Immune Response and Host Defenses Against Bunyavirus

California Encephalitis Virus

Anibodies against the virus's G1 glycoprotein have multiple effects, including block fusion and inhibit hemagglutination.  Antibody can by itself preotect against reinfection.

Rift Valley Fever Virus

Studies in rats demonstrated resistance through a subclinical infection.  Resistant rats successfully contained initial replication within the liver.  The inflammatory reactions of retinitis and encephalitis may be at least partly mediated by the immune response.

Hantaan Virus--Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

Studies have found that immune complexes are formed and that there are abnormalities in the complement response.  In mice, the immune response accelerates near the time of death if the infection is overwhelming.

Sin Nombre Virus--Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

There appears to be compartmentalization of a selective immune response in the lungs of HPS patients in combination with high levels of viral antigens in the pulmonary vasculature. This suggests that the mechanism of inflammatory cell recruitment in the lungs may result from specific attraction and adherence of a selective population of inflammatory cells to an activated pulmonary microvascular endothelium.

Click here for display of immune response in relation to progression of disease:

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

In some endemic areas, a large portion of the population possesses antibodies to CCHF, which suggests that many infections are inapparent or subclinical.

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