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Human Poliovirus 2

Taxonomy: Picornaviridae Enteroviridae Human Poliovirus Serotype 2

 

Power: Paralytic poliomyelitis of different levels of severity. Fever, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, constipation, neck stiffness. Asymmetric flaccid paralysis with no sensory loss. Cranial nerve and respiratory paralysis (bulbar polio), quadriplegia. Less common aseptic meningitis (nonparalytic poliomyelitis) and abortive myelitis. Silent infection.

 

Status: The WHO declared wild-type poliovirus-2 eliminated in 1999.

 

OFFENSES

Attacks: High tropism for central nervous system, especially for motor neurons. Causes neuronal necrosis, and perivascular cuffing with mononuclear cells in CNS.

 

Outcome: 90% are subclinical or mild. Most cases are self-resolving, but severe polio can result in lifelong paralysis.

 

Speed: Incubation period is between 7-14 days. Usually recovery occurs within a few days. In severe polio resulting in paralysis, disease can last for as long as 6 months with permanent paralysis.

 

DEFENSES 

Vaccines: Inactivated poliovacine (IPV - Salk), three doses subcutaneous injection. 98% efficacy, very safe. Oral polio vaccine (OPV Sabin)

 

Behavioral: Sanitation and hygiene is extremely important, especially in developing countries. Avoid contamination of food or drink with fecal matter.

 

Treatment: Supportive and symptomatic treatment only. Moist heat, physical therapy and antispasmodic drugs. Positive pressure ventilator or iron lung in bulbar polio.

 

Action: Roll two dice. If one is rolled on both dice, then paralytic poliomyelitis occurs and opponent loses two turns.

 

Now more than ever, stop polio forever! Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Molecular structure image source: Institute of Molecular Virology Virus World

Contact | © 2004 Howard Chiou