1725

 

 

Jan 2

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 2d of January, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[1]

 

 

 

At the Desire of several Persons of Quality,

By His Majesty’s Company of Comedians.

AT the Theatre Royal in Drury-Lane, this present Saturday, being the 2d of January, will be presented, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar: With the Death of Brutus and Cassius[.] Written by Shakespear. Julius Caesar Mr. Thurmond, Brutus Mr. Booth, Cassius Mr. Mills, Antony Mr. Wilks, Octavius Caesar Mr. Williams, the Citizens by Mr. Johnson, Mr. Norris, Mr. Miller, Mr. Harper, and others, Portia Mrs. Thurmond, Calphurnia Mrs. Horton.[2]

 

 

 

Jan 5

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 5th of January, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[3]

 

 

 

Jan 9

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 9th of January, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[4]

 

 

 

Jan 11

To Morrow Signiora Cuzzoni the famous

Chauntress, is to be married to San-Antonio Ferre,

a very rich Italian, at the Chapel of Count

Staremberg, the Imperial Ambassador.[5]

 

 

 

Jan 25 N.S.

[Agostino Steffani to Giuseppe Riva, Padua, Thursday 25 January 1725]

 

                  I am sorry that the [season’s] first opera [Tamerlano], by Mr Handel, has fared badly and that the second [Artaserse], by Father Attilio [Ariosti], has suffered the same fate; we shall see what happens to the third, which I assume will be by the first of these two composers and will have been presented last year [Giulio Cesare]. If I could bend the ears of the Academy, I would certainly advise it to resort to Bononcini.  Greet him cordially for me and assure him that my memory of him gives me infinite pleasure.  I am delighted that the duchess of Marlborough recognizes his merit.[6]

 

 

 

Jan 16

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 16th of January, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[7]

 

 

 

Jan 19

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 19th of January, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[8]

 

 

 

Jan 21

[Cassandra Brydges to her cousin Brydges, 21 January 1724/5]

 

Madam

In hopes the two inclosed tickets for the opera may prove an agreeable

divertion for your spare hours in town I take the liberty to send them to you,

desiring you will please to use them while you stay in town, & when you return to

the country, be so good as to send them again to

Madam

Your affectionate cousin &

Humble servant.[9]

 

 

 

Jan 23

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 23d of January, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[10]

 

 

 

Jan 26

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 26th of January, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.

                  N. B. One of the Singers being taken ill a little before the Opera was to begin last Saturday Night, hindred its Performance: The Tickets that were deliver’d and printed for that Day, will be taken this Night.

                  On Thursday the 28th of January, will be perform’d the Opera of ARTAXERXES, instead of Saturday, which happened to be the 30th of January.[11]

 

 

 

Jan 31

[Giuseppe Riva to Agostino Steffani, London, Wednesday 31 January 1725]

 

{...} I wanted to be able to give you some account of the impression made by this good girl {= Benedetta Sorosina} in our theatre.  The countess of Walsingham, niece of the duchess [of Kendal], asked them to give her a tiny role in the old opera of Handel entitled Giulio Cesare, which has been revived on the stage.  The lady’s wish was granted, Handel composed two arias, and Benedetta did as she was told.  She could not make a great impact, because the arias are mediocre and stuck on, as they say, with spit.  Considering all that, she received appropriate applause.  I mustered support on the opening night, and Bononcini visited her secretly in order to teach her how to humanize the inhumanity [of her pieces].  Secretly, I say, so as not to rouse the ire of Handelians.  I hope that in some other opera, where Benedetta can have a significant part and support her singing with action, she will distinguish herself in the way that we all desire.  [Anna] Dotti, who came from Paris because of Benedetta’s late arrival and who sang in the first two, new operas, was also given a part in the third, by Handel, because she had made a good impression and her style of singing had generally gone down well.  Although it is very bad, it is aided by a strong and even voice, and finds much favour.  I do hope that the girl will have her own part in the last opera, which Padre or Monsieur Attilio [/97] [Ariosti] will compose, and that your great protectors at court will ensure that she is not treated badly.  I will strive strenuously to ensure this, as I have done and shall do on all occasions in order to obey the orders of monsignor [Steffani] and serve Benedetta, who, I hope, will already have done me justice for my attentiveness to her needs.

                  Bononcini, who, as ever, conveys his respects to monsignor, joins me in these sentiments and will help the girl in everything that she has to sing.  He will make sure she sings in the concerts or musical entertainments that he organizes for his generous duchess of Marlborough, and they should bring her honour and prove useful.[12]

 

 

 

Feb 2

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 2d of February, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[13]

 

 

 

Feb 2

The Governour and Court of Directors of the Royal Academy of Musick, have appointed another Call of 5 l. per Cent. which is the 13th Call, to be made payable on all the Subscribers of the said Royal Academy, on or before the 13th of February next: Notice is hereby given, That the Deputy Treasurer is to attend on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, being the 11th, 12th, and 13th of February, at the Office in the Hay-Market, from Nine in the Morning till Two in the Afternoon, in order to receive the same.[14]

 

 

 

Feb 6

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 6th of February, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[15]

 

 

 

Feb 9

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 9th of February, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, JULIUS CAESAR. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[16]

 

 

 

Feb 12

[Alexander Gordon to Sir John Clerk, 12 February 1725]

 

Having the liberty of the house I went to the opera house &

heard Julius Caesar which pleasd me exceedingly but the new

one to be acted for ye first time next Saturday exceeds all I

ever heard. What occurs [I] shall take the liberty to

acquaint you.[17]

 

 

 

Feb 13

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 13th of February, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[18]

 

 

 

Feb 16

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 16th of February, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[19]

 

 

 

Feb 20

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 20th of February, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[20]

 

 

 

Feb 20

John Byrom, Letter to R. L., Esq;

 

If Senesino do but rift,

“O caro, caro!” that flat fifth:

I’d hang if e’er an Opera Whitling,

Could tell Cuzzoni from a Kitling.

 

Dear Peter, if thou can’st descend

From Rodelind to hear a Friend,

And if those Ravished Ears of thine

Can quit the shrill celestial Whine

Of gentle Eunuchs, and sustain

Thy native English without pain,

I would, if t’aint too great a Burden,

Thy ravished Ears intrude a Word in.[21]

 

 

 

Feb 22

This Day is published,

The following Proposals for engraving and printing by subscription, the whole Opera of Rodelinda, compos’d by Mr. Handel, and figur’d and corrected by his own Hand. 1. That this Opera shall be engrav’d and printed in Score, with all the Parts, on above 100 Copper Plates, on superfine Royal Paper in Quarto. 2. The Price to Subscribers is fifteen Shillings, 7 s. 6 d. to be paid down, and 7 s. 6 d. to be paid on Delivery of the Book, which will be on the 3d of April, 1725. 3. The Subscribers Names will be engrav’d and printed before the Work. 4. The Price to those who do not subscribe will be 18 s. Engrav’d and printed at Cluer’s Printing-Office in Bow Church-yard, where Subscriptions are taken in; as also by Mr. Creake at the Bible in Jermin-street, St. James’s, Mr. Smith in Meard’s Court, in Warder-street, Soho, Mr. Hare near the Royal Exchange, Cornhill, Mr. Young and Mrs. Norman in St. Paul’s Church-yard, Mr. Barrett the upper end of the Hay-Market, and at most Musick Shops.

                  N. B[.] This Work will be done with the utmost Neatness, and more compleat than any extant, and Care will be taken that not one Song in this Opera shall be printed by any other Persons than the Proprietors.[22]

 

 

 

Feb 20, 23

[…]

N. B. Mr. Senesino, who was taken ill last Saturday Night during the Time of the Opera, and not so well recovered to be certain whether he can be able to perform this Night, therefore the Opera that was then intended will not be performed ’till Thursday next.[23]

 

 

 

Feb 25

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Thursday, being the 25th of February, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[24]

 

 

 

Feb 27

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 27th of February, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[25]

 

 

 

Mar 2

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 2d of March, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[26]

 

 

 

Mar 6

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 6th of March, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[27]

 

 

 

Mar 6

Since the Publication of Cluer and Creake’s Proposals for

Engraving and Printing Mr. Handel’s Opera of Rodelinda by

Subscription, a great Number of the Quality, Gentry, &c.

daily subscribe to the same.[28]

 

 

 

Mar 9

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 9th of March, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[29]

 

 

 

Mar 13

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 13th of March, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[30]

 

 

 

Mar 16

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 16th of March, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[31]

 

 

 

Mar 20

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 20th of March, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock. Being the last Time of performing till after Easter.[32]

 

 

 

Mar 20

This Day is publish’d, by Cluer & Creake,

PRoposals for Engraving and Printing by Subscription, A Second

Pocket Volume of Opera Songs and Airs, Collected out

of all the Opera’s Compos’d by Mr. Handel, Bononcini, Attilio,

and other Great Masters; many of them never before printed;

all which will be carefully Corrected & Figur’d for the Harpsichord,

and Transpos’d for the Flute, with the Symphonies to them.

N. B. The Musick i[n] this Volume will be much more legible than

the former, the Pages being somewhat larger, but may be bound in

the same size; and since we have the Assistance of all the Great

Masters, and shall be [f]avour’d with Mr. Handel’s Songs that were

never before printed, (which cannot be obtain’d by others) our Subscribers

may assure themselves that this will be a far Better Collection

than ’tis possible for any other Persons to make.

The Undertakers are J. Cluer at the E[n]graving and Printing

Office in Bow-Church-Yard, and B. Creake at the Bible in Jermyn-

street, St. James’s, where Specimens of the Work may be seen, and

Proposals at Large had gratis, as also at the Musick Shops: Where

likewise Subscriptions are taken for Printing

The whole Opera of Rodelinda, in Score

with all the Parts. In above 100 Copper Plates. Compos’d by Mr.

Handel. The Quality, &c. who design to Subscribe to this Celebrated

Opera, are desired to send their Names in 20 Days at farthest,

otherwise they can’t be Engrav’d in the Book.[33]

 

 

 

Mar 30

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 30th of March, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[34]

 

 

 

Mar 31

[“Diary of a tour of Europe in 1724-25, made by an anonymous Italian”]

 

Adi 31 Marzo siamo stati all’opera in musica Italiana composta di 6 Personaggi. Cioè Senesino, Paccini, Borosini, Boschi, Cuzzoni, e Dotti. Li più piacciuti è con tutta giustizia veramente sono Senesino, e La Cuzzoni. Il Teatro è particolare, mentre vi sono pochi palchi cioè proscenij, e degl’altri alli fianchi; in faccia vi sono tre gran Loggie, capaci di moltissime Persone, e la Platea ancora per esser a’ guisa d’Anfiteatro, e da’pertutto stanno huomini e donne mescolati assieme; nel Palco a’ mano sinistra vicino al Proscenio vi và il Re che è un Signor benigno d’Aria dolce e allegro, haveva un abito scuro ricamato d’oro.[35]

On 31 March we were at the Italian opera composed for six characters, namely Senesino, Paccini [sic], Borosini, Boschi, Cuzzoni, and Dotti. The most pleasing, and truly with every justification, are Senesino and Cuzzoni. The theatre is unusual: while there are a few stage boxes, and others along the sides, facing them there are three large galleries, capable of holding very many people, and also the pit in the shape of an amphitheatre, and everywhere men and women are mingled together. The king sits in the box on the left side near the proscenium; he is a benign gentleman of sweet and cheerful character; he was wearing dark clothes embroidered with gold.[36]

 

 

 

Apr 3

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Saturday, being the 7th [sic] of AprilMarch, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[37]

 

 

 

Apr 6

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 6th of April, will be perform’d, A New Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be deliver’d out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, at Half a Guinea each. And in Regard to the Number of Subscribers, no more than Three Hundred and Forty Tickets will be deliver’d out. N. B. No Tickets will be given at the Door, nor any Persons whatsoever admitted for Money. The Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin at Six a-Clock.[38]

 

 

 

Apr 27

John Brown, Musical Instrument-maker, is now remov’d from against the Royal Exchange to the Sun near St. Michael’s in Cornhill; and hereby gives Notice, that the Pocket Collection of Songs for which he has given out Proposals for a Crown a Book, is now very nigh finish’d: It consists of the following Particulars, viz. Select Aires in Rodelinda, Julius Caesar, Tamerlane, Flavius, and other Works of Mr. Handel: Aires in Calphurnia, and the great Subscription Book of Signior Bononcini: Some of the best Songs of Attilio: Some curious Aires in English of that great Master Albinoni; besides several entertaining Songs in English. ——— And whereas this Book should have been publish’d by the 25th instant, the said Brown hopes his Subscribers will readily indulge him 14 Days more, in regard of the great difficulty he has been at in procuring several favourite Songs in Rodelinda.

                  N.B. The Flute Part will be done with the most Accuracy and Judgment: By a Person sufficiently Eminent that way.[39]

 

 

 

Apr

[rate-books, St. George’s parish, April 1725]

 

George Handell, Rent £35.  First Rate 17s. 6d.[40]

 

 

 

[Pamphlets]

 

XV. An Epistle to Mr. Handel, upon his Opera’s of Flavius and Julius Caesar.  Sold by J. Roberts.  Price 4 d.[41]

 

 

 

May 11 N.S.

[Owen Swiney, Venice, to Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond,

11 May 1725 N.S.]

 

I Chuse to addresse This letter to your Grace, rather

than to any other person, because I’me sure, That you’l lay

it before Messrs. de L’academie, the very Moment you receive

it, or That (shou’d you be out of Town) you’l transmit

it to ’em, immediately, being, as I think, a Matter of

vast consequence to ’em. [354]

I have done all that lay in my power, to serve

Messrs. de L’academie, and I shall, still, continue to

do so: But I confesse, frankly, that ’tis a very great

Mortification to me, to find that all my designs to serve

’em, are defeated by the Industry & Cunning, of a Sett of

Interested Italians, who think they have a right to

dispose of the Academy’s purse among their own Creatures

&c. And ’tis very plain, that if some Method is not

resolved on to prevent their medling in affairs, things

must goe very Wrong.

There is nothing done, in the academy, which is not

published (or taken advantage of) in all parts of Italy,

in lesse than a Month after ’tis transacted, by the

correspondents of these miscreants.

Bernstadt is now Trumpetting the praises of the

academy, and their Management as much as his Castrated

Wit, will permit him, and He receives his information &

instructions from Bononcini, and one who calls himselfe

Ministre public [Riva?].

Don Casimiro [Avelloni] keeps up a close correspondence

with these people, and is prodigiously pleased at

the ill successe of the Academy: Tho’ He still hopes (from

his helping things to goe wrong) to take another Trip for

England, along with Madame sa Femme [Durastanti].

I shall say no more on this Subject, at present, but

refer it intirely to the consideration of those whose

businesse it is more properly, than Mine.

My Scheme for a Company, next year, was to have

joined Minelli, Pinnacci & Marchesina to Senesino, Boschi

& Cuzzoni. And I think ’twou’d have been the best Company

in Europe, Excepting, always that, in which Faustina

sings.

In a letter from Mr. Haym (dated april 2d) I

received some new Instructions viz.

“If you have not, as yet, Engaged Minelli, meddle no

more, in that affair: For one of the Directors, who

has heard him sing, in Italy, says, That He is not,

at all, fit for the English Theatre, And That He

makes an ugly Figure &c.”

In another part of it

“If you can’t have The Faustina for the next Season,

then you are to Engage Burtoletto (or some other

Soprano, who has a good voice) at a Reasonable Price

And a Contre-alt &c.” [355]

Im’e prodigiously glad to let Messrs. de L’academie

know that Burtoletto has taken Priest’s orders &c. and

sings no more on the stage. I wish I cou’d say as much of

Carestini and Gizzi: For; I think they are three prodigious

bad Singers, with very good voices, Especially, the

Two Former.

The opera has been performed Thrice: The Musick is

composed by [Giovanni Francesco] Brusa, who made the

first opera, at St. Giov: Chrysostom’s the last winter,

and is intollerable.

Marchesina is, by much, the best, in the Whole

Pack: she Acts, very, justly, and Sings in the true Lombard

style. Guglielmi is a very handsome Girle, and no

bad Figure: Acts tollerably well, but is a bitter bad

Singer.

Minelli refuses (as I lately told your Grace) the

Six Hundred Guineas, And you may depend upon it he’l

never accept of that offer, at least I think so: I fancy

one Hundred Guineas more wou’d stagger him.

Shou’d Messrs. de L’academie think no more of him,

There is but one other Contre-alt to be had, at present;

His name is Baldi (A Florentine). He is neither a good,

nor a Bad Singer: He’s a tollerable Actor: His person is

well enough: And His Manner of Singing but So, So: He

demands Guineas 600 & I believe, He’l not stir under

500.

Marchesina demands 1500 Sequeens, which is 750

Guineas But I fancy, 500 wou’d do her businesse with the

Expences of her Journey, which She insists on: And was I

worthy to advise I shou’d chuse to fling her in 50 or

£60 toward that expence, rather than to have it crowed

on, as Salary.

I don’t pretend to be a greater Conjuror than My

Neighbours: But Im’e very Sure, That I can give a shrewd

guesse, at the Successe, which may attend the persons

recommended by Messrs. Les Italiens, and those of my own

recommendation: However I shall always submit myselfe to

better Judgment and to the orders of My Superiors: And I

shall Execute The academy Commands (whenever They Honour

me, with ’em) with great punctuality. [356]

I desire to have some positive answer, about

Minelli, Pinacci, and the Marchesina: For each of ’em,

expects a speedy one, with the utmost Impatience.

I set out tomorrow For Regio & Parma: as soon as

I arrive, at these places, I shall Execute the academy’s

commands concerning The Signora Faustina and Gizzi.

If the Scheme I recommended to your Grace (in my

last letter) concerning The Faustina, or some other

(Equivalent to it) may not be found out, I despair of

ever seeing her in England: for, I think, nothing is so

likely to bring her to resolution of making such a Trip,

as a near view, of getting Three or Four Thousand

Shequeens, in about Two years time.

Whatever is resolved on about her affair, I desire

may be done, with all speed and secresy.

I beg leave to tell your Grace, that, I think, your

Company will be much better, and much Cheaper, than ’twas

last year, by joining to it, Minelli Pinacci & The

Marchesina in the room of Borosini, Pacini, Anna Dotti,

and Soresina.

Pinacci will certainly be a very usefull Man: And

Minelli & The Marchesina will most infalliably please

every body of a True Taste, in Musick: And This I’ll

answer for with the hazard of my life.

If Marchesina is pitch’d upon, ’twill be necessary

to furnish her with £100 for the Expences of her Journey

&c. part of it as A Don gratuit: The remainder on account

of her Salary.

If I find either performer or musick at Regio or

Parma fit for the English stage, I’ll in ten day’s time,

inform Messrs. de L’academie of it.

The Season is now drawing to an End, and most of the

Directors will retire into the Country, therefore, I hope,

’twill not be taken amiss, that I, once more, put Messrs.

de L’academie in mind of making, immediate provision, for

their present necessitys, and thinking of Securing Such

Singers, as may be fit, for their Service, & shall be at

liberty from any Engagements in Italy, after the next

ensuing Carneval.

I return to Venice, imediately, after the opera ends

at Parma: Where I hope to find my instructions, concerning

The Faustina: For upon her Engagement depends (in

my humble opinion) the very being, and welfare of the

academy for several years.[42]

 

 

 

May 1

J. CLUER and B. CREAKE give Notice to all Gentlemen and

Ladies that are Lovers of Musick, that they have now finish’d Mr. HANDEL’s great

Opera of RODELINDA, engrav’d on 110 Copper Plates in large 4to, Therefore those

Persons who are impower’d to take in Subscriptions are desired forthwith to send in a

List of the Subscribers Names to CLUER’s Printing-Office in Bow Church yard, that

they may be Engraved before the Work. No Person can subscribe after Tuesday next.

Those who subscribe to pay only 15 s. those who do not to pay 18 s.

N.B. The Engraving this Opera hath retarded the Publication of their Second Pocket

Volume of Opera Songs and Airs, which was proposed to be finish’d this Day: But

the same will be now carried on with the utmost Diligence. The whole to be done in

the same Character as the Specimen, which may be seen at the P[l]ace abovesaid, and at

Mr. CREAKE’s in Jermyn-street, St. James’s, and at the Musick Shops. Subscribers to

pay 5 s. down, and 5 s. 6 d. on Delivery of the Book. Note, In this Volume there

will be several of Mr. HANDEL’s Song[s] that were never before printed, which cannot

be obtained by any other Persons; which Songs alone are worth double the Money

the whole Book is sold for.

The Operas of TAMERLANE and JULIUS CAESAR may be had at the Places abovesaid.[43]

 

 

 

May 6

This Day is publish’d, and deliver’d to the Subscribers,

The whole Opera of Rodelinda in Score: Compos’d by Mr. Handel, and engrav’d on 110 Copper Plates in 4to. Sold by J. Cluer, in Bow Church-yard; and B. Creake in Jermyn-street St. James’s: Where the Opera for the Flute may be speedily had. N. B. They are now going on with the utmost Diligence with their second pocket Volume of Opera Songs in 8vo. in which there will be several of Mr. Handel’s Songs that were never before printed, which cannot be obtain’d by others. Proposals may be had Gratis.[44]

 

 

 

<May 9

EPIGRAM on the Feuds between HANDEL

and BONONCINI.

 

SOME say, compar’d to Bononcini,

That Mynheer Handel’s but a Ninny; [344]

Others aver, that he to Handel

Is scarcely fit to hold a Candle:

Strange all this Difference should be

’Twixt Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee![45]

 

 

 

May 9

John Byrom, Diary

 

Mr. Leycester left my epigram upon Handel and Bononcini in short-hand for Jemmy Ord.[46]

 

 

 

May 15

Whereas a very false and malicious Report

hath for some time past been industriously spread, relating to Mr.

Senesino one of the Performers in the Opera, it is thought necessary

to publish the following Authentick Relation of that Affair: Mr.

Senesino’s Servant, a Black Boy, came into his Service about two

Years ago being then about ten Years old, he was from the first

unhealthy, but about the Month of November last past, he began to be

worse than before, and was much afflicted with a violent Asthma and

Dropsy, until on the 26th of February last past he was sent by the

direction of Dr Teissier, Physician of his Majesty’s Houshold, and at

the Expence of Mr. Senesino to Islington for the Air, where he was

lodg’d at the House of Mr. George Allcock, Farrier, and was never

after that see[n] by Mr Senesino. On the 25th Day of March last past,

he dy’d at Islington and was their [sic] bury’d. Having been guilty of some

great Crimes some Days before his Death, and the said Allcock having

corrected him for it, and even that without the Knowledge of the

said Mr. Senesino, a Report was spread thereabouts, that the said

Correction was the occasion of his Death, which Report was examin’d

into by the Coroner’s Inquest, and found to be malicious and groundless

upon the Oath of Persons who lodg’d in the same House, and of

Mr. Rideout a Surgeon of the Neighbourhood who visited him. It is

suppos’d this hath given pretext to the late wicked vnd [sic] malicious

Report, the falshood of which may be clearly prov’d by the said Inquest

and Examinations taken then and there by Mr. George Rivers Coroner,

or by the Report of the above-mention’d Dr Teissier, and of Mr.

St. Andre Surgeon, who both saw the Boy in his Illness.[47]

 

 

 

May 15

Just published,

The whole Opera of RODELINDA in Score. Composed by Mr. HANDEL, and engraved on 110 Copper Plates in 4to. Sold by J. CLUER in Bow Church-yard, and B. CREAKE at the Bible in Jermyn-street, St. James’s. Where the Opera for the Flute will speedily be published.

                  N. B. The Engraving this Opera hath retarded the Publication of their Second Pocket Volume of Opera Songs and Airs, but the same will be now carried on with the utmost Diligence. The whole to be done in the same Character as the Specimen, which may be seen at the Places abovesaid, and at the Musick Shops. Subscribers to pay 5 s. down, and 5 s. 6 d. on Delivery of the Book. Note, In this Volume there will be several of Mr. HANDEL’s Songs that were never before printed, which cannot be obtained by any other Persons; which Songs alone are worth double the Money the whole Book is sold for.

                  The Operas of TAMERLANE and JULIUS CAESAR may be had at the Places abovesaid.[48]

 

 

 

May 18

John Byrom, Diary

 

Mr. Leycester came there [to George’s coffee-house] and Bob Ord, who was come home from Cambridge, where he said he had made the whole Hall laugh at Trinity College and got himself honour by my epigram upon Handel and Bononcini.[49]

 

 

 

Jun 5

John Byrom, Diary

 

Mr. Hooper … came over to us to Mill’s coffeehouse, 2d., told us of my epigram upon Handel and Bononcini being in the papers.[50]

 

 

 

Jun 11

Handel to Michaelsen

 

A Londres ce 11/22 de Juin 1725.

Monsieur et tres Honoré Frere,

Encore que je me trouve tres coupable de n’avoir pas satisfait depuis si longtems a mon devoir envers Vôus par mes lettres, neantmoins je ne desespere pas d’en obtenir Vôtre genereux pardon lorsque je Vous assurerai que cela n’est pas provenu de quelque oubli, et que mon Estime et Amitié pour Vous sont inviolables, comme Vous en aurez trouvé des marques, mon tres Honoré Frere, dans les lettres que j’ai ecrit a ma Mere.

                  Mon Silence donc, a ete plustôt un effêt de crainte de Vous accabler par une correspondence qui Vous pourroit causez de l’ennuy, Mais ce qui me fait passer par dessus ces reflexions, en Vous donnant l’incommodité par la presente, est, que je ne scaurois pas être si ingrat que de passer avec silence les bontés que Vous voulez bien temoigner a ma Mere par Vôtre assistance et Consolation dans son Age avancé, sans Vous en marquer au moins mes treshumble remercimens. Vous n’ignorez pas combien me doit toucher ce qui la regarde, ainsi Vous jugerez bien des Obligations que je Vous en dois avoir.

                  Je me conterois heureux, mon tres Cher Frere, si je pouvais Vous engager a me donner de tems en tems de Vous nouvelles, et Vous pourriez etre sur de la part sincere que j’en prenderois, et du retour fidel que Vous trouveriez toujours en moy. J’avois crû de pouvoir Vous renouveller mon Amitié de bouche, et de faire un tour en Vôs quartiers a l’occasion que le Roy s’en va a Hannover, mais mes souhaits ne peuventpas avoir leur effet encore, pour cette fois, et la situation de mes affaires me prive de ce bonheur là malgré que j’en aye. je ne desespere pas pourtant de pouvoir etre un jour si heureux, cependent, il me seroit une consolation bien grande, si j’oserois me flatter, que Vous me vouliez bien accorder quelque place dans Votre Souvenir, et de m’honorer de Vôtre amitié, puisque je ne finiray jamais d’etre avec une passion et attachement inviolable

Monsieur et tres Honoré Frere

Vôtre treshumble et tresobeissant Serviteur

George Frideric Handel.

                  je fais bien mes treshumbles respects a Madame Votre Epouse. et j’embrasse tendrement ma Chere Fileule et le reste de Votre Chere Famillie.

                  mes Complimens s’il vous plait a tous les Amis et Amies.

A Monsieur,

Monsieur Michael Dietrich

Michaelsen Docteur en Droit

à Halle en Saxe.[51]

London, 11th/22nd June 1725.

Honoured Brother,

                  Although I am much to blame for not having for so long done my duty towards you in the matter of letters, yet I do not despair of receiving your generous pardon for this, when I assure you that it did not come about through forgetfulness, and that my esteem and friendship for you are unchanged, as you will have observed, dearest brother, from the letters that I have written to my mother.

                  My silence, therefore, has come rather from fear of imposing on you a correspondence that might cause you inconvenience. But I am emboldened to set aside these considerations and to incommode you with the present letter, since I could not be so ungrateful as to remain silent over the kindnesses which you are good enough to show my mother in her old age through your support and consolation, and not at least tender you my humble thanks therefore. You are well aware how much anything that concerns her must affect me, so you will easily judge how greatly I feel myself in your debt.

                  I should count myself happy, most dear brother, if I could prevail on you to send me your news from time to time, and you may rest assured of the sincere interest that I would take therein and of the faithful response that you would always find in me. I had hoped to be able to renew our friendship in person by a visit to your parts when the King departs for Hanover, but my hopes cannot be fulfilled this time, and the state of my affatrs deprives me of that happiness despite all my expectations. However I do not despair of being so fortunate one day. Meanwhile it would be a very great consolation to me if I might dare flatter myself that you are good enough to accord me a place in your thoughts and to honour me with your friendship, since I shall never cease to be, with steadfast love and devotion,

                  Most honoured brother,

                                    Your

                  most humble and obedient servant,

George Frideric Handel.

I send my most humble respects to your wife and I tenderly embrace my beloved god-daughter and the rest of your dear family. My compliments please to all friends.[52]

 

 

 

Jun 12

This Day is published,

The whole Opera of RODELINDA for the FLUTE. Sold by J. Cluer in Bow Church-yard, and B. Creake at the Bible in Jermyn-street, St. James’s, and at the Musick Shops. Where may be had the said Opera in Score, composed by Mr. HANDELL. Also Mr. Handell’s Opera of JULIUS CAESAR and TAMERLANE in Score, and for the Flute. Likewise the first Pocket Volume of Opera Songs in 8vo.

                  Note, The abovesaid J. Cluer and B. Creake are now going on with a second Pocket Volume, in a large 8vo. This Volume will contain the choicest Songs out of the most celebrated Opera; and several of Mr. HANDELL’s Songs that were never before printed, which Songs alone are worth double the Money the whole Book is sold for.[53]

 

 

 

Jun 16

Mr. Heddigger is making Preparations for a

Magnificent Ball to Morrow Night at the Opera

House in the Hay Market, for the Entertainment

of the Knights of the Bath, &c.[54]

 

 

 

Jul 6 NS

[Owen Swiney, Venice, to Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond,

6 July 1725]

 

Last week I sent your Grace, La Signora Faustina’s

agreement with Messrs. de L’academie &c. under Her Sign

Manual.

It is conformable to the instructions, I receiv’d

from ’em.

The giving, or not giving the additional hundred

pounds, yearly, after the first Season, is, intirely,

left to their decision &c. And Her being, in London, on

the last day of March (or it may be) fifteen days sooner,

depends, on a little prudent Management.

I think ’twill be, Richly, worth the academy’s

while, to endeavour to procure leave for her departure

from Vienna, the Minute the Carneval Ends: This,

certainly, will be no difficult thing to obtain.

But shou’d any objection be made to her, so timely,

departure, the letters, your Grace procures from Lord

Cadogan to Prince Eugene, in Her Favour will be of very

great Service to her.

I hope your Grace will not forget to write to

Messrs. St. Saphorin & Harrison to serve her, at Vienna,

en cas de besoin.

I hope your Grace will acknowledge the receipts of

her letter which I inclosed, in mine, of last week. She

understands French, so that you may chuse, wither that

or the Italian language, to make your answer in: and you’l

very much encrease the Favour if you send it, with Lord

Cadogan’s letters &c. under cover to Monsr. St. Saphorin

or Major Harrison.

I wish your Grace & Messrs. de L’academie joy of

this acquisition, for Im’e persuaded, ’tis the most

advantagious bargain you ever made.

The Season is just now drawing to an End, which

makes me think that (in a Post or Two) I shall receive

Messrs. de L’academie’s last instructions, about the

necessary preparations for opening the next Campaign with

Eclat.

I believe, by an artfull and cunning Italian

Management several things (very necessary to be known) [358]

have been hidden from the knowledge of Messrs. de

L’academie. If they command me, I’ll Endeavour to

describe the ailment and Method of Cure.

I beg your Grace will procure a Counter-part of

Signora Faustina’s bargain to be sign’d by the Secretary

of the academy, dans les Formes and that it be sent me

imediately.

Im’e to deliver it to a Friend of hers, who is to

send it to her, at Vienna, or to let her know, it agrees

exactly, with that sign’d by her, at Venice.

 

P.S. I keep a second paper, signed by her, for fear of

a Miscarriage of the first. I thought it needlesse to

inclose it to your Grace.[55]

 

 

 

Jul 3

To the Author of the London Journal.

Venimus ad summum Fortunae, pingimus atque

Psallimus.                                    HOR.

 

SIR,

IN all Arts and Sciences, we ought

to distinguish between those which

immediately tend to the Use and

Benefit of Mankind, and those

which are calculated for our Pleasure

and Amusement. Again,

we ought to make a Difference between those

Arts which, besides the Pleasure they afford

us, conduce also to the Improvement of our

Minds and those which can serve only to

gratify our outward Senses.

According to these Distinctions, Arithmetick,

experimental Knowledge, Mechanicks, and those

Parts of the Mathematicks which relate to

Navigation, Fortification, Architecture, &c. claim

the first Place; History, Philosophy, Oratory,

and Poetry have a Right to the second; and

the third ought to be assigned to Painting and

Musick.

As these two last-mentioned Arts are now

become the darling Amusements of the Town,

and engross the Affections of the Beaumonde, I

hope some short Observations upon them, with

a Comparison of their Excellencies, will not be

disagreeable to your Readers; and I will beg

Leave to bring Poetry into their Company (as

much out of Fashion as it is) because it will

serve the better to illustrate my Observations

upon the other Two.

In the several Comparisons which have been

hitherto made between the two Sister Arts of

Poetry and Painting, the Preference hath been

always given to Poetry, as it has a Power by

its speaking Faculty to reveal the Heart and

display the Passions, with all their secret

Springs and Movements; whereas Painting

amuses us only with silent Representations, and

is confined chiefly to the Entertainmeut [sic] of our

Eyes; I say chiefly, for it cannot be deny’d,

that it has also some Power to express the

Passions, as far as they can be seen in our outward

Features, or discovered by the Position of our

Bodies. In this Respect also Musick must yield

to Poetry, which seems to be a Composition

both of that and of Painting, as it abounds

with the lively Colourings of the one, and the

beautiful Cadences of the other.

By the same Way of judging, we may easily

determine the Dispute of Precedence between

Painting and Musick; for supposing one to be

entirely confined to the Sense of Hearing, and

the other to that of Sight, in such case they

would be equal as to Excellence, since it is

possible for one to give as much Pleasure to the

Eyes as the other can to the Ears, provided the

two Persons, supposed to be affected, are

equally Judges and Lovers of the different Arts.

But it must be considered, that as Painting is

obliged to give Place to Poetry, because it cannot

instruct the Mind so well; so Musick must,

for the same Reason, yield to Painting, because

it is absolutely confined to the Ears, and cannot

affect the Understanding in any Degree;

whereas Painting, especially in historical Pieces,

by setting great and memorable Actions in so

full a Light before us, pleases and instructs at

the same time; it conveys Knowledge to our

Minds by the Ministration of our Eyes, which

it is impossible for Musick to do by the

Assistance of our Ears.

When I speak of Musick, I cannot be

understood to mean any thing but simple Musick, or

meer [sic] Sounds artfully modulated, abstracted from

any Words to which They are adapted; for that

is properly the Province of Poetry, and cannot

come into the Question in Debate.

Another Criterion by which we may judge

of the Excellence of any Art, is its permanent

Quality, or its Capacity of being transmitted to

future Generations.

Herein again Poetry may justly claim the

Precedence of Painting, since the Invention first

of Letters, and afterwards of Printing, it has

descended through a Multitude of Ages, and

may be perpetuated to the End of the World;

whereas Painting can endure no longer than a

piece of frail Canvas, or at best of perishable

Brass or Copper, will retain it; The Colours

often fade in a few Years, and never continue

for many Ages. By the same Rule, Painting

is preferable to Musick, whose Duration is no

longer than the Fluctuation of the Air, or the

Reverberation of an Eccho will support it; the

Pleasure it gives may be very exquisite, but it

is only for the present Moment; vox & praeterea

nihil.

In order to maintain this Assertion, I must

distinguish between the Composition and the

Performance of Musick; I know it may be objected,

that Musick composed, or Harmony characterized,

may be delivered down from Generation to

Generation, in the same manner that either

poetick or prosaick Writings are; but to speak

properly, the Composition is not an essential part of

Musick, any more than the Rules of Grammar

are an essential Part of Speech; for there is no

manner of Harmony in Points, Dashes and

grotesque Figures; They are only Directions to

the Performer, and Musick can subsist without

them, as it first begun and did long subsist

without them: The Performers therefore are,

strictly speaking, the only Musiciens; and when they

are wanting, all the Notes and Figures in the

World will signify nothing. My Meaning, in

a word, is that Homer is the same now that He

was almost Three thousand Years ago; and

some eminent Painters have lived in their

Works, several Hundred Years; but when once

Senesino or Cuzzoni slip their Wind, their

Melody will immediately cease, and our Pleasure

be at an End.

These Distinctions may possibly be thought

more critical than useful; but if we come to

argue closely, perhaps neither Painting nor

Musick, nor indeed any of the most polite Arts

could be proved to be of any great Use to

Mankind; yet when I was upon this Subject, I was

willing to distinguish as nicely as I could,

between one and another, and adjust their

particular Excellencies and Defects.

Notwithstanding this manifest Subordination

of the Three polite Arts; it is plain, that the

present Vogue of the Town hath intirely inverted

it; for Musick, to which I assigned the last

place, because the least useful or instructive,

meets with the far most Encouragement. It is

incredible, what Sums of Money are yearly

expended, in this Town, upon Musical

Entertainments; The Charge of the Opera only is

computed at Sixteen Thousand Pounds a Year; add

to this, what is laid out upon Balls, Consorts and

Merry-meetings, both publick and private,

besides Musick-Masters, Singing-Masters, itinerant

Scrapers, Pipers and Ballad-Singers. Some

Performers at the Opera have Fifteen Hundred

Pounds a Season, others have a Thousand, others

Eight Hundred, and others Five Hundred,

besides less Sums of no small Value; and even the

common Performers of the Instrumental Parts,

have larger Salaries than the Poet Laureat of

Great Britain.

Painting also, at present, is in great Reputation,

and though it has lost Ground of Musick,

to which it is evidently preferable; yet it has

topt as much upon Poetry, to which it is

confessedly inferiour. They have both, I believe,

many more pretending Admirers than real

Judges; and since it is the Fashion to encourage

what we do not understand, I think it very

hard that even Poetry (notwithstanding its

superior Merit) should not partake of our implicit

Favours.

The common Excuse for this Procedure is,

that every Man ought to follow his own

Inclinations, and encourage that Diversion in which

he takes the most Delight. This Method, we

know, is too commonly practiced; and too

strongly dictated by our Nature to be withstood;

meer sensual Pleasures being more agreeable to

most Men, than rational ones; but I hope no

body who pretends to the least Regard for the

publick Good, will let his Inclinations intirely

by[p]ass him against what is beneficial to Mankind,

for the sake of what is only amusing to himself;

for at this rate we may justify the voluptuous

Libertine, who prefers the lowest Minister of

his Pleasure, to the ablest Philosopher; and a

good Cock to the most deserving Patriot.

I am, &c.

MOMUS.[56]

 

 

 

Jul 19

John Byrom, Diary

 

Nourse asked me if I had seen the verses upon Handel and Bononcini, not knowing that they were mine; but Sculler said I was charged with them, and so I said they were mine; they both said that they had been mightily liked.[57]

 

 

 

Aug 22

[Mrs. Pendarves to Mrs. Anne Granville, 22 August 1725]

 

Last Thursday I went to town with Lady Sunderland;

we dined at Lord De Lawarr’s, and was very merry.

Mrs. Sandoni (who was Cuzzoni), is brought to bed of a

daughter: it is a mighty mortification it was not a son.

Sons and heirs ought to be out of fashion when such

scrubs shall pretend to be dissatisfied at having a

daughter: ’tis pity, indeed, that the noble name and

family of the Sandoni’s should be extinct!  The minute

she was brought to bed she sung “La Speranza,” a song

in Otho.  He has been at an extravagant expense to

please that whimsical creature against her lying-in; [118]

amongst other superfluous charges, he has bought a very

fine looking-glass for the child, and a black laced hood

for his wife to see company in at the end of her month:

in short there is more talk of her than ever there was of

the Princess [of Wales] when she lay in.[58]

 

 

 

Sep 7 NS

Giuseppe Riva to Ludovico Antonio Muratori

 

Le opere che si fanno in Inghilterra, quanto più belle sono per la musica e per le voci, altrettanto sono storpiate per la poesia. Il nostro Rolli che nel principio della formazione della presente Reale Accademia ebbe l’incombenza di comporle, ne fece due assai buone, ma essendosi poi imbrogliato coi Direttori, questi presero al loro servizio un tal Haym Romano suonatore di violoncello, uomo nelle belle lettere affatto idiota, e dall’orchestra passando arditamente in Parnaso, sono già tre anni che egli accomoda o per meglio dire, fa peggiori i libretti vecchi già ordinariamente cattivi, de’ quali si servono i maestri di Capella che compongono le opere, alla riserva del nostro buon Bononcini il quale ha fatto venire le sue da Roma, composte da alcuni scolari del Gravina. Se il suo amico vuol mandare, deve avvertire che si vogliono pochi recitativi in Inghilterra, trent’arie ed un duetto almeno, distribuite nei tre atti. Il soggetto dev’essere semplice, tenero, eroico, Romano, Greco o Persiano ancora, non mai Gotico o Longobardo. Per quest’anno e per gli altri due avvenire, bisogna che nelle opere vi siano due parti eguali per la Cuzzoni e la Faustina. Senesino è il primo personaggio da uomo e la sua parte dev’essere eroica. Le altre tre parti per uomo debbono andare gradatamente tre uno per uno in ciascun’atto. Il duetto dovrebbe essere alla fine del secondo atto e fra le due donne. Se il soggetto portasse tre donne, può servire perchè ve n’è una terza. Se la Duchessa di Marleborough, che dà 500 sterline l’anno al Bononcini, vorrà contentarsi che egli dia una sua opera all’Accademia, questa sarà l’Andromaca, quasi una traduzione della Raciniana, ma senza la morte di Pirro, accomodata per un dramma assai bene. Da questa l’amico suo potrà prendere un’idea delle opere che possono in Inghilterra servire. Intanto se egli vuole mandare un dramma, io procurerò di servirlo e se è di buon gusto, come non ne dubito, si vedrà d’impegnarlo per un pajo. Il pacchetto potrebbe raccomandarsi ai nostri israeliti che hanno corrispondenza in Amsterdamo, affinchè lo pongano in qualche ballotto di seta e mi sia consegnato nel mio passaggio se dovrò di nuovo rivedere gli ultimi divisi.[59]

The operas which are given in England, however fine as music, and however well sung, are nevertheless ruined by their poetry. Our friend Rolli who, when the present Academy was formed, was commissioned to write the librettos, began by producing two very good ones, but he then quarrelled with the directors, and they then took into their employment a certain Haym, a Roman violoncellist, a man who was little short of an idiot as far as literature was concerned. Deserting the orchestra for the slopes of Parnassus, he has for the last three years employed himself in adapting a number of old librettos for the use of the composers who write operas for the English stage, making still worse what was bad before. Our friend, Bononcini, however, has been an exception. He has got his librettos from Rome, where they were written by certain pupils of Gravina. If your friend thinks of sending a specimen of his work here, I must warn him that in England people like very few recitatives, thirty airs and one duet at least distributed over the three acts. The subject must be simple, tender, heroic— Roman, Greek or possibly Persian, but never Gothic or Lombard. For this year, and for the next two, there must be two equal parts in the operas for Cuzzoni and Faustina. Senesino takes the principal male character and his part must be heroic. The other three male parts should be arranged proportionally song for song in all three acts. The duet should be at the end of the second act, and entrusted to the two women. If the subject demands three women, a third woman may be employed, as there is a third singer here to take the part. If the Duchess of Marlborough, who gives £500 a year to Bononcini, will allow him to give the Academy an opera, it will be “Andromaca,” which is almost a translation of Racine’s drama, omitting the death of Pyrrhus, cleverly turned into an opera libretto. From it your friend can get an idea of the sort of opera which is popular in England. Meanwhile, if he likes to send a libretto, I will see that it reaches the proper hands, and if it should happen to suit one of our composers, which I do not doubt, I will see that the payment is guaranteed. The packet should be sent to our Jew correspondents in Amsterdam, so that they can pack it in some bale of silk, and hand it over to me as I pass through, in case I should again have cause to revisit the ultimi divisi (i. e., the English).[60]

 

 

 

[Giuseppe Riva to Muratori, 1725]

 

In spite of my desire to carry out your wishes, I fear I can be of

no use in the matter of the opera which you propose to send me by the

post, since our composers have chosen their librettos for the coming

season and are already at work upon them. It will be difficult, too, to

get anything accepted for another year, as the Academy has its own

poet, and the operas that come from Italy cannot serve for this theatre.

They have to be reformed, or I should rather say deformed, in order to

bring them into the shape which the English public favours. Few verses

of recitative and many airs are the fashion here, and this is the reason

why none of the best operas of Sig. Apostolo has been performed here,

and that the two finest of Metastasio, that is to say “Didone” and

“Siroe,” have suffered the same fate. Besides, as it is, we have more

poets here than are wanted. Exclusive of the Academy’s poet, there

are Rolli and a certain Brillanti, of Pistoja, who is doing so well, that

all the others are idle, so it would be throwing good money away for

your friend to undertake a journey hither.[61]

 

 

 

Aug 31

We hear that the Royal Academey [sic] Musick, in the Hay Market, have contracted with famous Chauntress for 2500 l. who is coming over from Italy against the Winter.[62]

 

 

 

Sep 4

Signiora Faustina, a famous Italian Lady, is coming over this Winter to rival Signiora Cuzzoni; the Royal Academy of Musick has contracted with her for Two Thousand Five Hundred Pound.[63]

 

 

 

Sep 8

The famous Italian Singer, who is hired <to come> over hither to entertain his Majesty and the <Nobi>lity in the Operas, is called Signiora Faustina; <whose> Voice (as it is pretended) has not been yet <equall’d> in the World.[64]

 

 

 

Sep 16/27

Johann Mattheson, Hamburg Opera List

 

194. Tamerlan. Music vom Herrn Händel. Übersetzung vom Hn. Praetorius. Vor dieser Opera wurde ein Prologus, auf die Königl. Frantzösische Vermählung, gemacht. Die Music desselben war vom Hn. Telemann, die Poesie vom Hn. Praetorius.[65]

Tamerlan. Music by Herr Händel. Translation by Herr Praetorius. On the occasion of the marriage of the King of France, a Prologue was performed before the opera: the music was by Herr Telemann, the poem by Herr Praetorius.[66]

 

 

 

Sep 17

[September 17, 1725]

Inside the Palace inclosure are the two chapels, one of

these, the Royal Chapel, being in no manner remarkable. Here

the King attends divine service every Sunday and Feast-day. The

service is entirely musical, some of the laymen having superb [27]

voices; they are aided by a dozen or so of chorister-boys and by

some very excellent musicians, the whole formino, a delightful

symphony, and what is not sung is intoned by the clergy. [...]

[28 ...]

The Prince of Wales is about forty-three. He is taller than

his father, his figure well-proportioned, and he is not as stout; his

eyes are very prominent. He looks serious and even grave, and is

always richly dressed, being fond of fine clothes. I am told the [29]

Prince is not as kindly as his father, and he is not as popular,

being very hasty and easily angered.

The Princess of Wales is about forty-one years of age, and

is of the House of Brandenburg-Anspach. She has been one of the

most beautiful princesses in Europe, but has grown too stout. She

is witty and well-read, and speaks four or five different

languages, and she is gracious and amiable, besides being very

charitable and kind; but the enemies of the House of Hanover

complain that she is too economical. When the King and his son

disagreed, and the latter was ordered to leave the Palace, the King

did all in his power to persuade the Princess to remain with him,

but she would not, and insisted on following her husband.

The Prince and Princess of Wales have seven children [...]

Princess Anne is very pale,

and would be good-looking were she not marked with smallpox.[67]

 

 

 

[September]

Preface to the Libretto of Tamerlan

 

Doch hat eine illustre persohn durch geschickte composition der parthie des Bajazeths eine abermahlige probe ihrer vertu ablegen wollen. Das recitativ hat zwar der music nach bey der uebersetzung durch einen berühmten mann geändert werden müssen, doch sind in dem 10. auftritt der 3ten handlung einige zeilen unverändert in italienis. sprache und nach der Hendelischen composition beybehalten worden, weil worte und music gar zu schön auch dem affect ein grosses abgehen dürffte, im fall die uebersetzung dem original nicht gleich käme.[68]

 

 

 

Nov 13 NS

[Owen Swiney, Bologna, to Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond,

13 November 1725 N.S.

 

In eight days after my return, to this place, from

Leghorn, I was Honoured with your letter of September

23d. Old Style &c.

It gave me much comfort, and had it not been for

it, I shou’d most certainly, have given up the Ghost under

the oppressive weights of Academical affairs, which seem

to be carried on, with such a Non Chalence that nothing

can ensue, but a dissolution: and it seems to me that

nothing else is Expected.

Your Graces activity and spirit has rouz’d my hopes;

and if Messrs. de L’academie, will second you; This

affair will most certainly, take another turn: and which

will shew it selfe, before the End of the Season.

I am, sometimes, neglected for months together: at

others, I receive Two letters in the same pacquet: in the

following ones, I am forbidden to execute what the former

ones commanded me; and (in short) I receive so many

contradictory orders, That (were I not of that ancient

Kingdom) [Ireland] ’twou’d be impossible to obey ’em all.

I hope before this kisses your Graces hands Il

Signor Luigi Antinori will be arrived: He comes with the

worst recommendation that ever man Entred England with

viz: A Tenour Voice &c. I shall never believe this,

’till they throw out of the Musickroom the instrument

call’d a Violoncello: for it consists of no other Tones

but, (tho’ I understand nothing of Musick) the Tenour the

Baritone, and the Basso, which I am caution’d from

Medling with. The unnatural Jumps and Skips which most of

the Tenours in Italy have lately taken (and, it may be,

Borosini in England) from the Top to the bottom of their

Voice, has occasion’d this prejudice &c. but I hope that

as Religion is not to be condemn’d for having some

Rakehell’s of its’ profession, so, likewise, Musick may not

suffer from the insults of a few boisterous & bellowing [359]

Stentors.

Your Grace will do Musick, in generall, a piece

of Service, by protecting this young Fellow Antinori;

and will thereby evidence to the World that ’tis the

Manner of Singing, or playing upon an instrument, that

shews the Skill and Elegance of the performer, and not

meerly the Tones of the Voice or Instrument.

’Tis not possible for a Man (I mean an Irish one)

to do more, in ye execution of his office, than I have

done, in Mine, since Messrs. de L’academie have done me

the Honour to employ me in their Service. &c. &c. &c.

[…]

On my return to Venice … I shall return an

answer to Messrs. de L’academies letter of September 24th

1725.

 

P.S. The two inclosed letters were delivered me by Count

Fagionini, your Grace’s acquaintance in Bologna. One is,

from himselfe, to you, the answer of which, I hope, you’l

send, under my cover to Venice. The other is from Count

Cicinio Pepoli, to Sandoni, the Cuzzoni’s Husband: and I

suppose is in answer to a letter written by him to Count

Pepoli, which is to alarm Messrs. de L’academie about the

Cuzzoni’s being call’d to Vienna, Italy &c.

This is all Trick & Grimace, and Italian Trick &

Grimace.

I must, once more, recommend to your Graces favour

& protection Il Signor Maurino of Parma: He is, certainly,

the best Man, in Europe, for the direction of a Musick

room: and if He costs you no more than your first Fiddle,

I think you ought to jump at him: besides the doing a

Service to the academy (by taking him) ’twill lay a very

great obligation on La Signora Faustina Bordoni, who

likewise (under her Sign Manual of October 20th from

Vienna) begs it as a favour of your Grace &c.[69]

 

 

 

[Nov 10/21]

Johann Mattheson, Hamburg Opera List

 

197. Julius Caesar in Egypten. Music vom Hn. Händel. Übersetzung vom Hn. Secretaire Lediard.[70]

Julius Caesar in Egypt. Music by Herr Händel. Translation by Herr Secretär Lediard.[71]

 

 

 

Nov 12

Friday 7-Night came on the Election of an Organist of St. George’s, Hanover-Square; and the Salary being settled at 45 l. per Annum, there were seven Candidates, viz. Mr. Rosengrave; Mr. Cole, Organist of the Chapel of the Royal Hospital of Chelsea, and of St. Mary Hill, London; Mr. Monro, Organist of St. Peter’s, Cornhill; Mr. Stanley, the ingenious blind Youth, aged Thirteenand an half, Organist of Allhallows, Bread-street; Mr. Centlivre, Organist of Oxford Chapel, near Oxford-Square; Mr. Sweet, Organist of the Chapel in Duke-street, Westminster; and Mr. Orbel, Organist of St. Bartholomew the Great in West-Smithfield: The Vestry, which consists of above thirty Lords and seventy Gentlemen, having appointed Dr. Crofts, Dr. Pepush, Mr. Bononcini, and Mr. Giminiani, to be Judges which of the Candidates perform’d best; each of them composed a Subject to be carry’d on by the said Candidates in the Way of Fugeing, and one Hour was allowed for every one to play upon the four Subjects so appointed, one not to hear another, unless himself had done before: Only the four first perform’d, and all of them very masterly: In the Conclusion the Judges gave it for the famous Mr. Rosengrave, who made that Way of Performance his Study a great Part of his Life; and he was accordingly chosen.[72]

 

 

 

Nov 30 NS

[Owen Swiney, Venice, to Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond,

30 November 1725 N.S.]

 

I hope this letter comes to give you joy on your

Election to the Honour of Sub-Governour to the Royal

Academy &c. I wish it, most heartily, for my own sake,

as well as that of all the Lovers of Musick in England. [360]

There is matter enough to exercise the talents of

our new Directors &c. in my letter to the Academy, of

to day. But I fear, if your Grace does not rouze ’em

a little, they’l fall into their usual lethargy.

I hope you will see that Fair play be given to

the opera’s, I send over, this year: for upon this one

thing depends, the future good successe of the Theatre

in the Hay Market.

What I have written about Cavaliere Nicolino & the

Woman I mentioned is the genuine opinion of one that has

very much at heart the true Interest of the academy: Two

such persons are absolutely necessary, in such a company

as ought to be entertain’d by a Royal Academy of Musick.

The Faustina puts me in mind of writing once more

to you about Signor Mauro. If this thing be possible to be

done, pray do it; you’l, in the first place, lay an

eternal obligation on her, and next you’l give the

academy one of the best Fiddles in Europe. ’Tis no just

excuse to say that Messrs. de Academy doe not want such a

one; ’tis a Mistake, they most certainly do; for ’tis,

greatly, their Interest to make room for all good performers

of any kind: and I hope they’l shew they mean to

carry on the businesse of the Theatre for the future,

without partiality. [Pietro] Castrucci’s Friends will be

again it, may be; for this very reason, the true lovers

of Musick, and the Directors (who in such cases ought to

be impartial) shou’d be for bringing in a Master of such

consequence.

The refusal of him may frighten and discourage

others from making the like attempt: there are a thousand

things to be said for accepting, and not one reasonable

one again it, and so I leave him to God’s and your Grace’s

Mercy.

 

P.S. Pray forgive me for sending Sandoni’s letter under

your Graces cover; but I cou’d not avoid it, since Count

Fagionini recommended it so very much to my care: if you

answer the Counts letter pray send it inclosed in your

letter to me.[73]

 

 

 

Dec 6–11

Last Week there was held a Free Mason’s Lodge

at Greenwich; Present his Grace the Duke of

Richmond, Grand Master; when, among others,

Mr. Heyddigger of the Hay-Market, was admitted

a Member of that Society.[74]

 

 

 

Dec 21 NS

[Owen Swiney, Venice, to Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond,

21 December 1725 N.S.]

 

I hope your Grace will find, by the inclosed papers,

that I am intirely innocent of the charges brought against

me in your Graces letter of November 5th.

If I am not acquitted, Honourably, by the Board of [361]

Directors I declare my selfe unqualyfyed for serving

’em any longer: and I beg your Grace wou’d not take it

amisse if I refuse accepting their Employ on any other

terms.

Mr. Secretary Haym is (I fear) a great R[asca]l,

all the charges brought against me, having been taken

out of his letters.

My innocence is my defence: because I have to deal

with a Sett of Gentlemen, full of Honour and discernment.

I troubled your Grace too much, in three sheets of

paper, to begin with you again, in this, therefore I give

you Quarter.

I must desire your Grace to order Matters, so as,

that Signor Mauro D’alay may be call’d to London: I need

not tell you that (by doing it) you’l lay a great obligation

on the Signora Faustina, and do a piece of Service

to the Academy by bringing into it, one of the cleaverest

Men of his profession.[75]

 

 

 

Dec 13

The Suffolk Mercury; or, St. Edmunds-Bury Post

 

Notice is hereby given, That on Friday the 17th of this Instant December, Cluer and Creake’s Second Pocket Volume of Opera Songs, will be published and delivered to Subscribers. It is in a larger Size than the first, the Musick is legible as any Half-sheet Song, and the Collection is the best that ever was made, for there is not one Song in the Book but what is approved of by Mr. Handel.[76]

 

 

 

Dec 17

List of music Books given to the Philo Musicae et Architecturae Societas by William Gulston

                  One Large Book bound in red Calves Leather and Gilt Containing The Opera’s of Rinaldo Etearco Hydaspes et Almahide.

                  Three Books bound in Sky Marbled Paper Containing the Symphony to Sd Opera’s.

                  The Opera’s of Camilla Thomyris—Clotilda Stiched.

                  The Symphonys to Said Opera’s also Stiched.[77]

 

 

 

Dec 28 NS

[Owen Swiney, Venice, to Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond,

28 December 1725 N.S.]

 

The Theatre of St. Gio: Chrysostomo opened (the day

before yesterday) with the opera of Siphace: set to

Musick by Signor Porpora.

The Musick is excellent; and commended by every body

of a True Taste.

The Masters of Musick: Their Protectors & adherents

(a very Numerous body of people) are sworn Enemies to it;

or, rather, to the composer of it, who is look’d upon, by

’em, as a Foreigner, or an interloper.

The book, in its’ selfe, is not a bad one: But the

principal Characters are vicious: consequently, the

compassion of the audience can never be stirr’d up in

their Favour so that all Songs of tendernesse &c. are lost

and flung away upon ’em: I mention this as a Warning to

the person or persons, who have the management or the

recommendation of books to the academy.

This opera was Acted about Thirty years agoe in

Venice under the Title of la Forza della Virtù: & is the

Clotilde perform’d, in London, 15 years since. [362]

Several Alterations have been made, in it; but I

think, much for the worse.

Nicolino & The Romanina act mighty well: and

Paita; both sings and acts, in it, prodigiously: He is,

without doubt, the First Man, in Italy, for a delicacy

in singing.

Nothing good can be expected from the Theatres of

St. Angelo and Cassano: In the former is one Signora

Costanza Pusterla: Her person & action, very, passable,

but with a small voice. In that of St. Cassano, is one

Signora Zanuchi--a beautifull Figure, in mens cloaths:

Acts well: does not sing amiss: but her voice is

indifferent.

In about fifteen days, I shall send away the opera

of Vinceslao written out fairly &c.

I hope Messrs. de L’academie will order their

Secretary to send me a (Weekly) account of the successe

of their opera’s this Winter: This thing may be of great

service to ’em.

And if they think fit to Employ me another year, I

desire that all the opera books that have been acted

(since the beginning) may be sent to me: with a List of

the Songs made use of in London, which have been, at any

time, taken out of opera’s performed in Italy.

This may prevent a great many blunders, which will

be unavoidable, by any other Method.[78]

 

 

 

Dec 18

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present, Saturday, being the 18th of December, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be delivered out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, and no more than Three Hundred and Fifty will be given out, at Half a Guinea each; but if any Tickets are remaining after the Doors are opened, they will be delivered at the first Bar, and no where else. Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin exactly at Six a-Clock.[79]

 

 

 

Dec 18

SIR,

YOU are better able to judge than

me, whether the following undigested

Thoughts deserve a Place

in your Paper or not.

Musick is so generally approv’d

of in England, that it is look’d

upon a want of Breeding not to be affected by it,

insomuch that every Member of the Beau Monde at

this Time either do, or, at least, think it necessary

to appear as if they did understand it; and, in

order to carry on this Deceit, it is requisite every

one, who has the Pleasure of thinking himself a

fine Gentleman, should, being first laden with a

Competency of Powder and Essence, make his

personal Appearance every Opera Night at the

Haymarket, tho’ not less ignorant of the Performance

than of the Language it is perform’d in.

I do not mean to exclude every one who hath not

Judgment in this Science, from the Enjoyment

of it, but would imply, that were it equally

fashionable to have our Operas in English, these

Gentlemen might find, at least, as good an

Entertainment.

I am an old Stager in this Art, and tho’ I have

the Dissatisfaction of seeing the Viol, to which I

have serv’d a thirty Years Apprenticeship; excluded

our modern [Musick], yet am I so obstinate to think it has

its Charms, and so far from approving of this Way

of confining Musick to two or three Inst[r]uments,

that, I think, a certain Master deserves Thanks

of the musical World for introducing, in one of

his late Operas, the Welsh Harp, which, for

many Reasons, merits great Encouragement, giving

to the Performer a peculiar Grace; and, as it is

compleat, so in Harmony to none inferior.

Tho’ I am this old fashion’d Lover, yet I

cannot but acknowledge our present Operas give me

vast Delight, whither I often go and wait contented,

if my early coming will afford me a first Row

in the Gallery, the Pit being an Extravagance

too weighty for my Pocket, and, if I may judge

from two or three Ladies of my Acquai[n]tance

(whose constant Attendance draws them, I fear,

into some Inconvenience,) for abundance, who

appear there very gay, tho’ they don’t well know

where to match the half Guinea they expended

for their Ticket.

In the midst of those Raptures which the two

first Songsters give me, I ever feel a sort of

Resentment rise that damps my former Satisfaction,

proceeding from the Fondness which I have for

Musick, and the Love I bear my Country: When

I consider on what Foot we meet at a Royal

Academy, where one might justly think of finding

the sweetest Voices our Nation could produce,

where one might hope to hear our choicest

Instruments in friendly Emulation at once contending

and improving; would not the Disappointment

make one smile to meet with no Performers

but Italians on our Stage, whilst the Orchestra

scarcely would [admit] an Englishman?

Since Musick now is rais’d to such Perfection

here; since England now may boast the greatest

Genius of the World, whom she may call her

own, fit to preside at this Academy (gloriously

design’d, how much, alas, misus’d since nothing

but a Name!) ’tis pity sure we should remain but

Tributaries still to Rome: Were this Fund

employ’d in chusing out, instructing and adapting,

for the Stage, our finest Voices, they might keep

back on the other Side the Alps their Musick, we

in this Isle our Gold.

To hire Voices from abroad at an immense

Expence, from Year to Year, when our Nation

might, at half the Charge, supply us with a

never-failing Stock; and had they just Encouragement,

in no Respect Inferior, is as absurd as if a

Man should pay, for a small Term of Years in an

Estate, a greater Sum than what would buy the

Freehold.

Being on this Subject, it may not be improper

here to add a Word concerning what our Men of

the high Taste are so much pleas’d with, what is

call’d a Manner in Playing, since it has given me

so frequently Offence; and this is changing, for

how much the worse is not material, the whole

Piece set before one, and avoiding, as a Barbarism

in Musick, the playing one Note as the

Composer has design’d it: Now tho’ there may be some

additional Beauties thrown into a Composition by

a skillful Hand, yet for each Novice to obtrude

his Whims into a Work of such a Master as

Corelli, is no less modest than if Mr. ———— the

Coach-Painter, should attempt to touch up a

Cartoon of Raphael. To hear an elegant and

labour’d Piece of Harmony contriv’d, by its

Solemnity, to introduce the lighter Air with Force and

Beauty, mangled and subdivided at the Caprice

of every ignorant Pretender, brings to my Mind

the Simile of an arch Friend of mine, who

compar’d this sort of Player to the cleanly Woman

that swept something (which, for Decency sake,

I shall forbear to Name) about her House till she

had lost it; and I should willingly assign to the

ingenious Performer the same Reward, for his

unseasonable Vivacity, that the King of Poland

conferr’d on the late famous Lutanist Mr. Abel, for his

ill-tim’d Sullenness.[80]

 

[Elizabeth Gibson: “Although this letter has not been

discovered in any of the collected essays of Daniel Defoe,

the style of writing resembles that of Defoe, and several

of the author’s suggestions reappear in Defoe’s proposal

of 1728 to establish an ‘English’ Academy of Music.”]

 

 

 

Dec 21

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 21st of December, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be delivered out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, and no more than Three Hundred and Fifty will be given out, at Half a Guinea each; but if any Tickets are remaining after the Doors are opened, they will be delivered at the first Bar, and no where else. Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin exactly at Six a-Clock.[81]

 

 

 

Dec 23

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Thursday, being the 23d of December, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be delivered out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day, [and] no more than Three Hundred and Fifty will be given out, at Half a Guinea each; but if any Tickets are remaining after the Doors are opened, they will be delivered at the first Bar, and no where else. Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin exactly at Six a-Clock.[82]

 

 

 

Dec 23

This Day is publish’d,

Cluer and Creak’s Second Pocket Volume of Opera Songs, which is in a much larger Size than the First Volume, and the Musick as legible as any in Folio, the Collection the best that ever was made. Note, If Mr. Fraser should ever publish his Book, Cluer and Creake will within 30 Days after engrave, print, and publish it at 5 s. This Day they will will [sic] publish their Second Pack of Musical Playing Cards, with an intire new Song on each Card, and most of them transpos’d for the Flute. Sold by J. Cluer in Bow Church-yard; B. Creake at the Bible in Jermyn-street, St. James’s; and by A. Campbell at the Printing-house in New Palace Yard, Westminster. Sold also by the Musick Shops.[83]

 

 

 

Dec 27

Yesterday was held, at Merchant-Taylors Hall, the

Annual Feast of the most ancient Society of the Free

and Accepted Masons, where, as the Appearance was

very splendid, and compos’d of a very great Number of

Persons of the greatest Quality and Distinction, the

Entertainment was every ways suitable to the Occasion: Mr.

Heidegger, who, as Grand Steward, directed it, having

shewn uncommon Elegance and good Parts in every

Part of it, and caus’d it to be serv’d with a Regularity

and Order not often seen in Things of that Sort. After

Dinner, the Grand Officers for the ensuing Year were

declar’d, and entred upon their Office accordingly, viz.

The Right Hon. the Lord Paisley, Grand Master.

Dr. J. T. Desaguliers, Deputy Master.

Coll. Daniel Haughton

and

sir Philip Pendegrass, Bart.[84]

 

Grand Wardens.

 

 

 

 

Dec 28

AT the King’s Theatre in the Hay-Market, this present Tuesday, being the 28th of December, will be perform’d, An Opera call’d, RODELINDA. Tickets will be delivered out at the Office in the Hay-Market, this Day; no more than Three Hundred and Fifty will be given out at Half a Guinea each, but if any Tickets are remaining after the Doors are opened, they will be delivered at the first Bar, and no where else. Gallery 5 s. No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. To begin exactly at Six a-Clock.[85]

 

 

 

1725

[John Walsh and John and Joseph Hare publish]

 

Six Overtures for Violins in alt their Parts as they were perform’ d at the Kings Theatre in the Operas of Floridant Flavius Otho Radamistus Muzio Scaevola Acis & Galatea the 2d. Collection. … Six Overtures for Violins in all their Parts as they were perform’d at the Kings Theatre in the Operas of Theseus Amadis Pastor Fido The Pastoral The Water Musick Julius Caesar the 3d. Collection.…[86]

 

 

 

1725

[John Walsh and Joseph Hare publish]

 

Solos for a German Flute a Hoboy or Violin with a Thorough Bass for the Harpsicord or Bass Violin Being all Choice pieces Compos’d by Mr. Handel Curiously fitted to the German Flute. Part ye 3d.[87]

 

 

 

1725

Johann Mattheson, Critica Musica

 

1.

Was treibet mich zu tichten an?

   Und was erreget meine Sinnen?

Bist du es Weltberühmter Mann?

   Bist du es Preiß der Pierinnen?

Des Kunst und seltne Trefflichkeit

   Aus diesem Winckel Teutscher Erden

   Damit du mögst bewundert werden

Mich reitzet so viel Meilen weit

   Nach deinem Hamburg hinzuschwingen

   Und dich auch einmahl zu besingen.

 

2.

So weit geht der Gedancken Flug:

   Was aber gleichet deinen Schrifften?

Die gantze Welt spricht: daß ihr Druck

   Dir muß ein ewig Denckmahl stifften.

Der Teutschen und der Britten Land

   Der Dähnen Reich der kalte Norden

   Sind voll von deinem Lobe worden

Wem ist nicht Mattheson bekannt

   Durch den zu jedermannsVergnügen

   Der Musen Thon-Kunst ist gestiegen.

 

 

4.

Was Kayser und ein Händel setzt

   In so viel hundert Meister-Stücken

Wodurch uns Telemann ergötzt

   Wenn Er will das Gehör entzücken

Das legest du zum Unterricht

   In wohlgegründten Sätz und Schlüssen

   So dir aus deiner Feder fliessen

Vollkomner Mann ans Tagelicht:

   Das weißt du aber auch zu lehren

   Die welche dich selbst können hören.

 

Dieses setzte aus schuldigstem Respect

Seinem Freunde zu Ehren

Gottfried Ephraim Scheibel. Wr.Sil.

 

Ich will dir den Mutium Scaevolam vorhalten: du weist wer ihn componirt hat. Da findest du eine schöne Melodie vieleicht von einer fremden Feder auf welcher die damals unter Händen gewesene Worte sich etwa nicht anders haben passen wollen als daß man das adjectivum von seinem Substantivo, mittelst einer merklichen Pause und mit Zuthuung einer förmlichen Cadenz hat absondern müssen. Care gioie sind die Wörter welchen dieses Unrecht wiederfahren in einer Aria die mit dem Worte Spero anfängt. Denke weiter nach. Ich schone wie gesagt der Personen; sonst sollte es an keinen Exempeln bey allen fehlen.

 

Ein anders aus London vom 29 Oct. A. St. 1724.

Die allerneuste von dem Weltberühmten Herrn Capellmeister Händel verfertigte Opera heisset: Tamerlanes, und soll den 11 Nov. auf dem hiesigen Heumarktischen Schau-Platz zum ersten mal vorgestellet werden.

 

Unnöthig ist es die practicos von der Bibliothek auszuschliessen weil sie den theoreticis gar keinen Schaden sondern vielmehr die Ehre bringen daß jene derselben Vorschrifften gefolget sind. Unbillig aber ist es so viele vortreffliche Leute samt ihren Namen und öffentlich-gedruckten Werken der ewigen Vergessenheit zu übergeben aus Ursachen weil ihre Arbeit nun nicht mehr Mode ist: denn eben diese Ursache kann ich auch von den alten theoreticis in den meisten Stücken geben ja es ist aus manchem practico antiquo mehr zu fassen als aus dem besten theoretico contemporaneo. Wenigstens verdienet die verschiedene An und Weise zu componiren eine genauere Aufmerksamkeit gibt auch mehr Licht in der Historie als alle mangelhaffte Beschreibungen praecepta trivialia, millies recocta. Die berühmtesten Musici in der Welt sind practici gewesen: in den Bibliothecis, Hispana, Sicula &c. machen sie auch wahrlich den grössesten numerum aus wenn man sie recht einsiehet: ey warum solten sie denn nicht ihren Platz in einer Bibliotheca musica behaupten? der den Correlli einer Ehren-Säule würdig schätzt wird ihm auch leicht ein Räumlein auf seinem Bücher-Borte gönnen. Keiser Händel Teleman etc. haben noch bisher für unnöhtig erachtet speculationes drukken zu lassen und ich setze den Fall sie erachteten es noch ferner für unnöhtig weil ihnen die reiche praxis besser anstehet: wer wolte diese grosse Männer deswegen nicht mit in seine Bibliotheck setzen da sie doch mit öffentlichen ansehnlichen Zeugnissen ihrer virtù prangen und ihre Namen dadurch würklich verewiget haben? Ich versichere inzwischen von jedem derselben ja von den meisten obangeführten wo nicht mehr doch wenigstens so viel zu melden als z. E. in der Bibliotheca Barberina von dem besten darin genannten Auctore zu finden ist. Und das kann genug seyn.

 

Nebst dieser Grabschrifft führet unser voyageur noch eine andre an von dem Doctore Blow, als dem Lehrmeister des Purcels, und sagt ausdrücklich: er habe damit beweisen wollen daß Purcel kein Franzose; sondern ein Engländer gewesen. Dieses Argument schliesset eben so als wenn ich sagte: Hurlebusch hat in Italien die Composition gelernet; derohalben ist er kein Braunschweiger. Oder Händel hat ein Te Deum in Engländischer Sprache verfertiget; ergo ist er kein Häller. Oder der Admiral Tordenschild ist zu Hannover begraben darum kan er kein Däne seyn. Argumenta, a Schola & a Sepultura desumta, non probant veram Patriam.

 

Wir Teutschen nur haben solchen närrischen Ekel vor unserm Vaterlande daß es gleich als ein besondrer Ehrentitel da stehen muß wenn etwa einer von unsern Landsleuten das Glück oder Unglück gehabt hat wieder Wissen und Willen zu Rom in der Wiegen zu liegen. Andre Völcker erweisen ihrem Vaterlande mehr Ehre.

Pourcel, (so schreibt ihn mein Gegner und ich glaube es sey recht) ist ein Französischer oder Niederländischer Name. Ein Engländer kan ihn so nicht aussprechen er sage denn Paurcel: darum haben sie auch Purcel daraus gemacht so wie aus Hendel Händel.

Pourcel is a French name. An Englishman cannot pronounce it so, unless he says Paurcel, hence they have made Purcel out of it, just as Handel out of Hendel.

 

Was sonsten noch für Anmerkungen vorkommen als daß auf der St. Magnus-Orgel in London so genannte schwellende Register zu finden deren Ton immer stärker wird je länger man ihn aushält; daß Herr Robinson der Organist besagter Magnus-Kirche für den besten durch ganz England gehalten wird; daß Händel beym Abgang des Pedals mit einem Stück Bley die tiefen Claves im Manual beleget &c. ist mitzunehmen und theils sehr bekannt.

 

XVIII.

Im vorigen Stücke hat man nun des Herrn Fuxens endliche Meynung gesehen: denn weiter ist nichts erfolget. Der Herr Capellmeister Händel aber singt aus einem ganz andern Ton, in folgendem galanten Briefe:

 

 

The final intention of Herr Fux [for a contribution to Mattheson’s Ehrenpforte (“Roll of Honour”)] is seen in the former section, since nothing further has followed. The Capellmeister Händel, however, sings on quite another note, in the following courteous letter:

[Here follows Handel’s letter to Mattheson, 24th February 1719.]

 

                  Hochgeehrter Herr,

Sie haben mich, durch ihr Schreiben vom 21. dieses, so verbindlich genöthiget, ihnen, auf die beyden angetragenen Stücke, ein völligers Genügen zu leisten, als in meinen vorigen geschehen, daß ich nicht umhin kan hiemit zu erklären, wie sich meine Meinung überhaupt mit der ihrigen vergleiche in demjenigen, was Sie, wegen der Solmisation und Griechischen Modorum, in ihrem Buche so wohl ausgeführet und bewiesen haben. Die Frage kömt, wo mir recht ist, hauptsächlich hierauf an: ob man eine leichtere und vollkommenere Lehr-Art einer andern vorziehen soll, die mit vielen Schwürigkeiten vergesellschafftet und so beschaffen ist, daß sie nicht nur die musicalischen Scholaren sehr abschreckt; sondern eine Verschwendung der kostbaren Zeit verursachet, welche man viel besser anwenden kan, diese Kunst zu ergründen, und seine natürliche Gaben, mit allem Fleiß, auszuüben? Ich will nun zwar nicht sagen, daß man gar keinen Nutzen aus der so genannten Solmisation haben könne; weil wir aber eben denselben Vortheil, in viel kürzerer Zeit, durch diejenige bequeme Lehr-Art, der man sich itzo mit so vielem Fortgange bedienet, erhalten mögen, so kan ich nicht absehen, warum man nicht einen Weg wehlen sollte, der uns viel leichter und geschwinder, als ein andrer, zum vorgesetzten Ziele führet? Was die Griechischen Modos betrifft, so finde ich, daß MH Hr. davon alles gesagt hat, was nur zu sagen ist. Ihre Erkäntniß ist ohne Zweifel denen nöthig, welche die alte Music treiben und aufführen wollen, die ehmals nach solchen Modis gesetzet worden ist; weil man sich aber von den engen Schrancken der alten Music nunmehro befreyet hat, so kan ich nicht absehen, welchen Nutzen die Griechischen Modi in der heutigen Music haben. Das sind so meine Gedancken hierüber, und wird mir M Hr. einen Gefallen thun, wenn er mir meldet, ob sie mit demjenigen überein stimmen, so von mir verlanget worden.

                  Anlangend das andre Stück, so können Sie selber leicht urtheilen, daß viel Sammlens dazu erfordert werde, wozu ich itzo, bey vorhabenden dringenden Geschäfften, unmöglich Rath zu schaffen weiß. So bald ich mich aber ein wenig heraus gewickelt habe, will ich mich auf die merckwürdigsten Zeiten und Vorfälle, so ich in meiner Profession erlebet habe, wiederum besinnen, um Ihnen dadurch zu zeigen, daß ich die Ehre habe mit sonderbarer Hochachtung zu seyn

Meines Hochgeehrten Herrn

gehorsamst-ergebner Diener.

Georg Friederich Händel.

London den 24. Febr. 1709.

 

XIX.

Dieses werthe Schreiben, darin so viel Wahrheit, als Vernunfft, zu finden, erhielt ich den 14. Merz 1719. und beantwortete es mit grossem Vergnügen noch eben denselben Post-Abend. Wir sehen hieraus den ungezwungenen Beyfall eines der grössesten Capellmeister in der Welt, der, nebst seiner ungemeinen musicalischen Wissenschafft, gar feine andre Studia hat, verschiedene Sprachen in höchster Vollenkommenheit besitzet, die Welt, und absonderlich die musicalische in Italien, trefflich kennet, und also gar wohl weiß, wie die Schlacken vom Golde zu unterscheiden sind. Wir sehen ferner hieraus, daß sich derselbe so günstig erbietet, seinen Antheil zur Ehren-Pforte beyzutragen, und verspricht, so bald er nur, von damaliger Einrichtung der Music-Academie, ein wenig Zeit gewinnet, an der Beschreibung seines Lebens (welches gewiß voller Ehre und Belohnung, und eines der rühmlichsten seyn muß,) zu arbeiten; ungeachtet uns diese Hoffnung nun schon über 6. Jahr vergebens geschmeichelt hat: wiewohl endlich zu vermuthen stehet, daß der vortreffliche Mann sich, bey Erblickung dieser Arbeit, vielleicht seiner Zusage erinnern, und durch deren Erfüllung andere anfrischen, werde.[88]

 

                  I received this estimable note, in which is to be found as much truth as discernment, on 14th March 1719, and answered it with the greatest pleasure by return of post. We see from it the spontaneous approval of one of the greatest Capellmeister in the world, who, besides his uncommon musical learning, has other elegant Studia, has a perfect command of different languages, knows the world, and particularly the musical world of Italy, excellently, and hence knows very well how dross is to be discerned from gold. Furthermore we see from it that he offers so graciously to contribute his share to the Ehrenpforte, and promises to work at the description of his life (which must be full of honour and reward, and one of the most praiseworthy) as soon as he can gain a little time from the work, which he gave in those days, of establishing the Academy of Music; although this hope has already flattered us in vain for over 6 years, the supposition remains that the admirable man, in seeing this essay, will perhaps remember his promise, and through the fulfilment of it revive the memory of others.[89]

 



[1] The Daily Courant, nr. 7243, Saturday 2 January 1725, [2].

[2] The Daily Courant, nr. 7243, Saturday 2 January 1725, [2].

[3] The Daily Courant, nr. 7245, Tuesday 5 January 1725, [2].

[4] The Daily Courant, nr. 7249, Saturday 9 January 1725, [2].

[5] The Daily Journal, no. 1241, Monday 11 January 1725, [2]; repr., William C. Smith, “Handeliana,” Music & Letters 31 (1950), 125-32: 131.

[6] Lowell Lindgren and Colin Timms, “The Correspondence of Agostino Steffani and Giuseppe Riva, 1720-1728, and Related Correspondence with J.P.F. von Schönborn and S.B. Pallavicini,” Royal Musical Association Research Chronicle 36 (2003), 1-174: 95.

[7] The Daily Courant, nr. 7255, Saturday 16 January 1725, [2].

[8] The Daily Courant, nr. 7257, Tuesday 19 January 1725, [2].

[9] Cassandra Brydges, Duchess of Chandos, 1670-1735: Life and Letters, ed. Rosemary O’Day (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2007), 189 (no. 195).

[10] The Daily Courant, nr. 7243, Saturday 23 January 1725, [2].

[11] The Daily Courant, nr. 7263, Tuesday 26 January 1725, [2].

[12] Lindgren and Timms, “Steffani,” 96-97.

[13] The Daily Courant, nr. 7269, Tuesday 2 February 1725, [2].

[14] The Daily Courant, nr. 7269, Tuesday 2 February 1725, [2].

[15] The Daily Courant, nr. 7273, Saturday 6 February 1725, [2].

[16] The Daily Courant, nr. 7275, Tuesday 9 February 1725, [2].

[17] Scottish Record Office, Clerk of Penicuik Deposit, GD 18/5023: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 215.

[18] The Daily Courant, nr. 7279, Saturday 13 February 1725, [2].

[19] The Daily Courant, nr. 7281, Tuesday 16 February 1725, [2].

[20] The Daily Courant, nr. 7281, Saturday 20 February 1725, [2].

[21] Deutsch, 178.

[22] The Daily Post, nr. [1688], Monday 22 February 1725, [2].

[23] The Daily Courant, nr. 7287, Tuesday 23 February 1725, [2].

[24] The Daily Courant, nr. 7289, Thursday 25 February 1725, [2].

[25] The Daily Courant, nr. 7291, Saturday 27 February 1725, [2].

[26] The Daily Courant, nr. 7293, Tuesday 2 March 1725, [2].

[27] The Daily Courant, nr. 7297, Saturday 6 March 1725, [2].

[28] The London Journal, no. ccxciii, Saturday 6 March 1724-5, 2.

[29] The Daily Courant, nr. 7299, Tuesday 9 March 1725, [2].

[30] The Daily Courant, nr. [7303], Saturday 13 March 1725, [2].

[31] The Daily Courant, nr. 7305, Tuesday 16 March 1725, [2].

[32] The Daily Courant, nr. 7309, Saturday 20 March 1725, [2].

[33] The London Journal, no. ccxcv, Saturday 20 March 1724-5, [5].

[34] The Daily Courant, nr. 7317, Tuesday 30 March 1725, [2].

[35] Bodleian Library, MS Add. A.271, f. 46: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 216.

[36] Translation by Andrew V. Jones (ed.), Georg Friedrich Händel, Rodelinda, Regina de’ Longobardi. Dramma per Musica in tre Atti, HWV 19 (Kassel et al.: Bärenreiter, 2002), XVII.

[37] The Daily Courant, nr. 7321, Saturday 3 April 1725, [2].

[38] The Daily Courant, nr. 7323, Tuesday 6 April 1725, [2].

[39] The Daily Post, nr. 1743, Tuesday 27 April 1725, [2].

[40] William C. Smith, “Handeliana,” Music & Letters 31 (1950), 125-32: 125.

[41] The Monthly Catalogue: being an Exact Account of all Books and Pamphlets published in April, M.DCC.XXIV , No. 13, p. 10; published as volume (London: John Wilford, 1725).

[42] West Sussex Record Office, Goodwood Ms 105/390: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 353-56.

[43] The London Journal, no. cci, Saturday 1 May 1725, [3].

[44] The Daily Post, nr. 1751, Thursday 6 May 1725, [2].

[45] Miscellaneous Poems, by John Byrom, M.A. F.R.S. sometime Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Inventor of the Universal English Short-hand, 2 vols. (Manchester: J. Harrop, 1773), 1:343–44.

[46] Deutsch, 181.

[47] The Daily Post, no. 1759, Saturday 15 May 1725, [2]; repr. The Daily Courant, no. 7359, Tuesday 18 May 1725, [2]; repr. Ilias Chrissochoidis, “Senesino’s Black Boy (1725),” The Handel Institute Newsletter 21/1 (Spring 2010), [7-8].

[48] The London Journal, nr. ccciii, Saturday 15 May 1725, [3].

[49] Deutsch, 182.

[50] Deutsch, 182.

[51] Händel Handbuch, 134–35.

[52] Deutsch, 183–84.

[53] The London Journal, nr. cccvii, Saturday 12 June 1725, [3].

[54] The Daily Journal, no. 1378, Wednesday 16 June 1725, [2].

[55] West Sussex Record Office, Goodwood Ms 105/391: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 357-58.

[56] The London Journal, no. cccx, Saturday 3 July 1725, [1]; repr. (slightly condensed version of the third paragraph from the end) Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 387-88.

[57] Deutsch, 184–85.

[58] The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany, ed, Lady Llanover, 3 vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1861), 1:117-18.

[59] Händel Handbuch, 135–36.

[60] R. A. Streatfeild, “Handel, Rolli, and Italian Opera in London in the Eighteenth Century,” The Musical Quarterly 3 (1917), 428-45: 433.

[61] R. A. Streatfeild, “Handel, Rolli, and Italian Opera in London in the Eighteenth Century,” The Musical Quarterly 3 (1917), 428-45: 434.

[62] The Daily Journal, nr. 1442, Tuesday 31 August 1725, [2].

[63] The London Journal, nr. cccxix, Saturday 4 September 1725, [2].

[64] Parker’s Penny Post, nr. [57], Wednesday 8 September 1725, [3].

[65] Händel Handbuch, 136.

[66] Deutsch, 187.

[67] A Foreign View of England in 1725-1729: The Letters of Monsieur Cesar De Saussure to his Family, transl. ed. Madame van Muyden (London: Caliban, 1995; orig. edn, 1902), 26-29.

[68] Händel Handbuch, 136.

[69] West Sussex Record Office, Goodwood Ms 105/392: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 358-59.

[70] Händel Handbuch, 137.

[71] Deutsch, 187.

[72] The Weekly Journal: or, The British Gazetteer, nr. 30, Saturday 20 November 1725, [2].

[73] West Sussex Record Office, Goodwood Ms 105/393: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 359-60.

[74] The Daily Journal, no. 1532, Monday 13 December 1725, [1].

[75] West Sussex Record Office, Goodwood Ms 105/394: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 360-61.

[76] Deutsch, 189.

[77] Deutsch, 189.

[78] West Sussex Record Office, Goodwood Ms 105/395: Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 361-62.

[79] The Daily Courant, nr. 7543, Saturday 18 December 1725, [2].

[80] Mist’s Weekly Journal, no. 34, Saturday 18 December 1725, [1]; repr. (incorrectly identified as Weekly Journal or Saturday Post) Elizabeth Gibson, The Royal Academy of Music, 1719-1728: The Institution and Its Directors (New York and London: Garland, 1989), 388-90.

[81] The Daily Courant, nr. 7545, Tuesday 21 December 1725, [2].

[82] The Daily Courant, nr. 7547, Thursday 23 December 1725, [2].

[83] The Daily Post, nr. 1949, Thursday 23 December 1725, [2].

[84] The Daily Post, no. 1953, Tuesday 28 December 1725, [1]; repr. (except last seven lines) Andrew George Pink, “The Musical Culture of Freemasonry in Early Eighteenth-Century London” (PhD dissertation, Goldsmiths, University of London, 2007), 165.

[85] The Daily Courant, nr. 7550, Tuesday 28 December 1725, [2].

[86] Händel Handbuch, 138.

[87] Händel Handbuch, 138.

[88] Händel Handbuch, 139–41.

[89] Deutsch, 191–92.