Hakuta, K. (1974).  A preliminary report on the development of grammatical morphemes in a Japanese child learning English as a second language.  Working Papers in Bilingualism, 3, 18‑38.  Reprinted in E. Hatch (Ed.).  Studies in Second Language Acquisition.  Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers, 1979.

Hakuta, K. (1974).  Prefabricated patterns and the emergence of structure in second language acquisition.  Language Learning, 24, 287‑297.

Hakuta, K. (1975).  Learning to speak a second language: what exactly   does the child learn?  In D. P. Dato (Ed.), Developmental Psycholinguistics: Theory and Applications.  Washington, D. C.:  Georgetown University Press.

Hakuta, K. (1976).  A case study of a Japanese child learning English.  Language Learning, 26, 321‑351.

Hakuta, K. & Cancino, H. (1977).  Trends in second language acquisition research.  Harvard Educational Review, 47, 294‑316.

Hakuta, K. (1977).  Word order and particles in the acquisition of Japanese.  Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 13, 117‑127.

de Villiers, J. G., Tager‑Flusberg, H. & Hakuta, K. (1977).  Deciding among theories of coordination in child speech.  Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 13, 128‑137.

de Villiers, J. G., Tager‑Flusberg, H., Hakuta, K. & Cohen, M. (1979).     Children's comprehension of English relative clauses.  Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 8, 499‑518.

Hakuta, K.  (1980).  Some common goals for first and second language   acquisition research.  In R. Andersen (Ed.), New Dimensions in  Research on the Acquisition and Use of a Second Language.  Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers.

Hakuta, K. (1980).  Review of Givon (Understanding Language), Cooper and Walker (Sentence Processing) and Schiefelbusch (Nonspeech Language and Communication).  American Scientist, 68, 577‑578.

Hakuta, K. (1981).  Grammatical description versus configurational   arrangement in language acquisition: the case of relative clauses in Japanese.  Cognition, 9, 197‑236.

Hakuta, K. (1982).  Interaction between particles and word order in the comprehension and production of simple sentences in Japanese children.  Developmental Psychology, 18, 62‑76.

Hakuta, K., de Villiers, J. G., & Tager‑Flusberg, H. (1982).  Sentence coordination in Japanese and English.  Journal of Child Language, 9, 193‑207.

Tager‑Flusberg, H., de Villiers, J. G. & Hakuta, K. (1982).  The development of sentence coordination.  In S. A. Kuczaj (Ed.), Language Development: Problems, Theories and Controversies, Volume I: Syntax and Semantics.  Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hakuta, K. (1983).  English language acquisition by speakers of Asian languages.  In Chu‑Chang, M. (Ed.), Comparative Research in Bilingual Education: Asian‑Pacific‑American Perspectives.  New York: Teachers College Press.

Hakuta, K. (1983).  Grammar in minds of adults, children and linguists.  In H. Wode & S. Felix (Eds.), Language Development at the Crossroads:  Papers Presented at the Interdisciplinary Conference on Language Acquisition, Passau 1981.  Tuebingen, Germany: Gunter Narr Publishing Company.

Hakuta, K. (1983).  New methodologies for studying the relationship of bilingualism and cognitive flexibility.  TESOL Quarterly, 17, 687‑681.

Hakuta, K. (1983).  Review of Grittner (Learning a Second Language: 79th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education). Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography, 57, 119‑120.

Hakuta, K. (1981).  Review of Piattelli‑Palmarini (Language and Learning: the debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky).  Harvard Educational Review, 51, 437‑439.

Goodban, N. & Hakuta, K. (September, 1984).  Statistical quintet (Review of statistical programs for the IBM Personal Computer).  PC World, 2, 186‑195.

Hakuta, K. (1984).  Bilingual education in the public eye: a case study of New Haven, Connecticut.  NABE Journal, 9, 53‑76.

Hakuta, K.  (1984).  In what ways are language universals psychologically real?  Typological Studies in Language, Volume 6: Language Universals and Second Language Acquisition.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Hakuta, K. (1984).  Review of Moerk (The Mother of Eve ‑‑ as a First Language Teacher).  Contemporary Psychology, 29, 744‑745.

Hakuta, K. (1985).  Cognitive development in bilingual instruction.  In Issues in English language development (pp. 63-67), Rosslyn, Va.: National Clearninghouse for Bilingual Education.

Hakuta, K. & Diaz, R. (1985).  The relationship between degree of bilingualism and cognitive ability: a critical discussion and some new longitudinal data.  In K. E. Nelson (Ed.), Children's Language, Volume 5 (Pp. 319-344).  Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hakuta, K. & Campbell, R. (1985).  The future of bilingual education.  COSSA Washington Update, 4, (6), 4‑6.

Hakuta, K. (1985).  Review of McLaughlin (Second‑Language Acquisition in Childhood: Volume I: Preschool Children).  American Scientist, 73, 204.

Hakuta, K. & Suben, J.  (1985).  Bilingualism and cognitive development.  Annual Review of Applied Linguis­tics, 6, 35-45.

Hakuta, K.  (1986). Mirror of language: The debate on bilingualism.  New York: Basic Books.

Hakuta, K. & Bloom, L. (1986).  The search for cross‑linguistic invariants and variation in language development.  In H. Azuma, K. Hakuta & H. Stevenson (Eds.), Child development in Japan and the United States.  New York: W. H. Freeman.

Hakuta, K. & Snow, C. E. (1986).  Summary of research in bilingual education.  California School Boards Journal, 44 (7), 2‑4.

Hakuta, K. & Snow, C. (1986).  The role of research in policy decisions about bilingual education.  Written testimony to the U. S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, 99th Congress, 2nd Session.  Reprinted in NABE News, 9 (3), 1‑21.

Stevenson, H., Azuma, H. & Hakuta, K.  (Eds.). (1986). Child development and education in Japan.  San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Hakuta, K. (1986).  Cognitive development of bilingual children.  Center for Language Education and Research Educational Report Series, No. 3.  UCLA.

Hakuta, K.  (1987).  The second language learner in the context of the study of language acquisition.  In P. Homel, M. Palij & D. Aaronson (Eds.), Childhood bilingualism: Aspects of cognitive, social and emotional development (pp.31-55).  Hillsdale, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hakuta, K., Ferdman, B. M. & Diaz, R. M.  (1987).  Bilingualism and cognitive development:  Three perspectives.  In S. Rosenberg (Ed.), Advances in Applied Psycholinguistics Volume II: Reading, Writing and Language Learning. (pp. 284-319).  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hakuta, K. (1987).  View of the bilingual child.  Review of A. Fantini, Language Acquisition of a Bilingual Child: A Sociolinguistic Perspective.  Contemporary Psychology, 32, 149-150.

Hakuta, K. (1987).  Societal and policy contexts of research with language minority students.  In C. Underwood (Ed.), Proceedings of the University of California Linguistic Minority Project Conference. (pp. 7-20).  Berkeley, CA:  University of California, Berkeley.

Levy, J., Berreth, D. G., Garza, G., Hakuta, K., Saville-Troike, M. & Zakariya, S. B. (1987).  Building an indivisible nation: Bilingual education in context.  Alexandria, VA.: ASCD.

Hakuta, K. & Gould, L. (March, 1987).  Synthesis of research on bilingual education.  Educational Leadership, 44, 39-45.

Hakuta, K.  (1988).  Why bilinguals?  In F. Kessel (Ed.), Develop­ment of language and language resear­chers (Essays presented to Roger Brown) (Pp. 299-318).  Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum As­sociates.

Hakuta, K. (1987).  Degree of bilingualism and cognitive ability in mainland Puerto Rican children.  Child Development, 58, 1372-1388.

Prince, C. D. & Hakuta, K. (1987).  Bilingualism in a community perspective: The case of New Haven.  In Schooling Language Minority Youth, Vol. III: Proceedings of the University of California Linguistic Minority Research Project Conference (Pp. 17-38).  Los Angeles: UCLA.

Galambos, S. & Hakuta, K. (1988).  Subject-specific and task-specific characteristics of metalinguistic awareness in bilingual children.  Applied Psycholinguistics, 9, 141-162.

Hakuta, K. & Garcia, E. E. (1989).  Bilingualism and education.  American Psychologist, 44, 374-379.

Hakuta, K. (1989).  An interview with Werner F. Leopold.  BRG Working Papers, No. 89-07.  Santa Cruz, California: University of California, Santa Cruz, Bilingual Research Group.

Hakuta, K. (1989).  Bilingualism and intelligence testing: An annotated bibliography.  BRG Working Papers, No. 89-08.  Santa Cruz, California: University of California, Santa Cruz, Bilingual Research Group.

Hakuta, K. (1988).  A wordly look at language acquisition: Review of Dan I. Slobin (Ed.), The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition.  Contemporary Psychology, 33, 576-578.

Hakuta, K. (in press).  Review of Eleanor Wilson Orr, Twice as less: Does Black English stand between black students and success in math and science?  American Scientist.

Hakuta, K. (1989).  Translation skills in bilingual children.  Stanford Forum for Research in Language and Culture.

Hakuta, K. (1989).  (Ed.), Policy and research perspectives on linguistic minority education:  Proceedings of the 4th University of California Linguistic Minority Research Project Conference.  Berkeley, California: University of California.

Hakuta, K. (1989).  Review of James Crawford, Bilingual education: History, theory, politics, and practice.  American School Boards Journal, 176 (October), 11.

Hakuta, K. (1989).  Having it both ways.  Review of S. Romaine, Bilingualism and J. F. Hamers & M. H. A. Blanc, Bilinguality and Bilingualism.  Times Literary Supplement, November 17-23, p. 1263.

Hakuta, K. (1990).  Language and cognition in bilingual children.  In A. Padilla, C. Valdez & H. Fairchild (Eds.), Bilingual education: Issues and strategies. (Pp. 47-59). Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications. 

Malakoff, M. & Hakuta, K. (1990).  History of minority education in the United States.  In A. Padilla, C. Valdez & H. Fairchild (Eds.), Bilingual education: Issues and strategies. (Pp. 27-43). Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications. 

Hakuta, K. (1990).  Bilingualism and bilingual education: A research perspective.  Occasional Papers Series, No. 1.  Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

Padilla, A. M, Lindholm, K. J., Chen, A., Durán, R., with Hakuta, K., Lambert, W. & Tucker, G. R.  (1991).  The English-only movement:  Myths, reality, and implications for psychology.  American Psychologist, 46, 120-130.

Malakoff, M. & Hakuta, K. (1991).  Translation skill and metalinguistic awareness in bilinguals.  In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language processing and language awareness by bilingual children (pp. 141-166).  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hakuta, K. (1991).  What bilingual education has taught the experimental psychologist: A capsule account in honor of Joshua A. Fishman.  In O. García (Ed.), Bilingual education: Focusschrift in honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the occasion of his 65th birthday.  (Pp. 203-212).  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Shannon, S. & Hakuta, K. (1991).  Challenges for limited English proficient students and the schools.  In M. Reynolds, H. Walberg & M. Wang (eds.), Handbook of special education: Research and practice, Vol. 4: Emerging programs (pp. 215-233).  New York: Permagon Press.

Hakuta, K. (1991).  Review of K. Hyltenstam & L. Obler (Eds.), Bilingualism across the lifespan: Aspects of acquisition, maturity, and loss.  Applied Linguistics, 12, 337-339.

Hakuta, K. (1991).  Review of S. Foster, The communicative competence of young children: A modular approach.  Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography, 65, 97-98.

Hakuta, K. (1991).  Notes on Implications of National Assessment for Special Populations.  Washington, DC: Task Force on Assessment, National Council on Education Standards and Testing.

Hakuta, K. (1992).  Bilingualism.  International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Vol. 1 (pp. 175-178).  Oxford University Press.

Hakuta, K. & D'Andrea, D. (1992).  Some properties of bilingual maintenance and loss in Mexican background high-school students.  Applied Linguistics, 13, 72-99.

Pease-Alvarez, L. & Hakuta, K. (1992).  Enriching our views of bilingualism and bilingual education.  Educational Researcher, 21 (March), 4-19,24.

Hakuta, K. & Pease-Alvarez, L. (1992).  (Eds.)  Special issue on bilingual education.  Educational Researcher, 21, No. 2 (March).

Snow, C. & Hakuta, K. (1992).  The costs of monolingualism.  In J. Crawford (Ed.), Language loyalties (pp. 384-394).  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

Hakuta, K. (1992).  The gift of bilingualism. Proceedings of the Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children.  American Psychological Association.

Hakuta, K. (1994).  Distinguishing among proficiency, choice, and attitudes in questions about language for bilinguals.  In C. Garcia Coll and G. Lamberty (eds.), Health and develompent of Puerto Rican mothers and children in the mainland, Vol. II (pp. 191-209).  New York: Plenum. -- NEEDS UPDATE

Pease-Alvarez, L. & Hakuta, K. (1993).  Perspectives on language maintenance and shift in Mexican-origin students.  In P. Phelan & A. L. Davidson (Eds.), Renegotiating cultural diversity in American schools (pp. 89-107).  New York: Teachers College Press. 

Hakuta, K. (1993).  Second-language acquisition, bilingual education, and prospects for a language-rich nation.  Restructuring learning:  1990 Summer institute papers and recommendations by the Council of Chief State School Officers (pp. 123-131).  Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.

Hakuta, K. (in press).  Bilingualism.  In T. Husén & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education, 2nd Edition.  Oxford: Permagon Press.

Hakuta, K. (in press).  Bilingualism.  In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of intelligence.  New York: MacMillan Publishing Co.

Hakuta, K. & Pease-Alvarez, L. (1994).  Proficiency, choice and attitudes in bilingual Mexican-American children.  In G. Extra & L. Verhoeven (eds.), The cross-linguistic study of bilingual development (pp. 145-164).  Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.  North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Bialystok, E. & Hakuta, K. (1994).  In other words:  The science and psychology of second language acquisition.  New York: Basic Books.

August, D., Hakuta, K. & Pompa, D. (1994).  For All Students:  Limited English Proficient Students and Goals 2000.  Focus, Vol. 10 (Fall, 1994).  Washington, DC: National Clearninghouse for Bilingual Education.

Hakuta, K. & Valdes, G. (1994).  A study design to evaluate strategies for the inclusion of L.E.P. students in the NAEP State Trial Assessment.  National Academy of Education Panel on NAEP Trial State Assessment.

August, D. & Hakuta, K. (1994).  Evaluating the inclusion of L.E.P. students in systemic reform.  In Issues and Strategies in Evaluating Systemic Reform.  U. S. Department of Education, Office of the Undersecretary, Planning and Evaluation Service.

Moran, C. & Hakuta, K. (1995).  Bilingual education:  Broadening research perspectives.  In J. Banks (Ed.), Handbook of Multicultural Education (pp. 445-462).  New York: MacMillan Publishing Co.

Hakuta, K. (1995).  Language minority students: Challenges and Promises.  In What Governors Need to Know about Education Reform.  Washington, DC: National Governors' Association.

August, D., Hakuta, K., Olguin, F. & Pompa, D. (1995) LEP Students and Title I: A Guidebook for Educators.  National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education (NCBE) Resource Collection Series, No. 1 (available at

Hakuta, K. & Feldman Mostafapour, E. (1996).  Perspectives from the history and politics of bilingualism and bilingual education in the United States.  In I. Parasnis (ed.), Cultural and language diversity: Reflections on the Deaf experience (pp. 38-50). New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hakuta, K. & McLaughlin, B. (1996).  Bilingualism and second language learning:  Seven tensions that define the research. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 603-621). New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Pease-Alvarez, L., Hakuta, K. & Bayley, R. (1996).  Spanish proficiency and language use in a California Mexicano community.  Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest, 15, 137-152.

August, D. & Hakuta, K.  (1997).  Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children.  Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Galguera, T. & Hakuta, K.  (1997).  Linguistically diverse students.  In H. J. Walberg & G. D. Haertel (eds.), Psychology and educational practice (pp. 387-407). Berkeley, CA: McCutchan Publishers.

August, D. & Hakuta, K.  (Eds.). (1998). Educating Language Minority Children.  Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Hakuta, K. (1998).  Improving education for all children: Meeting the needs of language minority children.  In D. Clark (ed.), Education and the Development of American Youth. Washington, DC:  The Aspen Institute.

Bialystok, E. & Hakuta, K. (1999).  Confounded age: Linguistic and cognitive factors in age differences for second language acquisition.  In D. Birdsong (ed.), Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hakuta, K., Butler, Y. Goto, & Bousquet, M. (1999).  SAT-9 scores and California’s Proposition 227.  NABE News (November), 5-7.  More details are reported at:

Chang, M. J., Witt-Sandis, D. & Hakuta, K. (1999).  The dynamics of race in higher education: An examination of the evidence.  Equity and Excellence in Education, 32, 12-16.

Hakuta, K., Goto Butler, Y., & Witt, D. (2000).  How Long Does It Take English Learners to Attain Proficiency?  University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute Policy Report 2000-1.

Milem, J. & Hakuta, K. (2000).  The benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education.  In D. J. Wilds (ed.), Minorities in Higher Education 1999-2000: Seventeenth Annual Status Report.  Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Goto-Butler, Y., Orr, J. E., Bousquet Gutierrez, M. & Hakuta, K. (2000).  Inadequate conclusions from an inadequate assessment: What can SAT-9 scores tell us about the impact of Proposition 227 in California?  Bilingual Research Journal, 24, 141-154.

Hakuta, K.  (2001).  A Critical Period for Second Language Acquisition?  In D. Bailey, J. Bruer, F. Symons & J. Lichtman (eds.), Critical Thinking about Critical Periods.  (pp. 193-205). Baltimore: Paul Brookes Publishing Co.

Chang, M. J., Witt, D., Jones, J. & Hakuta, K. (Eds.)  (2003).  Compelling Interest: Examining the Evidence on Racial Dynamics in Higher Education.  Stanford University Press.

Hakuta, K., Bialystok, E. & Wiley, E. (2003).  Critical Evidence:  A Test of the Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition.  Psychological Science, 14 (1), 31-38.

Bikle, K., Billings, E. & Hakuta, K.  (2004).  Two-Way Immersion: Lessons for Language Education.  In J. Banks (ed.), Handbook of Research in Multicultural Education, 2nd Edition.  (pp. 589-604).   New York: MacMillan.

Goto Butler, Y. & Hakuta, K. (2004).  Bilingualism and second language acquisition.  In T. Bhatia & W. Ritchie (eds.), Handbook of bilingualism.  (pp. 114-145).  Blackwell Publishers.

Antonio, A., Chang, M., Hakuta, K., Kenny, D., Levin, S. & Milem, J. (2004).  Effects of Racial Diversity on Complex Thinking in College Students.  Psychological Science, 15 (8), 507-510.

Wiley, E., Bialystok, E. & Hakuta, K. (2005). New Approaches to Using Census Data to Test the Critical Period Hypothesis for Second Language Acquisition.  Psychological Science, 16 (1), 341-343.

Hakuta, K. (2005). Some Perspectives on the Status of Asian-Americans in the Early 21st Century. Paper prepared for the Division of Behavioral Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE), National Research Council.

APA (American Psychological Association) Dictionary of Psychology (2006). 328 entries for the area of language. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Butler, Y. G., & Hakuta, K. (2006). Cognitive factors in children’s L1 and L2 reading. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 10(1), 23-27.

Hakuta, K. (2006).  Epilogue: The implications of Brown v. Board of Education in an increasingly diverse society.  In A. F. Ball (ed.).  With More Deliberate Speed: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Education – Realizing the full Potential of Brown v. Board of Education  (pp. 382-386). 105th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II.  Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Stipek, D. & Hakuta, K. (2007). Strategies to ensure that no child starts from behind.  In J. Lawrence Aber, Sandra J. Bishop-Josef, Stephanie M. Jones, Kathryn Taaffe McLearn, and Deborah Phillips (eds.).  Child Development and Social Policy: Knowledge for Action.  (pp. 129-145).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Williams, T., Hakuta, K., Haertel, E., et al (2007). Similar English Learner Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A follow-up analysis based ono a large-scale survey of California elemenatary schools serving low-income and EL students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource, 2007.

Hakuta, K. (in press).  Bilingualism.  In L. Squire (ed.) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience.  Elsevier.