Jan 29

For the Benefit of Signora FRASI.

AT the Great Room in Dean-street, Soho,

on Monday the 23d of February, will be performed an


With a Concerto on the ORGAN by Mr. STANLEY.

Tickets to be had of Signora Frasi, at her House in Macclesfield-street, Soho.[1]




Feb 9

Monday, Feb. 9 [1761]. [...]

A fine monument is erecting in Westminster abbey by Roubiliac, to the memory of Mr. Handel.[2]




Feb 13

This Day is publish’d,

In Octavo, Price sewed Three Shillings,

MEMOIRS of the Life of the late GEORGE

FREDERICK HANDEL.  To which is added a Catalogue

of his Works, and Observations upon them.

Printed for R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall mall; and sold by Mr.

Walsh, in Catharine-street; and Mr. Johnson in Cheapside.[3]




Feb 18

We hear that in the New Oratorio called Judith,

composed by Doctor Arne, which is to be performed at the

Theatre-Royal in Drury-Lane, the principal Singers are

Signora Corneli, Signora Eberardi, (from the Opera)

Mr. Champnes, and Miss Brent.[4]




Feb 21

On Saturday last the New Oratorio called Judith,

composed by Doctor Arne, (which is to be performed at

the Theatre-Royal in Drury-Lane, next Friday) was

rehearsed at the House of a Lady of Quality, where was

present a numerous Assembly of the first Distinction,

who honoured it with the highest Approbation.

We are assured, that in the said Oratorio, Signor

Tenducci has obtained Permission from his Plaintiff, to

sing the Part which Signora Eberardi was so obliging as

to understudy for him, in case he could not obtain such





Feb 24

On Thursday next the 26th Instant, at the New

Theatre in the Hay-market, will be performed a sacred

Oratorio David and Jonathan, set to Music by Mr. Charles

Barbandt, and for his Benefit.[6]




Feb 27

[Lord and Lady Clive’s account book]


Paid at the Oratorio [Samson] and for a Book 1-3-6[7]




Feb 27

Last Night the new sacred Oratorio call’d Judith, was

performed at the Theatre Royal in Drury-lane, to a

most polite Audience, who gave it the greatest Approbation

and Applause ever known on the Occasion.[8]




Mar 5

The Oratorio of Judith was inserted in our Paper

of Yesterday by Mistake, Dr. Arne reserving the

farther Performance of it till next Season.  He desires

to return public Thanks to the Royal Personages, Nobility,

and Gentry, who honoured his Performance with

their Appearance and generous Approbation, and, by

Desire, will undertake the Oratorios for the ensuing Lent





Mar 7

Friday Night his Majesty was at the Oratorio of Samson,

at the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden.[10]




Mar 13

LETTER to a Friend, on going to hear the MESSIAH

at the Play-house.


My dear Friend,

I SEEMED to surprise you the other day, at my

hinting to you, that I esteemed it wrong to go to the

Messiah at the play-house.  After I parted from you, I

thought of our very short conversation on this point;

and was led to imagine that it might not be unuseful, [sic]

either to myself or you, if I collected my thoughts upon

paper, and sent them to you.

First, I must premise, that my objections do not at all

arise from any dislike of, or disapprobation I have to,

music; it is a noble, may I not say a heavenly science?

Rev. xiv. 2, 3. and has been and is, on various occasions,

made an handmaid to religion; therefore in itself it

is not only lawful, but delightful, and one of those helps

our gracious God hath afforded us, towards that elevation

of soul so exquisitely described Eph. v. 19.

An emblem it is of that blessed state, where all is

harmony and love, and where the jarrings of discord shall

never disquiet us more: nay, farther yet, I will allow,

that music, when used in subordination to the will of

God, is one of those gifts which are bestowed for our

lawful and innocent amusement and recreation. [68]

Neither do I object to the piece in question, as

wanting any one particular to render it the most finished

exhibition of the composer’s art now extant amongst us.

Where then lies my objection, since I neither object to

music itself, nor this particular piece?

Again, Are not the words, the words of inspired prophets

and evangelist, of holy men of old, who spake as they

were moved by the Holy Ghost?

I answer, Yes: and here begins my ground of objection,

because these sacred truths are exhibited, in their

turn, with the other diversions of the town, performed

by the same people, with the same intent, in the same


There are a certain quantity of people in the world, and

those by no means the fewest, whose whole business is to

drive God, and death and judgment, and heaven and hell,

out of their thoughts as far as they can; and whether an

obscene farce, or a fine piece of music, is going forward

at the play-house, all is one to them, being diverted is all

they aim at, and you will be sure to find them there.

Now is this a footing to put God’s word upon? to dress

it up for the diversion of its despisers and revilers, to

make it take its turn with the lascivious scenes of

Congreve and Vanburgh, and thus prostitute its sacred and

most important truths, to be the sport of a play-house

auditory?  Doth not this fall directly within that well-known

prohibition of the Son of God, “Give not that

which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls

before swine,” Matt. vii. 6.  Now this is one light, as I

apprehend, in which we ought to look upon the

performance of the Messiah at the play-house; and if so,

whoever attends upon it, is guilty of countenancing this

grievous dishonour done to the Most High; the more

serious and religious any person appears to be in other

respects, the more doth his presence aid and abet this foul

abuse of sacred things. [69]

“O but (says one) I do not go there with any other

mind but as I would go to church; I have been as devout

at the Messiah as ever I was in my life.”  “And for

my part (says another) I see no harm in its being

performed in a play-house: what signifies the place?”  Thus

did your once gay and thoughtless friend once argue,

thus did he cheat himself, even after those divine truths

had in a measure been impressed upon his heart, till he

was convinced, by travelling farther in the ways of God,

that all this was but the wisdom from beneath, the

dictates of a blind heart, inventing plausible excuses for

doing its own will.  It then occurred to me, that what was

sacred to the cause of God, was not to be made use of

as a public diversion; that what I had called and fansied [sic]

to be devotion, was nothing else than my love of music,

and my admiration of Mr. Handel’s chorusses; that the

true devotion of the heart, and the raising the animal

spirits, were very different, and owing to different causes;

the first is always the work of God’s Spirit; the second of

the spirit of delusion too often, but always, I doubt not,

upon such occasions as these. Then as for the play-house,

it is a place dedicated—not to God, to speak as mildly as

I can; and if not dedicated to God, to what or whom is

it dedicated?  Sad experience shews us!  One night the

Lord Jesus, and his precious salvation, are blasphemed in

the Minor, as well as other plays that might be named. 

Why is this?  To get money, and to divert the town. 

The next night—“Behold the Lamb of God that taketh

away the sins of the world,” by the help of music, and an

assemblage of polite company, I say, Behold the Lamb of

God, set forth with just the same success—to get money

and divert the town.

I believe nobody is less scrupulous than myself about

forms and places; the earth is the Lord’s and the fulness

thereof; but still let even an heathen teach us:

Publica privatis secernere, sacra profanis. [70]

Suppose we see an advertisement worded thus, “On

Tuesday next will be exhibited, in St. Paul’ church,

a comedy called The Relapse, or Virtue in Danger,

to which will be added The Rape of Proserpine, with

the Birth and Adventures of Harlequin, with Dancing

and other entertainments, as will be expressed in the

Bills of the Day,” should not we immediately cry out,

Monstrum horrendum!  Why so?  Such an exhibition at

Covent-garden play-house excites no amazement—It is

clear, then, the difference of place is all in this matter. 

Well then; suppose we say, that “On Friday next will

be exhibited, for the Entertainment of the Town, at

the Theatre Royal in Covent-garden, the Birth, Life,

Miracles, Sufferings, and Death of Jesus the Son of

God, set to Music by Mr. Handel, together with a

Solo on the Violin by Signor Giardini, and a

Concerto on the Organ by Mr. Stanley;”—an sunt christianis

haec auribus consentanea? especially if we add “Orange

wenches and whores ready as usual;” which is no more

than real fact, at every performance of this sacred piece:

neither have the concertoes of the above eminent masters

any more to do with it than rope-dancing or tumbling. 

Now can a man say that this is an assembly fit for a

christian? or is the theatre any more calculated for the

Messiah, than St. Paul’s church is for the entertainments

above-mentioned?  What reason can be given for the

impropriety of the one, that does not equally affect the


The first thing that made the performance of the

Messiah, as a public diversion, strike me as a very wrong

thing, and convinced me of the spirit with which people

attend it, was, seeing an advertisement of its being

performed somewhere (at Gloucester I believe); the tickets

were to be five shillings each: and then came this N. B.

“The same Ticket will admit one Gentleman or two

Ladies to the Ball at night;” so that I perceived the [71]

same spirit carried them to both, as well as the same

ticket; and that the intent of the performers of the

Messiah, and that of the fiddlers at the ball, was just the

same; to get money, by diverting so many people.

But to return to the question about the play-house:

Suppose king Lear, instead of his solemn prayer to the

goddess Nature, should be thought to verge too much

upon paganism; and Mr. Garrick, in order to christianize

the character, should make him kneel down, and say the

Lord’s prayer; Risum teneatis? would be too ludicrous a

question to ask on such an occasion: the utmost abhorrence

would surely be excited, and even the world cry

out Shame! for which the impropriety of the place would

certainly be assigned, as one grand reason; but what

would my friend think of a person who attended upon

this, and defended his doing so, by saying, He had no

notion about place, and that he had as much devotion

there as any-where else?

An commota crimine mentis

Absolves hominem?

Again: Let us suppose, by way of diversion, the

communion-service set to music, and exhibited at the

play-house, and, during Lent, taking its turn with Love-a-

la-mode, to fill Mr. Garrick’s house; notwithstanding

the audience should stand up at the more particular

striking parts of it, as they do at some of the chorusses in

the Messiah; would not this be reckoned a most unfit

entertainment for a theatre? yet is there not one single

sentiment throughout the whole, that is not grounded

upon the very scriptures of which the Messiah is composed;

if so, this proves the representation of the Messiah

equally improper.  To shew the force of this, I will

relate a fact. [72]

A certain lady of fashion went to the Messiah, and, I

must tell you, a person too of no sort of real seriousness:

she observed the audience stand up at the chorus at the

end of the second part.  This struck her with what she

had not thought of before, that there was something very

particular, to be sure, in the words; she took up her

book, and looked at them, and upon considering them

and the place she was in, together with the purpose of

her being there, she was so filled with horror, that she

trembled from head to foot, at the thoughts of its being

possible for people to make those solemn and awful words

a subject-matter for public diversion at a play-house; and

I do believe the whole world would not get her there


And now let me recommend what has been said to the

candour of my amiable and much-loved friend, who

knows I can have no view in thus laying my thoughts

before him, but an honest and serious endeavour after the

glory of our great and holy Messiah; in convincing my

friend of a thing so wrong in every point of view, not

only in those already observed upon, but many others

that might be named.

Let me then conclude with saying——

Quid verum atque decens, curo ac rogo,

Et omnis in hoc sum.

or rather, with that saying of a divinely inspired penman,

who thus lays down the measure and rule of all our actions,

however indifferent in themselves: “Whether, therefore,

ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the

glory of God.”  May my friend have this heavenly

directory ever in his eye, and walk with growing strength

in the daily observance of it, is the since [sic] prayer of his

Truly affectionate

March 13. 1761.                                               * * * * *.[11]




With as little success have operas, oratorios, ridottos, and other expensive diversions, been invented to exclude bad company: Tradesmen, by enhancing their prices, have found tickets for their wives and daughters, and by this means have been enabled to insult the good company, their customers, at their own expence; and, like true conquerors, have obliged the enemy to pay for their defeat.  But this stratagem has in some measure been obviated by the prudence of the very best campany [sic], who, for this and many other wise considerations, have usually declined paying them at all.[12]




Jul 29

[Thomas Twining to John Hey, Basingstoke, 29 July 1761]


I must tell you, I suppose, of what little acquisitions I have made in the musical way: First I have got that duet of Vinci [… 29] Then, Sir, I have met with some fine cantatas in the Scarlatti style, by great masters: two of the Baron D’Astorga; one of Marc Antonio Bononcini, whose compositions in this way Geminiani spoke so highly of as much superior to those of his brother the sonata Bononcini; one of Handel’s, one of Marcello, & one of Antonio Lotti.  You wou’d have laugh’d to see me buy these: where did I buy them of all places but at Walsh’s music shop.  He was revenged upon me for the many laughs I have had at him.  He found out my taste, & flung a whole bundle of the MS music before me: he did not say, “Indeed, you shou’d have this,” but I said so myself for him; & so he got the money out of my pocket as easily as if I had been a lady of quality & had come in a coach.[13]




Sep 14

[William Shenstone to Richard Graves, 14 September 1761]


            The last digression I made was to the concert at Worcester, to hear “The Messiah” well performed; to meet a number of faces one knows; but first, and principally, to visit your brother, without which motive I had not gone.  In the two former respects, the journey answered my expectation: [...][14]




Oct 9

[John Brown to David Garrick, 9 October 1761]


Dear Mr. Garrick

            I have received Yours; and having seen our Friend, he says he is only displeased at your making so many Apologies; and bids me tell you, that there is no man better endures the critical Rod than he, when it is fairly & rationally administered.  He says, he was disposed to try an Experiment, on the old Principle of—plerumque tragicus dolet Sermone Pedestri—but as it seems he has not hit the true Medium, he gives over the Pursuit; and at a proper time will go to work in Metre.  He thinks it impossible to go thro’ a Work of this Kind against this Season; and therefore refers it to the next; against which (as the Plan appears to be right) he is pretty sure he can easily accomplish it.

            As to myself, I am now putting the last Hand to the Cure of Saul; which I think of publishing this Winter; and have made a considerable Progress in a Dissertation to be annexed to it, “On the Rise, Union, Progress, Perfection, and Corruption, of Poetry and Music.”  This subject has inlarged [sic] upon my Hands very unexpectedly: and I now expect that it will prove a Kind of Prelude to my Large Work; and is very proper to be thrown out before it, because it is prosecuted in the same Manner; that is, by deducing things form [/verso] their State in Savage Life, thro’ the several Stages of civilized Society: I have got into a vast Field, altogether new and untrodden: I was for a while bewildered in its Immensity and Variety: But I begin now to be familiarized to it; and meet with Novelties without End.  What I now intend to publish on Music, is but a corner of this vast Scene.---I must expect Opposition, and Enemies. -- No Matter for that: You know I can despise them.  I shall anger some false Friends in this first Dissertation: But I think I have as good a Right to say what is true, as they have to say what is not.  I wish you a good Season; shall be glad to hear that You and Mrs. Garrick are well; and am always,

Dear Sir,

                                                most truly and affectionately Yours

Newcastle.  Oct: 9. 1761.                                             J. Brown[15]




Oct 19

[Monday 19 October]


The fine organ was presented by the famous Handel, who arranged that once every year the oratorio Messiah should be played in this chapel, every person paying half a guinea entrance for the benefit of the Hospital.  This brought in from £400 to £500 yearly so long as he lived, as he always played himself; but, after his death, this amount decreased considerably.  As the sum which came in every year from this source was considered a [87] bequest, it was entered in gold numbers on a huge blackboard, upon which amounts given or bequeathed were also written, with the names of the givers.  With the exception of a private gentleman, who had partly given, partly bequeathed, a sum of £15,000, and another who gave in his lifetime £12,000 in one sum, Handel was the greatest benefactor of the charity.  The chapel is richly ornamented through these great gifts.[16]




Oct 28

[Oxford, 28 October]


On the next day I went alone to the Oratorio, as my three companions did not care to accompany me; it was Esther, by Handel, and the voices were rather indifferent.  I had an opportunity of seeing a large number of Oxford ladies, who, with the old and young gentlemen of the colleges, represented the whole of the company present.[17]




Nov 14

[Vauxhall Gardens, 14 November]


Amongst the statues is an especially good one by Roubillac, of Handel with a lyre, representing the figure of Orpheus.[18]





“Life of Signor Steffani, a celebrated Musician”


In your Account of the Life of the late celebrated Mr Handel, See Vol. xxx. p. 214, mention is made of Steffani, who immediately preceded him as Master of the Chapel to his late Majesty King George the first, when he was only Elector of Hanover.  As Steffani was also a Man of great Eminence in his Profession, the enclosed Account of his Life was drawn by a Lover of his Art, and a Friend to his Memory; a few Copies only were printed, so as to open the long way of the leaf in the manner of a Musick Book, with a view to be bound up with Steffani’s Pieces, and were given by the Writer, John Hawkins, Esq; of Twickenham, to several of his Friends for that purpose; as none of them were ever sold, the Work may be considered as hitherto unpublished, and it is now sent to you with the Author’s consent, and cannot fail of being acceptable to your Readers.

Yours, &c.



For the poetry, to which he adapted his music, he was principally obliged to his friends, the Marquiss d’Ariberti, Count Palmieri, Sig. Averara, Abbate Guidi, and Abbate Mauro Hortensio [footnote: “This gentleman wrote also words for twelve duets which Mr Handel composed for the practice of the late queen, who greatly admired this kind of composition.”]


[...] in the year 1708, he resigned his employment of chapel-master, in favour of Mr Handel, to whose laudable concern for the memory of this great genius...the author of these memoirs is indebted for the greater part of his information. [491][19]




Nov 9

“A Description of the City Feast” Monday, Nov. 9 1761

[installation of the new Lord Mayor of London.]


When the second course was bringing on, the common cryer, standing before the royal table, demanded silence; and then proclaimed aloud, that his majesty drank to the health and prosperity of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council of the city of London, and the trade thereof; and added thereto, that her majesty also drank confirming the same, whereupon the band of music immediately played the march in Judas Maccabeus, accompanied by the side drum.

The common-cryer then came to the Lord Mayor’s table, at the lower end of the hall, and the music ceasing, he again demanded silence, and proclaimed, that the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council, drank health, long life, and a prosperous reign to our most gracious sovereign King George the third, upon which the music immediately played the latter part of Mr Handel’s coronation anthem God save the king, &c.  The music again ceasing, the common cryer demanded silence a third time, and proclaimed, that the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Council, drank health, and long life, to our gracious Queen Charlotte, upon which the band played again.  The healths of the rest of the Royal Family were in order drank at my Lord Mayor’s, and the other tables, but not in the same ceremonious public manner.[20]




[“A full and circumstantial Detail of my Lord-Mayor’s Show, and the Entertainment at Guildhall, on November 9, 1761.”]


[…] the common cryer proclaimed aloud,—that his majesty drank “Prosperity to the lord-mayor, aldermen, and common-council of the city of London, and the trade thereof.”  The music [604] directly struck up with the noble Anthem, composed by Handel, of God save the King.[21]





[“THOUGHTS on the NATIVITY. / Written on Christmas-Eve.”]

            10. Suddenly there was with the Angel, a multitude of the heavenly host, praising GOD, and saying, Glory to GOD in the highest, and on earth peace, good will towards men.  Surely this is a night to be much observed among the generations of men for evermore.  Who does not fancy himself in the field with the poor, but happy Shepherds?  Who does not think he suddenly hears the stillness of the night sweetly invaded by sounds, like those in that ravishing symphony with which the inimitable Handel, ushers in this scene in his MESSIAH, and which never can be exceeded, but by the music which welcomes the departing soul into the regions of peace and harmony, and hails her, on her safe arrival in the fields of paradise.[22]




A natural genius for elocution supposes an ear; though it does not always suppose a musical *ear.  I have never heard poetry, particularly that of Milton, better spoken, than by a gentleman, who yet had so little discernment in music, that, he has often told me, the grinding of knives entertained him as much as Handel’s organ.


There is no earthly object capable of making such various, and such forcible impressions upon the human mind, as a consummate speaker.  In viewing the artificial creations, which flow from the pencil of a Raphael, the critical eye is indeed delighted to a high pitch, and the delight is rational, because it flows from sources, unknown to beings below the rational sphere.  But the ear remains wholly un-engaged, and un-entertained. [30]

In listening to the raptures of Corelli, Geminiani, and Handel, the flood of pleasure which pours upon the ear, is almost too much for human nature.  And music applied to express the sublimities of poetry, as in the oratorio of Samson, and the Allegro and Pensoroso [sic], yields a pleasure so truly rational, that a Plato, or a Socrates, need not be ashamed to declare their sensibility of it.  But here again, the eye has not its gratification.  For the opera [(]in which action is joined with music, in order to entertain the eye at the same time with the ear) I must beg leave, with all due submission to the taste of the great, to consider as a forced conjunction of two things, which nature does not allow to go together.  For it never will be other than unnatural, to see heroes fighting, commanding, threatening, lamenting, and making love in the warblings of an Italian song.

It is only the elegant speaker, who can at once regale the eye with the view of its most amiable object, the human form in all its glory; the ear with the original of all music, the understanding with its proper and natural food, the knowledge of important truth; and the imagination with all that, in nature, or in art, is beautiful, sublime, or wonderful.  For the orator’s field is the universe, and his subjects are all that is known of God, and his works; of superior natures, good and evil, and their works, and of terrestrials, and theirs.[23]




[...] as was also [an “exceeding good Composer of Church-Music”] the late George Frederic Handell, Esq; of whose very extraordinary Genius there was a most surprising Account published in the Gentleman’s Magazines for April and May, 1760.  His grand Te Deum and Jubilate, as well as his Coronation Anthem, which are generally performed at St. Paul’s at the Rehearsal, and Music, for the Feasts of the Sons of the Clergy annually; also his excellent Oratorios, Concertos, and other of his Compositions; proved him to be the most excellent Composer of Music in the whole World.


I have likewise been very careful to collect the very best of grave and solemn Psalm-Tunes, both ancient and modern [...] several others of later Date, composed by some of our greatest Masters, viz. St. Anne’s Tune by Dr. Crofts, and Hanover Tune by the late Mr. Handell, [...][24]






            England was not defective in other arts that embellish and amuse.  Musick became a fashionable study, and its professors generally caressed by the public.  An Italian opera was maintained at a great expence, and well supplied with foreign performers.  Private concerts were instituted in every corner of the metropolis.  The compositions of Handel were universally admired, and he himself lived in affluence.  It must be owned at the same time, that Geminiani was [131] neglected, though his genius commanded esteem and veneration.  Among the few natives of England who distinguished themselves by their talents in this art, Green, Howard, Arne, and Boyce, were the most remarkable.[25]




There are here [at the Vauxhall Gardens] also several statues, and in particular a good one in marble by Mr. Roubiliac of the late Mr. Handell playing on a lyre in the character of Orpheus.[26]




[...] Mais c’est un préjugé généralement reçu, qu’il n’y a de bonne Musique que celle qui nous vient de delà les Monts [i.e. Lulli and Rameau]; & c’est insulter au goût universel que d’oser n’être pas de ce sentiment.  Je [84] voudrois pourtant bien demander à ces partisans entêtés du mérite des Italiens, ce qu’ils pensent du savant & gracieux Handel.  Je crois que, malgré leur préoccupation, ils ne refuseront pas de le mettre au premier rang des plus illustres Musiciens, & cependant Handel est Allemand.[27]


[1] The Public Advertiser, no. 8186, Thursday 29 January 1761, [1].

[2] The Christian’s Magazine, Or a Treasury of Divine Knowledge 2 (1761): 94.

[3] The Public Advertiser, no. 8199, Friday 13 February 1761, [1].

[4] The Public Advertiser, no. 8203, Wednesday 18 February 1761, [2].

[5] The Public Advertiser, no. 8207, Monday 23 February 1761, [2].

[6] The Public Advertiser, no. 8209, Tuesday 24 February 1761, [2].

[7] Ian Woodfield, “New Light on the Mozarts’ London Visit: A Private Concert with Manzuoli,” Music & Letters 76 (1995), 187-208: 208.

[8] The Public Advertiser, no. 8212, Saturday 28 February 1761, [2].

[9] The Public Advertiser, no. 8217, Friday 6 March 1761, [2].

[10] The Public Advertiser, no. 8219, Monday 9 March 1761, [2].

[11] The Gospel Magazine, Or Treasury of Divine Knowledge.  Designed to promote Exprimental Religion 2 ([February] 1775), 67-72; repr. Robert Manson Myers, Early Moral Criticism of Handelian Oratorio (Williamsburg, VA: The Manson Park Press, 1947), 25-29; and Robert Manson Myers, Handel’s Messiah: A Touchstone of Taste (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1948), 120-24. An undated typescript copy of the original print exists among W. C. Smith’s surviving papers: Foundling Museum (London), Gerald Coke Handel Collection, Smith Papers 3.

[12] The Gentleman’s Magazine 31 (1761): 390.

[13] A Selection of Thomas Twining’s Letters, 1734-1804: The Record of a Tranquil Life, ed. Ralph S. Walker, 2 vols. (Lewiston/Queenston/Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991), 1:28-29.

[14] Letters of William Shenstone, ed. Duncan Mallam (Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press / London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1939), 416; The Letters of William Shenstone, ed. Marjorie Williams (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1939), 586.

[15] National Art Archive, Forster Collection; repr., David Garrick, The Private Correspondence of David Garrick with the Most Celebrated Persons of his Time, 2 vols. (London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1831), 1:132.

[16] Count Frederick Kielmansegge, Diary of a Journey to England in the Years 1761-1762, trans. Countess Kielmansegg (London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902), 86-87.

[17] Count Frederick Kielmansegge, Diary of a Journey to England in the Years 1761-1762, trans. Countess Kielmansegg (London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902), 114.

[18] Count Frederick Kielmansegge, Diary of a Journey to England in the Years 1761-1762, trans. Countess Kielmansegg (London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902), 167.

[19] The Gentleman’s Magazine 31 (1761): 489-91.

[20] The Gentleman’s Magazine 31 (1761): 548; repr. The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politicks, and Literature, of the Year 1761 (London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1762), 240.

[21] The British Magazine 2 (1761): 603-04.

[22] The Christian’s Magazine, Or a Treasury of Divine Knowledge 2 (1761): 622.

* Yet Quintilian would have his orator by all means study music, C. viii.

[23] James Burgh, The Art of Speaking (London: T. Longman, J. Buckland, and W. Fenner, etc., 1761), 7, 29-30.

[24] John Arnold (compiler), The Compleat Psalmodist: or the Organist’s, Parish-Clerk’s and Psalm-Singer’s Companion, 5th edition, corrected, with large additions (London: Robert Brown, 1761), vi, ix.

[25] T[obias]. Smollett, Continuation of the Complete History of England ... Volume the Fourth (London: Richard Baldwin, 1761), 130-31.

[26] London and Its Environs described, 6 vols. (London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1761), 6:215.

[27] [Louis Charles Fougeret] de Monbron, Le Cosmopolite ou Le Citoyen du Monde (London: [?], 1761), 83-84.