During the 1940's and 1950's poliomyelitis became a highly feared childhood disease, especially in the United States, because of its association with paralysis. As a result, a very strong effort was made to research the possibility of a vaccine.
The first effective vaccine to be developed was the Salk vaccine which was introduced in 1954. Known as IPV, or inactivated polio vaccine, it was about 80-90% effective. The second vaccine, OPV (oral polio vaccine) was a live attenuated vaccine know as the Sabin. It is trivalent and contains strains of all three serotypes of poliomyelitis. Although it produces more effective immunization, there have been casses of OPV recipients acquiring poliomyelitis.
Current CDC vaccination recommendations :
Two doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age, followed by two doses of
OPV at 12-18 months and 4-6 years. The use of IPV is recommended
to boost immunization before OPV (generally the more effective vaccine)
There is currently no vaccine for rhinovirus. It is especially difficult to develop a vaccine for rhinovirus as there are over 100 serotypes. There are also other viruses that are also associated with the common cold like corona virus and some enteroviruses With so many different causes, the common cold has been able to baffle scientists in the search for a cure (or vaccine).
The Hepatitis A vaccine was licensed in 1992.
It's an inactivated vaccine that is pretty expensive and is only administered
to those at high risk. To get fairly effective immunization that
lasts for a few years, two doses must be given about a month apart with
a possible booster 6 months later. Because of the high costs and
the limited duration of immunization from the vaccine, general childhood
vaccination probably won't be realistic until after a live attenuated or
recombinant vaccine is created.
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