There never has been a State on the continent in which the land laws were so well devised for monopoly and so directly against settlement and production... where it has been as difficult as here for men of small means to obtain a clear title, at a reasonable cost, to a homestead and farm; nor a State or country on the globe where monopolists and land sharks have found it as easy as in this State of ours to secure their thousands and tens of thousands of acres for little or nothing.10
1 Winchell, Lilbourne, History of Fresno County and the San Joaquin Valley Fresno: Cawston Publishing, 1933. 104.
2 Gates, Paul, "Public Land Disposal in California." Agricultural History 49.1 (1975): 158-178. 166.
3 Pisani, Donald, "Land Monopoly in Nineteenth-Century California." Agricultural History 65.4(1991): 15-37. 24.
4 Ibid, 24-25.
5 Igler, David. Industrial Cowboys: Miller & Lux and the Transformation of the Far West: 1850-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. 61-3.
6 "1860 Census: Fresno, California." www.nhgis.org (last accessed 8/12/2010).
7 "1860 Census: Fresno, California." www.nhgis.org (last accessed 8/12/2010).
8 San Francisco Chronicle, 10 May 1877.
9 Pisani, 22.
10 San Francisco Chronicle, 28 March 1876.
11 Military scrip was given to soldiers who had participated in the War of 1812 or the Civil War, and entitled them to a certain amount of land for free. Many soldiers who had no interest in being farmers sold their scrip for as little as half the price the state charged for land.
12 San Francisco Evening Bulletin, August 31, 1868.
13 Pisani, 18.
14 Including the State of California which has been excluded from analysis as a separate case altogehter.
15 "1890 Census: Fresno, California." www.nhgis.org (last accessed 8/12/2010).
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