Herbert H. Clark

Albert Ray Lang Professor of Psychology,  Stanford University

Common ground

Clark, H. H., & Marshall, C. R. (1978). Reference diaries (pp. 57-63). In D. L. Waltz (Ed.), Theoretical issues in natural language processing (Vol. 2). New York: Association for Computing Machinery. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Marshall, C. R. (1981). Definite reference and mutual knowledge. In A. K. Joshi, B. Webber, & I. Sag (Eds.), Elements of discourse understanding (pp. 10-63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Carlson, T. B. (1981). Context for comprehension. In J. Long & A. Baddeley (Eds.), Attention and performance IX (pp. 313-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PDF

*Clark, H. H., Schreuder, R., & Buttrick, S. (1983). Common ground and the understanding of demonstrative reference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 245- 258. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1996). Communities, commonalities, and communication. In J. Gumperz and S. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp. 324-355). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1998). Communal lexicons. In K. Malmkjær & J. Williams (Eds.), Context in language learning and language understanding (pp. 63-87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



Grounding

*Clark, H. H., & Wilkes-Gibbs, D. (1986). Referring as a collaborative process. Cognition, 22, 1-39. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1987). Collaborating on contributions to conversation. Language and Cognitive Processes, 2, 19-41. PDF

Isaacs, E. A., & Clark, H. H. (1987). References in conversations between experts and novices. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 26-37. PDF

Schober, M. F., & Clark, H. H. (1989). Understanding by addressees and overhearers. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 211-232. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1989). Contributing to discourse. Cognitive Science, 13, 259-294. PDF

*Clark, H. H., and Brennan, S. A. (1991). Grounding in communication. In L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine, & S.D. Teasley (Eds.). Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Washington: APA Books. PDF

Whittaker, S. J., Brennan, S. E., and Clark, H. H. (1991). Coordinating activity: An analysis of interaction in computer-supported cooperative work. Proceedings, CHI '91, Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press. PDF

*Brennan, S. E. & Clark, H. H. (1996) Conceptual pacts and lexical choice in conversation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1482-1493. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

*Clark, H. H. & Krych, M. A. (2004). Speaking while monitoring addressees for understanding. Journal of Memory and Language, 50(1), 62-81. PDF



Referring as a collaborative process

*Clark, H. H., & Wilkes-Gibbs, D. (1986). Referring as a collaborative process. Cognition, 22, 1-39. PDF

*Isaacs, E. A., & Clark, H. H. (1987). References in conversations between experts and novices. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 26-37. PDF

*Schober, M. F., & Clark, H. H. (1989). Understanding by addressees and overhearers. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 211-232. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1989). Contributing to discourse. Cognitive Science, 13, 259-294. PDF

Morrow, D. G., Clark, H. H., Lee, A. T., & Rodvold, M. (1990). Collaboration in communication between pilots and air-traffic-controllers. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28(6), 494-494. PDF

Whittaker, S. J., Brennan, S. E., and Clark, H. H. (1991). Coordinating activity: An analysis of interaction in computer-supported cooperative work. Proceedings, CHI '91, Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press. PDF

*Brennan, S. E. & Clark, H. H. (1996) Conceptual pacts and lexical choice in conversation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 1482-1493. PDF

*Wilkes-Gibbs, D., & Clark, H. H. (1992). Coordinating beliefs in conversation. Journal of Memory and Cognition, 31, 183-194. PDF

*Clark, H. H. & Krych, M. A. (2004). Speaking while monitoring addressees for understanding. Journal of Memory and Language, 50(1), 62-81. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Bangerter, A. (2004). Changing conceptions of reference. In I. Noveck & D. Sperber (Eds.), Experimental pragmatics. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 25-49. PDF



Given and new information, and bridging inferences

*Haviland, S. E., &Clark, H. H. (1974). What's new? Acquiring new information as a process in comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 512- 521. PDF

*Clark H. H., & Haviland, S. E. (1974). Psychological processes in linguistic explanation. In D. Cohen (Ed.), Explaining linguistic phenomena. Washington: Hemisphere Publication Corporation. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Haviland, S. E. (1977). Comprehension and the given-new contract. In R. O. Freedle (Ed.), Discourse production and comprehension (pp. 1-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1975). Bridging. In R. C. Schank & B. L. Nash-Webber (Eds.), Theoretical issues in natural language processing. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. PDF

Speech acts: Requests, questions, irony, quotation

*Clark, H. H. (1979). Responding to indirect speech acts. Cognitive Psychology, 11, 430-477. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schunk, D. H. (1980). Polite responses to polite requests. Cognition, 8, 111-143. PDF

Clark, H. H. & French, J. W. (1981). Telephone goodbyes. Language in Society, 10, 1-19. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Politeness in requests: A rejoinder to Kemper and Thissen. Cognition, 9, 311-315.

*Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1984). On the pretense theory of irony. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 121-126. PDF

Francik, E. P., & Clark, H. H. (1985). How to make requests that overcome obstacles to compliance. Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 560-568. PDF

*Isaacs, E. A., & Clark, H. H. (1990). Ostensible invitations. Language in Society, 19, 493-509. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1990). Quotations as demonstrations. Language, 66, 764-805. PDF

Clark, H. H., and Schober, M. F. (1992). Asking questions and influencing answers. In J. M. Tanur (Ed.). Questions about questions: Inquiries into the cognitive bases of surveys. New York: Russell Sage. PDF

Wade, E., & Clark, H. H. (1993). Reproduction and demonstration in quotations. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 805-819. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (2012). Unspoken questions, unspoken answers. In J.-P. de Ruiter (Ed.), Questions: Formal, functional and interactional perspectives (pp. 81-102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF



Addressees, overhearers, audience design

*Clark, H. H., & Carlson, T. B. (1982). Hearers and speech acts. Language, 58, 332-373. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Carlson, T. B. (1982). Speech acts and hearers' beliefs. In N. V. Smith (Ed.), Mutual knowledge (pp. 1-36). New York: Academic Press.

*Clark, H. H., & Murphy, G. L. (1983). Audience design in meaning and reference. In J. F. LeNy and W. Kintsch (Eds.), Language and comprehension (pp. 287-299). Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Schaefer, E. F. (1987). Concealing one's meaning from overhearers. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 209-225. PDF

*Schober, M. F., & Clark, H. H. (1989). Understanding by addressees and overhearers. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 211-232. PDF

*Clark, H. H., and Schaefer, E. F. (1992). Dealing with overhearers. In H. H. Clark, Arenas of language use. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. PDF



Disfluencies

Clark, H. H. (1971). The importance of linguistics for the study of speech hesitations. In D. L. Horton & J. J. Jenkins (Eds.), The perception of language (pp. 69-78). Columbus: Charles Merrill. PDF

Smith, V. L., & Clark, H. H. (1993). On the course of answering questions. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 25-38. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1994). Managing problems in speaking. Speech Communication, 15, 243-250. PDF

*Fox Tree, J. E., & Clark, H. H. (1997). Pronouncing "the" as "thee" to signal problems in speaking. Cognition, 62, 151-167. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Wasow, T. (1998). Repeating words in spontaneous speech. Cognitive Psychology, 37, 201-242. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1999). Passing time in conversation. Proceedings of the workshop on the structure of spoken and written texts, January 29-31, University of Texas, Austin. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2002). Speaking in time. Speech Communication, 36, 5-13. PDF

*Clark, H. H. & Fox Tree, J. E. (2002). Using uh and um in spontaneous speech. Cognition, 84, 73-111. PDF

*Clark, H. H. & Krych, M. A. (2004). Speaking while monitoring addressees for understanding. Journal of Memory and Language, 50(1), 62-81. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2004). Pragmatics of language performance. In L. R. Horn & G. Ward (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 365-382. PDF



Negation and denial

Chase, W. G., & Clark, H. H. (1971). Semantics in the perception of verticality. British Journal of Psychology, 62, 211-216. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Chase, W. G. (1972). On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 472-517. PDF

*Chase, W. G., & Clark, H. H. (1972). Mental operations in the comparison of sentences and pictures. In L. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in learning and memory (pp. 205-232). New York: Wiley. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Chase, W. G. (1974). Perceptual coding strategies in the formation and verification of descriptions. Memory and Cognition, 2, 101-111. PDF

Just, M. A., &Clark, H. H. (1973). Drawing inferences from the presuppositions and implications of affirmative and negative sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 21-31. PDF

Springston, F. J., & Clark, H. H. (1973). And and or, or the comprehension of pseudoimperatives. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 258-272. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1974). The chronometric study of meaning components. In Problems actuels en psycholinguistique (pp. 489-505). Paris: Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. PDF

*Clark, H. H. & Lucy, P. (1975). Understanding what is meant from what is said: A study in conversationally conveyed requests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 56-72. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1974). Semantics and comprehension. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics: Linguistics and adjacent arts and sciences (Vol. l2) (pp. 1291-1428). The Hague: Mouton. PDF



Adjectives, meaning and reasoning

*Clark, H. H. (1969). Linguistic processes in deductive reasoning. Psychological Review, 76, 387-404. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1969). The influence of language in solving three-term series problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 82, 205-215. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1970). Word associations and linguistic theory. In J. Lyons (Ed.), New horizons in linguistics (pp. 271-286). Baltimore: Penguin. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1970) Comprehending comparatives. In G. B. Flores d'Arcais & W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), Advances in psycholinguistics (pp. 294-306). Amsterdam: North Holland Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1971). More about "adjectives, comparatives, and syllogisms": A reply to Huttenlocher and Higgins. Psychological Review, 78, 505-514. PDF

Clark, H. H., Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1973). On the meeting of semantics and perception. In W.G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 311-381). New York: Academic Press. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1990). Commentary on Mosteller and Youtz "Quantifying probabilistic expressions." Statistical Science, 5, 2-34. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1991). Words, the world, and their possibilities. In G. Lockhead & J. Pomerantz (Eds.) The perception of structure (263-277). Washington, DC: APA. PDF



Novel words and contextual meanings

*Clark, E. V., & Clark, H. H. (1979). When nouns surface as verbs. Language, 55, 767-811. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1983). Making sense of nonce sense. In G. B. Flores d'Arcais & R. J. Jarvella (Eds.), The process of language understanding (pp. 297-331). London: Wiley. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1983). Understanding old words with new meanings. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 591-608. PDF

*Morrow, D. G., & Clark, H. H. (1988). Interpreting words in spatial descriptions. Language and Cognitive Processes, 3, 275-292. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1991). Words, the world, and their possibilities. In G. Lockhead & J. Pomerantz (Eds.) The perception of structure (263-277). Washington, DC: APA. PDF



Language, perception, and the body

Clark, H. H. (1968). On the use and meaning of prepositions. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 7, 421-431. PDF

Chase, W. G., & Clark, H. H. (1971). Semantics in the perception of verticality. British Journal of Psychology, 62, 211-216. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Chase, W. G. (1972). On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 3, 472-517. PDF

*Chase, W. G., & Clark, H. H. (1972). Mental operations in the comparison of sentences and pictures. In L. Gregg (Ed.), Cognition in learning and memory (pp. 205-232). New York: Wiley. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1972). Difficulties people have in answering the question "Where is it?". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 265-277. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1973). Space, time, semantics, and the child. In T. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and the acquisition of language (27-63). New York: Academic Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1973). On the meeting of semantics and perception. In W.G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 311-381). New York: Academic Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Chase, W. G. (1974). Perceptual coding strategies in the formation and verification of descriptions. Memory and Cognition, 2, 101-111. PDF

Banks, W. P., Clark, H. H., & Lucy, P. (1975). On the locus of the semantic congruity effect on comparative judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 104, 35-47. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Brownell, H. H. (1975). Judging up and down. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 339-352. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Brownell, H. H. (1976). Position, direction, and their perceptual integrality. Perception and Psychophysics, 19, 328-334. PDF

*Morrow, D. G., & Clark, H. H. (1988). Interpreting words in spatial descriptions. Language and Cognitive Processes, 3, 275-292. PDF

Tversky, B. and Clark, H. H. (1993). Prepositions aren't places. Brain and Behavioral Sciences, 16:2, 252-253. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (2003). Pointing and placing. In S. Kita (Ed.), Pointing. Where language, culture, and cognition meet (pp. 243-268). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. PDF



Joint actions, joint activities

Clark, H. H. (1992). Arenas of language use. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

*Clark, H. H. (1994). Discourse in production. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics. San Diego: Academic Press. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clark, H. H. (1999). On the origins of conversation. Verbum, 21, 147-161. PDF

Bangerter, A., & Clark, H. H. (2003) Navigating joint projects with dialogue. Cognitive Science, 27, 195-225. PDF

*Bangerter, A., Clark, H. H., & Katz, A. R. (2004). Navigating joint projects in telephone conversations. Discourse Processes, 37, 1-23. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (2005). Coordinating with each other in a material world. Discourse Studies, 7(4-5), 507-525. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (2006). Social actions, social commitments. In S. C. Levinson & N. J. Enfield (Eds.) Roots of human sociality: Culture, cognition, and human interaction. Oxford: Berg Press. PDF

Clark, H. H. (2012). Spoken discourse and its emergence. In M. J. Spivey, K. McRae, and M. F. Joanisse (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 541-557). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF



Quotations, demonstrations, depictions

*Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1984). On the pretense theory of irony. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 121-126. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Gerrig, R. J. (1990). Quotations as demonstrations. Language, 66, 764-805. PDF

*Wade, E., & Clark, H. H. (1993). Reproduction and demonstration in quotations. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 805-819. PDF

*Clark, H. H. (2004). Variations on a ranarian theme. In S. Strömqvist & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: Typological and contextual perspectives, pp. 457-476. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Van Der Wege, M. (2001). Imagination in discourse. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H. E. Hamilton (Eds.), Handbook of discourse analysis. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. PDF

*Clark, H. H., & Van Der Wege, M. (2014). Imagination in narrative discourse. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H. E. Hamilton (Eds.), Handbook of discourse analysis (2nd edition). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. PDF

Virtual partners

Clark, H. H. (1975). Bridging. In R. C. Schank & B. L. Nash-Webber (Eds.), Theoretical issues in natural language processing. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. PDF



Statistics with items as random effects

*Clark, H. H. (1973). The language-as-fixed-effect fallacy: A critique of language statistics in psychological research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 335-359. PDF



Miscellaneous

Hayes, J. R., & Clark, H. H. (1970). Experiments on the segmentation of an artificial speech analogue. In J. R. Hayes (Ed.), Cognition and the development of language (pp. 221-234). New York: Wiley. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Begun, J. S. (1971). The semantics of sentence subjects. Language and Speech, 14, 34-46. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1977). Inferences in comprehension. In D. LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Perception and comprehension (pp. 243-263). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1978). Inferring what is meant. In W. J. M. Levelt & G. B. Flores d'Arcais (Eds.), Studies in the perception of language (pp. 295-321). London: Wiley. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Clark, E. V. (1978). Universals, relativity and language processing. In J. H. Greenberg (Ed.), Universals of language: Method and theory (Vol. l) (pp. 225-278). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. PDF

Clark, H. H., & Malt, B. C. (1984). Psychological constraints on language: A commentary on Bresnan and Kaplan and on Givon. In W. Kintsch, J. R. Miller, and P. Polson (Eds.), Method and tactics in cognitive science (pp. 191-214). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. PDF

Clark, H. H. (1987). Four dimensions of language use. In J. Verschueren & M. Bertuccelli-Papi (Eds.), The pragmatic perspective (pp. 9-25). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Clark, H. H. (1997). Dogmas of understanding. Discourse Processes, 23, 567-598. PDF




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