Education 330X

Teaching English Language Learners: Issues in Policy, Leadership, and Instruction

Spring Quarter, 2013

Monday and Wednesday, 9:00-10:50

Instructor:  Kenji Hakuta


The issue of addressing the needs of English Language Learners has come to the forefront of education reform in the United States primarily as a function of demographic change and a categorical focus on the student population in the current ESEA law, known as No Child Left Behind.  In addition, in the past year, as the re-authorization of ESEA has become unlikely, the regulatory waiver process initiated by the administration has increasingly taken on the force of law. Furthermore, the new context of the implementation of the Common Core State Standards, adopted by 45 states, has added increasing urgency to the issue of inclusion of ELLs. This course will explore key issues that arise as educators consider key problems in this area.  They include the constraints and incentives in federal laws and policies (particularly ESEA and Civil Rights laws), the Common Core State Standards, content and language proficiency standards assessment and accountability, on-going student assessment, school improvement models, school culture, community engagement, addressing issues of long-term English learners, programming for newcomer ELLs, early childhood education, and promoting bilingualism.  The course will cover basic background readings on these topics as well as those specific to English Language Learners.  Discussions will be grounded in the real-time context of a network of school districts in California that have a significant proportion of ELL students trying to address issues of instructional reform.  Students will have the opportunity to participate in some of these discussions and to conduct case studies of how theory plays out in real time in the context of California school districts.

The course requirements are active contribution to class discussions and projects such as the crafting of policy memos and analyses, and a final paper. The final paper should be an analysis of a specific problem of policy, leadership or instruction pertaining to the education of ELLs. It may take the form of a traditional research/term paper, a research proposal, or a policy analysis that identifies the key issues and develops recommendations. Papers are due on June 11 at 5:00 PM.

Week of April 1

Policy History

Slides 4/1

Hakuta, K. Educating Language Minority Students and Affirming their Equal Rights: 
Research and Practical Perspectives (AERA Brown Lecture). Click here.

Lau v. Nichols (1974) Click here

Glance (do not attempt to read!) and highlight portions from NCLB: Title I and Title III law. Click here. (if the USED website is down, try this.) See section §9101(25) for a definition of an ELL.

Three OCR memoranda (5/25/70, 4/6/90, 9/27/91) Alternatives: (May 25, April 6, September 27)

To see how the Department of Justice may tie together the OCR memoranda, see this sample finding of violations from DOJ. Click here.

Week of April 8 - 15

Federal Legislation: The Case of Title III

Ramsey, A. & O'Day, J. (March, 2010) Title III Policy: State of the States. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. American Insitutes for Research. Click here.

Boyle, A., Taylor, J., Hurlbut, S & Soga, K. (March, 2010). Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. American Insitutes for Research. Click here.

Tanenbaum, C. & Anderson, L. (March, 2010). Title III Accountability and District Improvement Efforts: A Closer Look. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act. American Insitutes for Research. Click here.

Supporting English Language Learners: A Pocket Guide for State and District Leaders. American Institutes for Research (2012). Click here.

Hopkins, M., Thompson, K., Linquanti, R., Hakuta, K. & August, D. (2013). Fully accounting for English Learner performance: A key issue in ESEA reauthorization. Educational Researcher, 22(10) 1-8.

Historical document: Stanford Working Group (1993). Federal Education Programs for Limited-English-Proficient Students: A Blueprint for the Second Generation. Click here.

Week April 22

Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards

Understanding Language Initiative. Browse website, read under papers the summary paper and:

Under the Language and Literacy tab: (1) Van Lier and Walqui, and (2) Wong Fillmore and Fillmore papers

Under the Practice and Content Areas tab: skim all three, read one deeply

Under the Policy and Building System Capacity tab: read (1) Santos, Darling-Hammond and Cheuk, (2) Pompa and Hakuta.

Center for K-12 Assessment & Performance Management, ETS (2012). Coming Together to Raise Achievement: New Assessments for the Common Core State Standards. April, 2012.

Council of Chief State Schools Officers (2012). Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards Corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. Click here.

Linquanti, R. & Cook, Gary (2013). Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": A Brief Defining Policy and Technical Issues and Opportunities for State Assessment Consortia. Click here.

Also: please review sample items from SBAC and PARCC

Week of April 29 (No class 4/29 - AERA)

ELD Instruction

Bayley, R. (2010) Explicit Formal Instruction in Oral Language: English Language Learners. National Research Council: Paper prepared for the Committee on the Role of Language in School Learning

Dutro, S. & Kinsella, K. (2010). English Language Development: Issues and Implementation at Grades Six through Twelve. In Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches. In Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches. California Department of Education.

Carnegie Corporation of New York (2013). Opportunity by Design: New High School Models for Student Success. Click here.

Week of May 6

Long-term English Language Learners

Slides 5/6

Olsen, L. (2010). Reparable Harm: Fulfilling the Unkept Promise of Educational Opportunity for California's Long Term English Learners. Long Beach: Californians Together. Click here.

Short, Deborah J.; Fitzsimmons, Shannon, Double the Work: Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring Language and Academic Literacy for Adolescent English Language Learner.  New York:  Carnegie Corporation of New York. Click here.

Cook, H. G., Boals, T., Wilmes, C. & Santos, M. Issues in the Development of Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs) for WIDA Consortium States. Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Click here.

Week of May 13

School Organization, Leadership, Trust and English Language Learners

Reading: Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Allensworth, E., Luppescu, S. & Easton, J. (2010), Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Williams, T., Hakuta, K., Haertel, E., et al. (2007). Similar English Learner Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A follow-up analysis, based on a large-scale survey of California elementary schools serving low-income and EL students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource. Click here.

Council of Great City Schools (2009). Succeeding with English Language Learners: Lessons Learned from the Great City Schools. Washington, DC: Council of Great City Schools. Click here.

Week of May 20

School and district turnaround

SFUSD SIG Grant Application Summary

SFUSD SIG Grant Application - Full Application


Herman, R., Dawson, P., Dee, T., Greene, J., Maynard, R., Redding, S., and Darwin, M. (2008). Turning around chronically low-performing schools: A practice guide (NCEE #2008-4020). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Available at

Mathis, WJ. (2009). NCLB’s ultimate restructuring alternatives: Do they improve the quality of education? East Lansing, MI: The Great Lakes Center for Education Research & Practice. Available at

Center on Education Policy. (2008). A call to restructure restructuring: Lessons from the No Child Left Behind Act in five states. Washington, DC: Author. Available at

Talbert, J.E., & David, J.L. (2010). Turning around a high-poverty school district: Learning from Sanger Unified’s success.

DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2004). Under no circumstances blame the kids: Sanger Unified School District. In Raising the bar and closing the gap: Whatever it takes (pp. 151-162 and 200-201). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press. Available for purchase at

Moore, D. (n.d). Direct instruction: Targeted strategies for student success. Los Angeles, CA: Hampton Brown.

Week May 27

Teacher Preparation

Read materials submitted to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing on March 21, 2013 on the matter of EL certification for interns. Click here.

Bunch, G. (2013). Pedagogical language knowledge: Preparing Mainstream Teachers for Enlgihs Learners in the New Standards Era. Review of Research in Education, 37: 298-341.

Week of June 3

Early Childhood Programs.

Espinosa, Linda (2008). Challenging Common Myths about Young English Language Learners. Foundation for Child Development. click here.

Castro, D, Espinosa & Paez, M. (2013 ) Defining and Measuring Quality in Early Childhood Practices that Promote Dual Language Learners' Development and Learning. In M. Zaslow et al (eds.) Qulaity Measurement in Early Childhood Settings. Paul Brookes Publishhing.

California Department of Education (2008).  Preschool Learning Foundations.

California Department of Education.  Preschool Curriculum Framework (2010).