Introduction to Bunyavirus
Bunyavirus is named after Bunyamwera, Uganda, where the virus was first found in mosquitoes. Bunyaviruses are found throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Molecular and Genetic
Bunyavirus is a single stranded RNA virus. Its RNA is negative sense and 13 kilobases is length. It is a small, enveloped, spherical virus with a helical capsid. Some bunyaviruses use ambisense coding (Nairovirus and Phlebovirus).
Transmission and Infection
Bunyavirus lives in both insects and vertebrates. It is spread by mosquitoes, ticks and sandflies. The exceptions are the Hantaviruses, which are spread via aerosolized rodent urine and feces. Most bunyaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitides. Hantaviruses cause severe Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Bunyavirus-including La Crosse, Jamestown Canyon, and California encephalitis
Nairovirus-including Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Uukunieme.
Hantavirus-including Hantaan and Sin Nombre
Phlebovirus-including Rift Valley Fever.
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