not included in Stanford CPI’s estimates.

 


  

Percent of Children Who have Asthma

Description

Percent of people younger than 18 who currently have asthma.

Source

ChildStats.gov, America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being. The estimates are based on data from the National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. 

Methodological Notes

In the National Health Interview Survey, the child’s parent is asked, “Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that your child has asthma?” If the parent answers yes to this question, then they are asked, “Does your child still have asthma?”  Children are identified as currently having asthma if they have ever been diagnosed with asthma and still have it.