fecal-oral transmission - (including polio) This can take place by direct contact with feces to the hands then eating utensils to the mouth. This is especially prevalent in crowded conditions. Water supplies can also be contaminated by sewage.
direct contact - acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
respiratory - some cocksackie viruses can spread by aerosol routes to cause upper respiratory infection; polio can also be spread this way by way of the pharynx.
respiratory transmission - virus particles are shed in nasal secretions, coughing and sneezing aerosols
direct contact - Transmission can also occur by fomites where
particles from tissues or hands touch the eyes or nose.
fecal-oral transmission - The virus can survive in water for months. This poses an especially large risk for potential outbreaks when the water supply becomes contaminated by HAV. Developing countries with poor sanitation and hygeine and overcrowding have higher rates of infection. Other risks posed are in food and water contamination.
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