Atmosphere and Energy Program

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== 2013-14 Program Requirements<br> ==
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 +
*UG Director: Mark Jacobson, Jacobson@stanford.edu, 397 Y2E2<br>
 +
*Student Services: Jill Nomura, jmn@stanford.edu, 316 Y2E2<br>
 +
Atmosphere and energy are strongly linked: Fossil-fuel energy use contributes to air pollution, climate change, and perturbations to the weather, and the atmosphere feeds back as renewable wind, solar, and hydroelectric energy sources. Because atmospheric problems can be mitigated by increasing energy efficiency, developing new energy technologies, and shifting to less-polluting energy sources, and because it is important to study the atmospheric impacts of new energy technologies, the two areas, atmosphere and energy, are naturally coupled together.  
Atmosphere and energy are strongly linked: Fossil-fuel energy use contributes to air pollution, climate change, and perturbations to the weather, and the atmosphere feeds back as renewable wind, solar, and hydroelectric energy sources. Because atmospheric problems can be mitigated by increasing energy efficiency, developing new energy technologies, and shifting to less-polluting energy sources, and because it is important to study the atmospheric impacts of new energy technologies, the two areas, atmosphere and energy, are naturally coupled together.  
The Atmosphere/Energy (A/E) undergraduate curriculum prepares undergraduates for an A/E master’s degree program, as well as careers in industry, research, consulting, government, non-governmental organizations, and academia. The A/E degree is NOT an ABET-accredited degree, as ABET accreditation is advantageous only for obtaining specific jobs that do not overlap with those that students obtaining the A/E degree would generally consider. The degree is accredited as part of Stanford’s accreditation through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC).  
The Atmosphere/Energy (A/E) undergraduate curriculum prepares undergraduates for an A/E master’s degree program, as well as careers in industry, research, consulting, government, non-governmental organizations, and academia. The A/E degree is NOT an ABET-accredited degree, as ABET accreditation is advantageous only for obtaining specific jobs that do not overlap with those that students obtaining the A/E degree would generally consider. The degree is accredited as part of Stanford’s accreditation through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC).  
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A/E students take classes in both Atmosphere and Energy, as well as classes that integrate the two. The curriculum is flexible students more interested in one field or the other can take most of their Engineering Depth classes in the area of their choice. Similarly, students desiring to focus more on technology or on science can take the appropriate Depth classes to suit their interest.  
+
A/E students take classes in both Atmosphere and Energy, as well as classes that integrate the two. The curriculum is flexible in that students more interested in one field or the other can take most of their Engineering Depth classes in the area of their choice. Similarly, students desiring to focus more on technology or on science can take the appropriate Depth classes to suit their interest.  
Students can tailor a minor focusing on A/E within the minor for Environmental Engineering. Qualified students may also apply to engage in the A/E Honors program (see Chapter 6).  
Students can tailor a minor focusing on A/E within the minor for Environmental Engineering. Qualified students may also apply to engage in the A/E Honors program (see Chapter 6).  
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=== 2012-13 REQUIREMENTS  ===
=== 2012-13 REQUIREMENTS  ===
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A total of 101 units are required, distributed as follows:<br>'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">45 Units of Mathematics and Science Combined</span>'''
+
A total of 101 units are required, distributed as follows:<br>'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">45 Units of Mathematics and Science Combined</span>'''  
 +
 
 +
'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Mathematics (23 units minimum, including at least one class from each group):</span>'''<br><u>Group A</u>:<br>MATH 53 Ordinary Differential Equations with Linear Algebra (A,W,S) 5 units<br>CME 102 Ordinary Differential Equations for Engineers (W) 5 units<br><u>Group B:</u><br>CME 106 Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers (W) 4 units<br>STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Pre-calculus (A,W,S) 5 units<br>STATS 110 Statistical Methods in Eng. and the Physical Sciences (A) 4-5 units<br>'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Science (20 units minimum, including all of the following): </span>'''<br>PHYSICS 41 Mechanics (W) 4 units<br>PHYSICS 43 Electricity/Magnetism (S) –OR– PHYS 45 Light/Heat (A) 4 units<br>CHEM 31B Chemical Principles II (or CHEM 31X or ENGR 31) 4-5 units<br>CEE 70 Environmental Science and Technology (A) 3units
 +
 
 +
<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">'''Engineering Fundamentals (three courses minimum, including the following):'''</span><br>1. ENGR 25E. Energy: Chem. Transformations for Products, Storage, &amp; Use (W) 3 units<br>''...plus'' ''at least one of the following courses:''<br>2. ENGR 10. Introd to Engineering Analysis (S,Sum) 4 units<br>or ENGR 30. Engineering Thermodynamics (A,W) 3 units<br>or ENGR 60. Engineering Economy (Sum) 3 units<br>or ENGR 70A. Programming Methodology (Same as CS 106A) (A,W,S) 5 units
 +
 
 +
3...''plus one elective from above or from others on the ENGR Fundamentals Approved Courses List. Note that ENGR 70B/X cannot be used if ENGR 70A is taken as the second Fundamental; nor are ENGR 25B or ENGR 90/CEE 70 (if used as Science) allowed as the elective course''
 +
 
 +
'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Technology in Society</span>'''<br>MS&amp;E 197. Ethics and Public Policy (recommended; also fulfills Writing in Major requirement) (W) 5 units
 +
 
 +
'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Engineering Depth (42 units minimum):</span>'''<br>'''Required:'''<br>CEE 64. Air Pollution &amp; Global Warming: History, Science &amp; Solutions (W) 3 units<br>CEE 173A. Energy Resources (A) 3-5 units
 +
 
 +
At least 34 units from the following, with at least 4 courses from each group:<br>'''Group A: Atmosphere'''<br>AA 100. Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (A) 3 units<br>CEE 63. Weather and Storms (A) 3 units<br>''Either'' CEE 101B. Mechanics of Fluids (S) 4 units<br>''–OR– ''ME 70. Intro Fluids Engineering (W,S) 4 units<br>''Either'' CEE 164. Intro to Physical Oceanography (W) 4 units<br>''–OR–'' EESS 146B. Atmosphere, Ocean, &amp; Climate Dynamics (S -- alt. years) 3 units<br>CEE 172. Air Quality Management (W) 3 units<br>CEE 172A. Indoor Air Quality (S) (Alt. years) 2-3 units<br>CEE 172S. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation (S) 1-3 units<br>CEE 178. Introduction to Human Exposure Analysis (S) 3 units<br>EARTHSYS 37N –OR– 41N. Climate Change: Science &amp; Society (S, 3 units) –OR– The Global Warming Paradox (A, 3 units)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; EARTHSYS 57Q. Climate Change from Past to Future (W) 3 units<br>
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'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Mathematics (23 units minimum, including at least one class from each group):</span>'''<br><u>Group A</u>:<br>MATH 53 Ordinary Differential Equations with Linear Algebra (A,W,S) 5 units<br>CME 102 Ordinary Differential Equations for Engineers (W) 5 units<br><u>Group B:</u><br>CME 106 Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers (W) 4 units<br>STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Pre-calculus (A,W,S) 5 units<br>STATS 110 Statistical Methods in Eng. and the Physical Sciences (A) 4-5 units<br>'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Science (22 units minimum, including all of the following): </span>'''<br>PHYSICS 41 Mechanics (W) 4 units<br>PHYSICS 43 Electricity/Magnetism (S) –OR– PHYS 45 Light/Heat (A) 4 units<br>CHEM 31B Chemical Principles II (or CHEM 31X or ENGR 31) 4 units<br>CEE 70 Environmental Science and Technology (A) 3units
+
''Either'' EARTHSYS 111. Biology and Global Change (W) 3 units<br>  
-
<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">'''Engineering Fundamentals (three courses minimum, including the following):'''</span><br>ENGR 25E. Energy: Chem. Transformations for Products, Storage, &amp; Use (W) 3 units<br>''...plus'' ''at least one of the following courses:''<br>ENGR 10. Introd to Engineering Analysis (S,Sum) 4 units<br>or ENGR 30. Engineering Thermodynamics (A,W) 3 units<br>or ENGR 60. Engineering Economy (Sum) 3 units<br>or ENGR 70A. Programming Methodology (Same as CS 106A) (A,W,S) 5 units
+
''–OR– ''BIO 164. Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions (W; Alt year) 4 units<br>Either EARTHSYS 142. Remote Sensing of Land (W) 4 units<br>–OR– EARTHSYS 144. Fundamentals of GIS (A) 4 units<br>EARTHSYS 184. Climate and Agriculture (S) 3-4 units<br>ME 131B. Fluid Mechanics: Compr. Flow &amp; Turbomachinery (W) 4 units<br>MS&amp;E 92Q. International Environmental Policy (W) 3units
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''...plus one elective from above or from others on the ENGR Fundamentals Approved Courses List. Note that ENGR 70B/X cannot be used if ENGR 70A is taken as the second Fundamental; nor are ENGR 25B or ENGR 90/CEE 70 (if used as Science) allowed as the elective course''  
+
'''Group B: Energy'''<br>''Either ''CEE 109. Creating a Green Student Workforce 2 units<br>
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'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Technology in Society</span>'''<br>STS 110. Ethics and Public Policy (also fulfills Writing in Major req.)(not offered 2012-13) 5 units  
+
''–OR–'' CEE 136. Green Architecture (W) 4 units<br>''Either'' CEE 142A. Negotiating Sustainable Development (W) 3 units<br>–''OR–'' CEE 156. Building Systems (S) 4 units<br>CEE 176A. Energy Efficient Buildings (W) 3-4 units<br>CEE 176B. Electric Power: Renewables and Efficiency (S) 3-4 units&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>
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'''<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">Engineering Depth (42 units minimum):</span>'''<br>'''Required:'''<br>CEE 64. Air Pollution &amp; Global Warming: History, Science &amp; Solutions (W) 3 units<br>CEE 173A. Energy Resources (A) 5 units  
+
CEE 176C.&nbsp;Energy Storage Integration, A, 3-4 units &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br>CEE 176F. Energy Systems Field Trips (W) (Alt. years) 1-2 units<br>CEE 177S. Design for a Sustainable World (S) 1-5 units<br>CHEMENG 35N. Renewable Energy for a Sustainable World (A) 3 units<br>EARTHSYS 101. Energy and the Environment (W) 3 units<br>EARTHSYS 102. Renewable Energy Sources and Greener Energy Processes (S) 3 units<br>ECON 17N. Energy, the ENvironment, and the Economy (S), 2 units  
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At least 34 units from the following, with at least 4 courses from each group:<br>'''Group A: Atmosphere'''<br>AA 100. Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (A) 3 units<br>CEE 63. Weather and Storms (A) 3 units<br>''Either'' CEE 101B. Mechanics of Fluids (S) 4 units<br>''–OR– ''ME 70. Intro Fluids Engineering (W,S) 4 units<br>''Either'' CEE 164. Intro to Physical Oceanography (W) 4 units<br>''–OR–'' EESS 146B. Atmosphere, Ocean, &amp; Climate Dynamics (S) 3 units<br>CEE 172. Air Quality Management (W) 3 units<br>CEE 172A. Indoor Air Quality (S) (Alt. years) 2-3 units<br>CEE 172S. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation (S) 1-3 units<br>CEE 178. Introduction to Human Exposure Analysis (S) 3 units<br>EARTHSYS 111. Biology and Global Change (W) 3 units<br>Either EARTHSYS 142. Remote Sensing of Land (W) 4 units<br>–OR– EARTHSYS 144. Fundamentals of GIS (A) 4 units<br>EARTHSYS 146A. Atmosphere, Ocean, Climate Dynamics: Atmospheric Circulation (W) 3 units<br>EARTHSYS 184. Climate and Agriculture (S) 3-4 units<br>EARTHSYS 188. Social and Environmental Tradeoffs in Climate Decision Making (W) 1-2 units<br>ME 131B. Fluid Mechanics: Compr. Flow &amp; Turbomachinery (W) 4 units<br>MS&amp;E 92Q. International Environmental Policy (W) 3units
+
Either AA 116Q. Electric Automobiles and Aircraft (A) 3 units<br>–OR– EE 152. Green Electronics (W) 3 units<br>EE 151. Sustainable Energy Systems (W; not offered 2012-13) 3 units<br>ENERGY 104. Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems (S) 3 units<br>MATSCI 156. Solar Cells, Fuel Cells, and Batteries: Materials for the Energy Solution (A) 4 units<br>ME 185. Electric Vehicle Design (S) 3 units<br>
-
'''Group B: Energy'''<br>CEE 109. Creating a Green Student Workforce 2 units<br>Either CEE 142A. Negotiating Sustainable Development (W) 3 units<br>–OR– CEE 156. Building Systems (S) 4 units<br>CEE 136. Green Architecture (W) 4 units<br>CEE 176A. Energy Efficient Buildings (W) 3-4 units<br>CEE 176B. Electric Power: Renewables and Efficiency (S) 3-4 units<br>CEE 176F. Energy Systems Field Trips (W) (Alt. years) 1-2 units<br>CEE 177S. Design for a Sustainable World (S) 1-5 units<br>CHEMENG 35N. Renewable Energy for a Sustainable World (A) 3 units<br>EARTHSYS 101. Energy and the Environment (W) 3 units<br>EARTHSYS 102. Renewable Energy Sources and Greener Energy Processes (S) 3 units<br>Either EE 25Q. Electric Automobiles and Aircraft (A) 3 units<br>–OR– EE 26N. Green Electronics (W) 3 units<br>EE 151. Sustainable Energy Systems (W) 3 units<br>ENERGY 104. Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems (S) 3 units<br>MATSCI 156. Solar Cells, Fuel Cells, and Batteries (A) 4 units<br>ME 185. Electric Vehicle Design (S) 3 units<br>MS&amp;E 93Q. Nuclear Weapons, Energy, Prolif., &amp; Terrorism (S) 3 units<br>  
+
OSPSANTG 31. The Chilean Energy System: 30 Years of Market Reform, Sum, 5 units<br><br>  
<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">See the Navigation Bar at left for A/E 4-Year Plans and Program Sheets; any plan from a year you are enrolled at Stanford as an undergraduate is allowed.</span>  
<span style="color: rgb(153, 0, 0);">See the Navigation Bar at left for A/E 4-Year Plans and Program Sheets; any plan from a year you are enrolled at Stanford as an undergraduate is allowed.</span>  
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=== SUGGESTED COURSE CONCENTRATIONS AND SEQUENCES  ===
=== SUGGESTED COURSE CONCENTRATIONS AND SEQUENCES  ===
-
Subject to the requirements outlined above, students have flexibility in selecting their depth electives and other courses to best suit their interests. If you would like to see two suggested programs outlined, one with an emphasis on energy and the other on atmospheric studies, go to the 4-Year Plans page and open the A/E plans for 2011-12. Either approach provides the necessary preparation for the master’s degree program in Atmosphere/Energy. <br><br>
+
Subject to the requirements outlined above, students have flexibility in selecting their depth electives and other courses to best suit their interests. If you would like to see two suggested programs outlined, one with an emphasis on energy studies and the other on atmospheric studies, go to the 4-Year Plans page and open the A/E plans for 2011-12. Either approach provides the necessary preparation for the master’s degree program in Atmosphere/Energy. <br><br>

Revision as of 15:43, 9 August 2013

2013-14 Program Requirements

  • UG Director: Mark Jacobson, Jacobson@stanford.edu, 397 Y2E2
  • Student Services: Jill Nomura, jmn@stanford.edu, 316 Y2E2

Atmosphere and energy are strongly linked: Fossil-fuel energy use contributes to air pollution, climate change, and perturbations to the weather, and the atmosphere feeds back as renewable wind, solar, and hydroelectric energy sources. Because atmospheric problems can be mitigated by increasing energy efficiency, developing new energy technologies, and shifting to less-polluting energy sources, and because it is important to study the atmospheric impacts of new energy technologies, the two areas, atmosphere and energy, are naturally coupled together.

The Atmosphere/Energy (A/E) undergraduate curriculum prepares undergraduates for an A/E master’s degree program, as well as careers in industry, research, consulting, government, non-governmental organizations, and academia. The A/E degree is NOT an ABET-accredited degree, as ABET accreditation is advantageous only for obtaining specific jobs that do not overlap with those that students obtaining the A/E degree would generally consider. The degree is accredited as part of Stanford’s accreditation through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC).

A/E students take classes in both Atmosphere and Energy, as well as classes that integrate the two. The curriculum is flexible in that students more interested in one field or the other can take most of their Engineering Depth classes in the area of their choice. Similarly, students desiring to focus more on technology or on science can take the appropriate Depth classes to suit their interest.

Students can tailor a minor focusing on A/E within the minor for Environmental Engineering. Qualified students may also apply to engage in the A/E Honors program (see Chapter 6).

2012-13 REQUIREMENTS

A total of 101 units are required, distributed as follows:
45 Units of Mathematics and Science Combined

Mathematics (23 units minimum, including at least one class from each group):
Group A:
MATH 53 Ordinary Differential Equations with Linear Algebra (A,W,S) 5 units
CME 102 Ordinary Differential Equations for Engineers (W) 5 units
Group B:
CME 106 Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers (W) 4 units
STATS 60 Introduction to Statistical Methods: Pre-calculus (A,W,S) 5 units
STATS 110 Statistical Methods in Eng. and the Physical Sciences (A) 4-5 units
Science (20 units minimum, including all of the following):
PHYSICS 41 Mechanics (W) 4 units
PHYSICS 43 Electricity/Magnetism (S) –OR– PHYS 45 Light/Heat (A) 4 units
CHEM 31B Chemical Principles II (or CHEM 31X or ENGR 31) 4-5 units
CEE 70 Environmental Science and Technology (A) 3units

Engineering Fundamentals (three courses minimum, including the following):
1. ENGR 25E. Energy: Chem. Transformations for Products, Storage, & Use (W) 3 units
...plus at least one of the following courses:
2. ENGR 10. Introd to Engineering Analysis (S,Sum) 4 units
or ENGR 30. Engineering Thermodynamics (A,W) 3 units
or ENGR 60. Engineering Economy (Sum) 3 units
or ENGR 70A. Programming Methodology (Same as CS 106A) (A,W,S) 5 units

3...plus one elective from above or from others on the ENGR Fundamentals Approved Courses List. Note that ENGR 70B/X cannot be used if ENGR 70A is taken as the second Fundamental; nor are ENGR 25B or ENGR 90/CEE 70 (if used as Science) allowed as the elective course

Technology in Society
MS&E 197. Ethics and Public Policy (recommended; also fulfills Writing in Major requirement) (W) 5 units

Engineering Depth (42 units minimum):
Required:
CEE 64. Air Pollution & Global Warming: History, Science & Solutions (W) 3 units
CEE 173A. Energy Resources (A) 3-5 units

At least 34 units from the following, with at least 4 courses from each group:
Group A: Atmosphere
AA 100. Introduction to Aeronautics and Astronautics (A) 3 units
CEE 63. Weather and Storms (A) 3 units
Either CEE 101B. Mechanics of Fluids (S) 4 units
–OR– ME 70. Intro Fluids Engineering (W,S) 4 units
Either CEE 164. Intro to Physical Oceanography (W) 4 units
–OR– EESS 146B. Atmosphere, Ocean, & Climate Dynamics (S -- alt. years) 3 units
CEE 172. Air Quality Management (W) 3 units
CEE 172A. Indoor Air Quality (S) (Alt. years) 2-3 units
CEE 172S. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation (S) 1-3 units
CEE 178. Introduction to Human Exposure Analysis (S) 3 units
EARTHSYS 37N –OR– 41N. Climate Change: Science & Society (S, 3 units) –OR– The Global Warming Paradox (A, 3 units)                 EARTHSYS 57Q. Climate Change from Past to Future (W) 3 units

Either EARTHSYS 111. Biology and Global Change (W) 3 units

–OR– BIO 164. Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions (W; Alt year) 4 units
Either EARTHSYS 142. Remote Sensing of Land (W) 4 units
–OR– EARTHSYS 144. Fundamentals of GIS (A) 4 units
EARTHSYS 184. Climate and Agriculture (S) 3-4 units
ME 131B. Fluid Mechanics: Compr. Flow & Turbomachinery (W) 4 units
MS&E 92Q. International Environmental Policy (W) 3units

Group B: Energy
Either CEE 109. Creating a Green Student Workforce 2 units

–OR– CEE 136. Green Architecture (W) 4 units
Either CEE 142A. Negotiating Sustainable Development (W) 3 units
OR– CEE 156. Building Systems (S) 4 units
CEE 176A. Energy Efficient Buildings (W) 3-4 units
CEE 176B. Electric Power: Renewables and Efficiency (S) 3-4 units   

CEE 176C. Energy Storage Integration, A, 3-4 units                                                                                        
CEE 176F. Energy Systems Field Trips (W) (Alt. years) 1-2 units
CEE 177S. Design for a Sustainable World (S) 1-5 units
CHEMENG 35N. Renewable Energy for a Sustainable World (A) 3 units
EARTHSYS 101. Energy and the Environment (W) 3 units
EARTHSYS 102. Renewable Energy Sources and Greener Energy Processes (S) 3 units
ECON 17N. Energy, the ENvironment, and the Economy (S), 2 units

Either AA 116Q. Electric Automobiles and Aircraft (A) 3 units
–OR– EE 152. Green Electronics (W) 3 units
EE 151. Sustainable Energy Systems (W; not offered 2012-13) 3 units
ENERGY 104. Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems (S) 3 units
MATSCI 156. Solar Cells, Fuel Cells, and Batteries: Materials for the Energy Solution (A) 4 units
ME 185. Electric Vehicle Design (S) 3 units

OSPSANTG 31. The Chilean Energy System: 30 Years of Market Reform, Sum, 5 units

See the Navigation Bar at left for A/E 4-Year Plans and Program Sheets; any plan from a year you are enrolled at Stanford as an undergraduate is allowed.

SUGGESTED COURSE CONCENTRATIONS AND SEQUENCES

Subject to the requirements outlined above, students have flexibility in selecting their depth electives and other courses to best suit their interests. If you would like to see two suggested programs outlined, one with an emphasis on energy studies and the other on atmospheric studies, go to the 4-Year Plans page and open the A/E plans for 2011-12. Either approach provides the necessary preparation for the master’s degree program in Atmosphere/Energy.

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