1 This article should be read as an exploration—a starting point more than a complete project. That will soon become clear to the reader. Indeed, one of the exciting parts of making maps and creating new evidence for analysis is that it raises more questions than it answers. Creating maps often opens up new sets of questions for the historian to take to the archives. We welcome your feedback and suggestions, which can be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. I would like to thank Jon Christensen, who generously supported and engaged this project. Richard White and Zephyr Frank, through the Spatial History course and feedback on earlier versions of this paper, were critical in helping to develop spatial thinking and concepts. Their influence on this paper is greatly appreciated, and far greater than the footnotes would indicate. Thank you to the Spatial History Lab team, especially Kathy Harris and Whitney Berry. David Rumsey’s website, http://www.davidrumsey.com, provided digitized historical maps used throughout. His commitment to making those maps free and easy to use online has been an enormous asset to this and other projects.
2 Charles Dickens American Notes, as reprinted in Fireside Dickens. (London: G. W. Carleton, 1883) 362.
3 Dickens 362.
4 Two historical works of note are Harriet Ritvo, The Animal Estate (New York: Harvard, 1987) and Richard Bulliet, Hunters, Herders and Hamburgers (New York: Columbia, 2005).
5 Katherine Grier, Pets in America: A History (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2006) 351, FN 69. Charles Rosenberg The Cholera Years (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987) 113.
6 Dickens 362.
7 Abraham Nasatir, ed. A French Journalist in the California Gold Rush: The Letters of Etienne Derbec (Georgetown, California: The Talisman Press, 1864) 170.
8 See William Cronon, Nature’s Metropolis (New York: Norton, 1991).
9 See Meat, Modernity, and the Rise of the Slaughterhouse, ed. Paula Young Lee (Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2008).
10 Data points based on business listings in the Langley San Francisco City Directory (San Francisco: Langley, 1860). The Map, “San Francisco Peninsula. United States Coast Survey, 1869,” was produced by the United States Coast Survey and downloaded from http://www.davidrumsey.com/maps407.html (accessed 12/17/09). Data points for all of the maps in this paper were created with the help of the online program http://www.batchgeocode.com. City directory addresses were compiled in a spreadsheet, then processed through batchgeocode and turned into spatial points compatible with GIS. Points were then double-checked for accuracy (there were glitches) and some points had to be adjusted to match nineteenth-century block numbers (most address and block relationships remained constant through the years, though changes can be found at the front street index of each year's city directory).
11 Henry Miller, “Dictation of Henry Miller, Esq.” Miller was interviewed for Hubert Bancroft’s Chronicles of the Builders of the Commonwealth. Bancroft Library, MSS C-D 791.
12 San Francisco Municipal Reports (SFMR), 1867-68, 284-285.
13 Langley San Francisco Directory, 1869.
14 Ninth U.S. Census data in Robert Cherny and William Issel, San Francisco: 1865-1932: Politics, Power, and Urban Development (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986) 24.
15 SFMR 1865-1866, 235.
16 SFMR 1867-1868, 284-5.
17 Roger Olmsted and Nancy Olmsted, Rincon de las Salinas y Potrero Viejo—the Vanished Corner (San Francisco: San Francisco Clean Water Management Program, 1981) 219; Roger Lotchin, San Francisco, 1846-1856: From Hamlet to City (New York: Oxford, 1974) 169; William Crittenden Sharpsteen, “Vanished Waters of Southeastern San Francisco, ” California Historical Society Quarterly, 21 no.2 (Jun., 1941), online: www.sfmuseum.org/hist5/vanish.html (accessed 12/17/09).
18 “Butchertown War Resumed,” California Daily Alta, 4 June 1868: 1.
19 For a more detailed discussion on changing ideas of health and the environment, see Martin V. Melosi, The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000) as well as Rosenberg, The Cholera Years.
20 See William Novak, The People’s Welfare: Law and Regulation in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).
21 Tamara Shelton Venit, “Unmaking Historical Spaces, ” California History, 85 no. 3 (2008), p.32.
22 “Butchertown. [Ruined Piers.], ” 1906, Photograph, Berkeley, CA, Bancroft Library, The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire Digital Collection, http://www.oac.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb5j49p27w/?brand=oac4.
23 See Meat, Modernity, and the Rise of the Slaughterhouse, ed. Paula Young Lee (Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press, 2008).
24 Ex Parte Shrader, 33 Cal. 279, 1867 WL 694 (Cal).
25 Ronald Labbe and Jonathan Lurie have offered an important new look at the context of the Slaughterhouse Cases. See Ronald M. Labbe and Jonathan Lurie, The Slaughterhouse Cases: Regulation, Reconstruction, and the Fourteenth Amendment (Lawrence: Univeristy of Kansas Press, 2003).
26 “San Francisco Peninsula. United States Coast Survey, 1869. ”
27 August Chevalier, “The “Chevalier” Commercial, Pictorial and Tourist Map of San Francisco From Latest U.S. Gov. and Official Surveys, ” from http://www.davidrumsey.com/maps6460.html (accessed 12/17/09).
28 See “Banks” and “Brokers” in 1886 and 1901 San Francisco Directory.
29 On a separate note, butcher shops might stand as a highly accurate proxy for settlement, since people did not travel far to buy meat. Since we do not yet have mapped population data for San Francisco in the nineteenth century, butcher shops may offer a decent place marker.
30 Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (New York: Doubleday, Page & company, 1906) 41.