Chobe National Park, the second largest in Botswana, perfectly illustrates the uniqueness of Africa’s ecosystems and variety of wildlife species. Throughout the continent, however, challenges to integrate Africa’s native species and biodiversity within protected areas, with regard to social and economic development outside those areas, remain. For decades, important questions have been raised regarding the conditions under which wildlife, livestock, and humans can co-exist. It is increasingly imperative that scientists, social scientists, historians, and governments work together to develop and implement innovative programs that will help ensure the continued preservation of Africa’s rich biodiversity, by carefully considering the social context in which such programs must exist. But, as this symposium addresses, it is “climate change, energy and resource efficiency, health, and demographic change” that will provide necessary jobs and wealth that are key to long-term sustainability.