1763

 

 

Feb 19

[Lord and Lady Clive’s account book]

 

Paid Capt Benj. Clive for six places at the Oratorio [Occasional Oratorio]

 & Books 3-7-0[1]

 

 

 

Feb 24

At the Theatre-Royal in Covent-Garden,

To-morrow will be performed

An Occasional ORATORIO,

Selected from the Most Celebrated Compositions of the late

GEORGE FREDERIC HANDEL, Esq;

With a Concerto on the Organ by Mr. STANLEY:

And a Concerto on the Violin by Mr. HAY.

Pit and Boxes to be put together.  No Persons to be admitted without Tickets, which will be delivered that Day at the Office in the Theatre at half a Guinea each.  First Gallery 5s.  Second Gallery 3s. 6d.

Galleries to be opened at Half an Hour after Four o’Clock, Pit and Boxes at Five.  To begin at Half after Six.  Vivant Rex & Regina.[2]

 

 

 

Feb 25

This Day is published, Price 1 s. / THE CURE of SAUL.  A Sacred Ode. / Written by Dr. BROWN. / Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers, against Gray’s Inn, Holborn. / Where may be had, Essays on Lord Shaftesbury’s Characteristics.  By the same Author. / Very shortly will be published, in one Volume Quarto, / A Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of Poetry and Music.[3]

 

 

 

Feb 25

The Managers of the ORATORIOS,

performed during the present Lent, at the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden, think it incumbent upon them to inform the Public, that they were not acquainted with the Damage done to that Theatre on Thursday Night Time enough to prevent the Advertisement of the Oratorio to be performed there last Night from being inserted in the Public Papers, though immediate Application was made for that Parpose [sic].  They hope, therefore, that the Disappointment will be considered as an unavoidable Accident: And will certainly continue the Entertainment, that has been thus interrupted, next Wednesday; of which farther Notice shall be given.[4]

 

 

 

Mar 3

This Day was published, Price 1s.

THE CURE OF SAUL,

A SACRED ODE.

Written by Dr. BROWN.

Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers, against Gray’s Inn, Holborn.

Also this Day was published, Price 1s.

The CURE of SAUL.

Printed as it is performed at the Theatre Royal in Covent-Garden;

Set to select Airs, Duets, and Choirs, from Handel, Marcello, Purcel, and other eminent Masters.

Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers in Holborn, and sold by Mr. Baker in York-street, and T. Davies in Russel-Street, Covent-Garden.

In a few Days will be published, by the same Author,

A Dissertation on the Rise, Union and Power, the Progressions, Separations and Corruptions of

POETRY and MUSIC.[5]

 

 

 

Mar 3

At the Theatre-Royal in Covent-Garden,

To-morrow will be performed

The CURE of SAUL,

A SACRED ODE.  By Dr. BROWN.

Adapted (by the Author of the Ode) to select Airs, Duets, and Chorusses, from Handel, Marcello, Purcel, and other eminent Composers.

With a Concerto on the Organ by Mr. STANLEY:

And a Concerto on the Violin by Mr. HAY.

Pit and Boxes to be put together.  No Persons to be admitted without Tickets, which will be delivered that Day at the Office in the Theatre at half a Guinea each.  First Gallery 5s.  Second Gallery 3s. 6d.

Galleries to be opened at Half an Hour after Four o’Clock, Pit and Boxes at Five.  To begin at Half after Six.  Vivant Rex & Regina.[6]

 

 

 

Mar 4

Last Night the new sacred Ode, entitled, The Cure of Saul, was performed at Covent Garden Theatre for the first Time.  Their Royal Highnesses the Duke of York, Prince William Henry, Prince Henry Frederick, and many of the first Nobility, were present.  Several of the grand Choruses, &c. were encored, and the Whole met with the highest Approbation and Applause.[7]

 

 

 

Mar 5

We hear the new Oratorio to be performed in the Chapel of the Lock Hospital on the 15th of next Month is called Ruth, and that the Music is composed by three of the most eminent Masters, and is intended as a Benefaction to that charitable Institution.[8]

 

 

 

Mar 8

The Princess Dowager of Wales has given 100l. to the Collection now carrying on for the Colleges of New-York and Philadelphia.[9]

 

 

 

Mar 9

[Mary Dewes to the Rev. J. Dewes, 16 March 1763]

 

Wednesday [9 March] I was at the Oratorio [Jephtha];[10]

 

 

 

Mar 10

To the PRINTER of The ST. JAMES’s CHRONICLE.

SIR,

AS a Gentleman has already favoured the Public with an Account of the poetical Merits of the Cure of Saul, I hope I shall stand excused for offering a few Remarks on the musical Part of it.  And here it may not be improper to observe, that the peculiar Provinces of Music, when united with Poetry, are either imitative Description, or impassioned Sentiment: And though it would be but an invidious Commendation of the present Work, to shew how often the greatest Masters have failed in both these Points; yet it is surely a Remark worthy of the Public Notice, that the learned Author of this Performance has succeeded so happily in an Attempt so confessedly arduous.  The Choruses of Hark, loud Discord breaks her Chain, &c.  The Almighty said: and lo the radiant Sun, &c.  And sooth his song-enchanted Ears; in the first Act.  The dreadful Thunders sound, &c.  Oh save us Heaven, we sink, we die, &c. in the Second, The Fiend is fled; and the concluding Chorus of the Third, are all Instances of the most perfect Imitation which Music is perhaps capable of—Nor are the Songs of, Down his steep and shaggy SideHark, the solemn NightingaleSmooth and clear along the verdant PlainFlow ye melting Numbers flowBounding Kids around him throngGentle Sleep becalm his Breast, less admirable on the same Occasion.  But in the other Province of Music, this Performance may truly be said to be superior to any other; the Poetry adds such Dignity and Force to the Music, the Music so adorns and improves the natural Harmony of the Numbers, that it must for ever remain a standing Monument of the powerful Union of these Sister Arts.  It would be necessary to transcribe the whole Poem, to shew with what infinite Art and Variety every Passion is represented, whether tender or sublime; there are not two Songs nor Choruses in the Whole whose Subject or Conduct are the same, and I shall only, therefore, select two, which most plainly bespeak the Master’s Hand.  There are only four Lines in the Ode, which on Account of the double Rhyme, seem to deviate from that Elegance of Rhythm, so conspicuous through the rest; yet these, by the Author’s Art, are perhaps the most striking Parts of the Performance when united with the Music.  The Lines are in the 1st Act,

Ye Planets, and each circling Constellation,

In Songs harmonious tell your Generation.

And in the Second,

———Dispell each dark Temptation!

And, while he pours the penitential Tear,

O visit him with thy Salvation!

I think I may appeal to every one who heard it, whether the first did not give them the fullest Idea of the celestial Chime it was intended to represent, while the other conveyed to the Ears the meek suppliant Voice of sincere Devotion, imploring Assistance from an all-merciful God.  To the Credit of the Public it must be said, that the Audience and Performers did due Honour to so distinguished Merits; the first by their loud Applause of thirty Pieces, out of the thirty-six it consisted of; and the latter, by the Satisfaction which appeared in their Countenances, in giving such Entertainment to the Public; and both by their united Declaration, that this was the first Oratorio they had ever heard which took up full the usual Time, and yet appeared too short.  This indeed may be easily accounted for, both from the Excellence of the Music, taken from the immortal Handel, and other great Masters, and the Brilliancy of the Recitative, of which I have only Room to say here, that nothing equal to it ever appeared in a Performance of this Kind, and that its Merit can only be paralleled by the Spirit and Expression with which it was performed.  It would be ungrateful to omit the generous Pains which Mr. Beard, Sign. Frasi, Miss Young, and the other Capital Performers, took to do Justice to the Piece; and I dare say, that they have not lately received more Pleasure, than from the particular Satisfaction the Audience expressed at so uncommon an exertion of their superior Talents.  To conclude, Sir, I make no Doubt but (as his Majesty has for one Day interrupted the Course of this Oratorio by ordering Jepthah) the Managers will take the next Occasion to repeat it, that (to use the Words of the Audience) “they may have the wished for Opportunity of hearing it again, and those who were absent may partake of an Entertainment, which Accident of Business before deprived them of.”[11]

 

 

 

The Character of our Cathedral Music is of a middle Kind: Not of the first Rank in the great Quality of Expression; nor yet so improper or absurd, as to deserve a general Reprobation.  Too studious a Regard to Fugues and an artificial Counterpoint appears in the old, and too airy and light a Turn, to the Neglect of a grand Simplicity, in the new: Two Extremes which tend equally, though from opposite Causes, to destroy musical Expression.  Yet, there are Passages in PURCEL’S Anthems, which may fairly stand in Competition with those of any Composer, of whatever Country.  There are others who may justly claim a considerable Share of Praise.  HANDEL stands eminent, in his Greatness and Sublimity of Style.—Our parochial Music, in general, is solemn and devout: Much better calculated for the Performance of a whole Congregation, than if it were more broken and elaborate.  In Country Churches, wherever a more artificial Kind hath been imprudently attempted, Confusion and Dissonance are the general Consequence.

[…]

A simple and pathetic Melody may be no less successfully adopted, and applied to Poetry.  This is evident, from the incidental and frequent Practice of the greatest Masters.  HANDEL, MARCELLO, BONONCINI, CORELLI, GEMINIANI, and their best Disciples, are often admirable in the pathetic Simplicity of Song: More especially they are so, when they are fortunate enough to forget the Ostentation and Parade of Art.  The Success is answerable to their Desert: For this Simplicity of Style is admired beyond the artificial, by All, except only a Few, whose Taste (like that of the mere Scholar-Tribe) is debauched by their own false Refinements.

[…]

Mr. DRYDEN’S Ode is perfect in the Unity of the Action; but imperfect in the moral End: For it is a Representation of the abused Power of Music, in firing a young Prince to an Act of Revenge and Cruelty.  In the Execution, there is but one Error of Consequence; which seems to run through both these Odes [Dryden’s and Pope’s], so justly celebrated: The Narrative Part is not always sufficiently distinguished from the Song.  They run into each other in such a Manner, that the musical Composer must often find himself embarrassed, whether to accompany with Recitative, or a more compleat Melody.  Indeed, it is manifest, that these illustrious Poets were not aware of this Distinction: And hence it came to pass, that many Passages which they evidently meant for Song, are in the Form of Narration.  But let this be added, as a Justice due to these celebrated Names, that the Narrations are in some Parts so highly animated, that without any striking Impropriety they admit the Accompanyment either of the Song or Choir.  ‘Tis obvious to remark, that HANDEL was sometimes perplexed by this Irregularity of the poetic Composition, when he set DRYDEN’S Ode to Music: For some Parts are thrown into Recitative which might seem rather to demand the Song; and others are thrown into Song, which, in their present Narrative Form, seem rather to demand the Recitative.[12]

 

 

 

Mar 17

This Day was published,

Beautifully printed in Quarto,

Price sewed in Boards 8s. 6d.

A DISSERTATION on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of POETRY and MUSIC.

To which is prefixed,

The CURE of SAUL,

A SACRED ODE.

Written by Dr. BROWN.

Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers, against Grays-Inn, Holborn, Printers to the Royal Society.

Where may be had,

1. The CURE of SAUL, a Sacred Ode, Price 1s.

2. Essays on the Characteristics, Price 1s.[13]

 

 

 

Mar 16

POSTSCRIPT.

INTELLIGENCE EXTRAORDINARY.

                  Last Night, being the fifth Wednesday in Lent, was performed by the Society for propagating the Gospel at Covent Garden Theatre, a sacred Oratorio called Acis and Galatea.  The Love-Songs in this Performance, which is built upon one of the most edifying Stories of Pagan Mythology, are undoubtedly extremely well calculated to banish all carnal Desires, at this particular Time of Fasting and Devotion; but what must give still greater Pleasure to every true Christian, is, that the Cure of Saul, drawn only from the musty old Records of Scripture, was deferred to make Room for it.  Our Days of Humiliation, it is supposed, will soon be changed into Carnivals; and instead of those dull Entertainments of Oratorios and religious Odes, Masquerades and Pantomimes are expected shortly to take Place.[14]

 

 

 

Mar 17

On the 17th Inst. died, aged 84, the Rev. Mr. Brown, Vicar of Wigton and Lazonby, both near Carlisle, and Father to Dr. Brown, Author of the Cure of Saul.[15]

 

 

 

Mar 19

Observations on ORATORIOS. / By Dr. BROWN. / THE Oratorio is a dramatic Representation [...] the Effect of every succeeding Song or Choir would be heightened by the Power of the preceding.[16]

 

 

 

Mar 18

For The ST. JAMES’S CHRONICLE.

Si sente che diletta,

Ma non si fà perchè.                      Metastasio.

 

Translation of a Letter from Signor [Arcangelo] Bimolle (a Florentine Fiddler) in London, to the Signora Chiara Aquilante (the famous Opera Broker) at Naples.

 

MADAM,                             London, March 18, 1763.

 

I AM honoured with your obliging Letter of the 5th of last Month; and, in Obedience to your Orders, shall give you an Account of the Merits and Success of the Operas and Burlettas here, and of such of the Performers concerned in them as are worth naming. […]

                  Immediately after the Holidays the Cascina was brought upon the Stage, in which the Amicis exerted every Power; and yet, can you believe it? it ran but two Nights!  The Audience beheld with an Indifference truly tramontane the most perfect Burletta that ever was composed, acted by the most accomplished Buffa that ever Italy produced.

[…]

                  You will certainly ask me, what could be the Cause of such an amazing Insensibility, that could induce a Nation profusely fond of every thing that is foreign, to neglect so fine a Composer as Bach, or so incomparable an Actress as the Amicis—the first I can account for, the last I cannot; but shall give you their own Reasons for it, as far as I have been able to collect them.

                  First then, Madam, you must know that the English, a very few excepted, neither relish nor understand our Musick, the German Manner has almost universally prevailed amongst them; and such is the Force of Prejudice, that the ponderous Harmony of Handel outweighs by far with them the elegant Taste of Italian Melody.  This, Bach at first did not suspect; but finding it by Experience, has prudently changed his Style; and now his Chorusses roar, his Basses thunder, and his Airs float in an Ocean of Symphony.  In a Word, he has Handelized; and acquired a Reputation here, by the very Thing which would have ruined him in Italy.

[…][17]

 

 

 

Mar 23

LENT PREACHERS this Day. / St. Paul’s                        Dr. Brown.[18]

 

 

 

March

                  Your correspondent has shewn judgment in exemplifying musical expression.  The passages are well chosen, and as beautifully painted;—but I could wish he had added some instance from Mr. Handel’s instrumental pieces, as the subject (the composer not being obliged to adapt his music to words) must be far more nice, in point of taste and strength of composition: [...]

[/127...] I must next observe, that my opponent is very bold in asserting, “That many persons who have neither ear nor taste, can discover the suitableness of the music to the words previously known.”  I wish the gentleman would define his general terms, as I am sometimes at a loss in what sense to apply them.——If I am to understand the terms suitableness and expression as synonimous [sic], I ask him, does he think the beauties of those pieces, which he exemplified out of Mr. Handel, can be discovered by a tasteless person?  Or, that the man, who has no ear for music, would ever dream of complaint, languishment, and importunity, being expressed in the strain, “My faith and my truth?”  But if I am to take the term in this sense, that because a person, who reads a line about thunder, and, hearing the music louder than usual, thinks it is designed to imitate it, and therein discovers the suitableness of the music to the words previously known, I must confess, that the music considered, in this case, simply as a loud noise, is a beauty, for the discovery of which, I envy no man the taste or reputation.[19]

 

 

 

Apr 8

To a Lady playing on the Spinnet.

 

STOP, Charmer, stop---Those skilful Hands, those Eyes,

Make all who listen, or who look, your Prize.

Music, that various Passions wont to move,

From thee affects our Breasts with only Love:

Say, Youths, which swiftest reach your ravish Hearts,

Or Handel’s powerful Notes, or Cupid’s Darts?

Ha[?]l widow’d Orpheus, who refus’d to wed,

In Grottoes mourning, his dear Consort dead,

Heard from thy Fingers such enchanting Strains,

Again he would have felt the Lover’s Pains,

Have found a fairer than Euridice,

O’ercome in Music, and in Love by thee.[20]

 

 

 

Apr 14

This Day is published, / RUTH.  A Sacred Oratorio, / to be performed in the Lock Hospital Chapel, near Hyde-Park Corner, To-morrow, the 15th Inst. / Printed for the Be[n]efit of the Charity, and may be had at E. Dilley’s in the Poultry, and at the Hospital, Price 1s[.][21]

 

 

 

Apr 15

For the Benefit of the CHARITY. / LOck-Hospital Chapel, near Hyde Park Corner, This Day, will be performed a new Oratorio called / RUTH. / Set to Music by the following Masters.  Part the First by Mr. Avison; Part the Second by Sig. Giardini; Part the Third by Mr. Avison.  The Vocal Parts by Mr. Beard, Mr. Tenducci, Mr. Champnes, Mrs. Scott, Miss Young, Signora Clementina, and others.  The First Violin and a Concerto by Signor Giardini.  A Concerto on the German Flute by Mr. Tacet.  No Persons will be admitted without Tickets, which may be had at the following Places, the Mount Coffee-house in Grosvenor-street; St. James’s Coffee-house, in St. James’s-street; George’s Coffee-house, Temple-Bar; Rainbow Coffee-house, Cornhill; Almack’s, Pall-mall and at the Hospital.  Dr. Boyce, who kindly undertook to compose the Music of the Third Part of the ORATORIO, being prevented by a severe Fit of Illness from executing it this Season, Mr. Avison was so obliging as to do it, that the Charity might not suffer, or the Public be disappointed. / To begin at Half an Hour after Eleven in the Forenoon precisely.  ** Tickets for the Galleries Half a Guinea, Bottom of the Chapel 5 s. each.

[first advertisement, from 9 April, lists third part “by Dr. Boyce”][22]

 

 

 

Apr 15

The new Oratorio of Ruth, that was performed at the Lock-Chapel, on Friday last, met with general Approbation of a very numerous and polite Audience: The Composition did Honour to the Masters, one of which (who was also a Performer [i.e. Giardini]) proved his Talents in Composition, equal to his great Power in Execution.  It was universally allowed that the Chapel is the best Room for Music in the Kingdom; and the Voices and Band were so disposed, as to form a neat and elegant Picture, harmonizing with the Stile of Building.[23]

 

 

 

Apr 22

THE Governors of the LOCK HOSPITAL think it incumbent on them to acknowledge the Obligation the Charity lies under to the several Performers who so generously gave their Assistance in the Oratorio of RUTH on Friday last; and to return their Thanks in this public manner, particularly to Mess. Beard, Tenducci, and Champnes; to Mrs. Scott, Miss Young, and Signora Clementina, and to Dr. Nares, for the Favour of the Choiresters; also to Mr. Tacet and Mr. Butler.  And Thanks are the only Return the Governors can make to Mr. Avison and Mr. Giardini, for their Kindness in composing the Oratorio for the Benefit of the Hospital.  This Charity alone was the Motive for their undertaking it, nevertheless the general Approbation that was universally given to their Music, particularly by the best Judges present, could not fail of communicating great Pleasure to themselves and Friends.  The Governors can add no more than their repeated Acknowledgments for the Benefaction; and, as the Oratorio will be annually performed, must consequently remain a lasting Monument of their Benevolence.  To express the Sense of the Obligation the Charity is under to Mr. Giardini in the Terms he particularly merits as a Composer, Performer and Conductor of the Music, would rather (from Experience) offend him, as he himself is a Governor of this Hospital.[24]

 

 

 

Apr 25

Hospital for the Maintenance and Education of exposed and deserted young children.

TOWARDS the Support of this Charity, the Sacred Oratorio

MESSIAH.

Will be performed in the Chapel of this Hospital on Friday the 29th instant, at Twelve at Noon precisely, under the Direction of Mr. Smith.

Tickets to be had at Arthur’s in St. James’s Street; Batson’s Coffee-house in Cornhill; Tom’s Coffee-house in Devereux Court; at Will’s Coffee-house in Lincoln’s Inn Fields; and of the Steward at the Hospital, at Half a Guinea each.

Tickets delivered for Tuesday the 26th will be taken.

N.B.  The Schools wherein the Children work will be open for Gentlemen and Ladies to see them till the Oratorio begins.[25]

 

 

 

Apr 27

DRURY-LANE.

For the BENEFIT of the COLLEGES of PHILADEPHIA and NEW-YORK.

AT THE

THeatre [sic] Royal in Drury-Lane,

This Day, April 27, will be performed

The CURE of SAUL,

A sacred Ode.  Written by Dr. BROWN.

Set to select Airs, Duets, and Chorusses, from Mr. Handel, and other eminent Composers.

With the Addition of several new Songs.  The Vocal Parts by Mr. Beard, Sig. Tenducci, Mr. Norris, Mr. Champnes, Sig. Clementina, Miss Young and Miss Polly Young.  The Orchestra to be led by Sig. GIARDINI.  Who will perform a Concerto on the Violin between the Acts.

                  Between the Acts a Concerto on the Violin, by Mr. Giardini.

                  And another on the Violoncello, by Mr. Cervetto, jun.

                  Pit and Boxes to be put together.  No Persons to be admitted without Tickets, which will be delivered at the Office in the Theatre at Half a Guinea each.  And also at the following Coffee-houses, viz. the Smyrna in Pall-mall; the Mount, Grosvenor-street; George’s, Temple Bar; the Rainbow, Cornhill; the New York in Swithing’s Alley, and the Pensylvania in Birchin-Lane.  First Gallery 5s.  Second Gallery 3s. 6d.  Galleries to be opened at Half an Hour after Four.  To begin at Half an Hour after Six.[26]

 

 

 

Apr 27

INTELLIGENCE EXTRAORDINARY.

from last Saturday’s St. James’s Chron.

                  Drury-Lane.  We find by the freshest Advices from this Theatre, that the Rev. Dr. Brown, who has lately obliged the World with a short learned and ingenious Dissertation on the original Union of Poetry and Musick, (both which Sister-Arts, he is of Opinion, were twinned at a Birth) and who has also, in these our later successfully united in himself the characters of Poet and Musician, has benevolently taken hold of a most noble Occasion to display those combined Talents in the Cause of Religion and Learning.  The Managers also, we hear, readily concurring in so good a Design, have appointed To-morrow for the Performance of The CURE of SAUL, for the Benefit of the Colleges of Philadelphia and New-York.  The charitable Disposition of the English Nation, and the great Encouragement given to Hospitals and other domestic Charities, together with the numerous and splendid Assemblies in their Favour often seen at the Theatres and other public Places, leave us scarce any room to doubt of the Zeal, which will animate our Countrymen and fair Countrywomen, to do Honour to themselves, by appearing in Behalf of so excellent, so important, an Institution, as the Chatiry above mentioned.  Our Colonies, those invaluable Nur[ss]ings[?] of this their Mother-Country, anxious to make the Enjoyment of Liberty and Protestantism as secure in North America as in Great Britain, notwithstanding their Sufferings from the Ravages of War, have advanced very large Sums for the Establishment of these Seminaries of pure Religion and useful Knowledge.  Finding however, that their Funds were inadequate to the Expence, necessary for the Support of these Foundations, they turned their Eyes to England for Assistance; where they soon received a glorious Earnest of their Success from the Munificence of his Majesty who, like another Alfred, rejoiced to promote the Interests of an Infant University.  The Nature of the Charity particularly called on the Benevolence of the [Berschoof?] Bishops and they have manifested their Zeal for the Advancement of Religion and Learning, by the Liberality of their Contributions.  Dr. Brown has already ascended the Pulpit, not without Success, in this Cause; and now, without the least Abatement of his Clerical Dignity, enters the Theatre in its Behalf.  The Publick, we may venture to prophecy, will second his humane Intentions.  Though we have the liveliest Sense of Theatrical Merit, we have not bespoke the Favour of the Town for any one Performer this Season.  The Pathos of Cibber, the varied Merit of Pritchard, the Humour of Clive, the elegant Sprightliness of Pope, the improving Assiduity, the vocis & laterum labor of Holland, the comick Powers of Woodward, Shuter, and Obrien, have not once been urged as Claims for Encouragement at their respective Benefits.  But on this Occasion we should hold it almost criminal to be silent:  And we dare assure those Ladies and Gentlemen, who may, on this Occasion give up the Enjoyment […] besides the Heartfelt Satisfaction, necessarily derived from the Thoughts of contributing to one of the noblest Charities in the World, they will also receive no small Degree of Delight from the Performance.[27]

 

 

 

Apr 27

Extracts concerning the Oratorio of the Cure of SAUL, which is to be performed this Evening at Drury-Lane, for the Benefit of the Colleges of NEW-YORK and PHILADELPHIA; taken from a Pamphlet just published by Mr. Kearsley in Ludgate-Street, entitles an “Examination of the Oratorios that have been performed this Season, &c.[”]

                  The learned and critical Author of this Pamphlet, after enumerating twelve capital Defects and Improprieties, which generally prevail, more or less, in the poetical and musical Constitution of the Oratorio; first examines how far these Defects, &c. subsist in the present favourite Oratorios, viz. the occasional Oratorio, the Messiah, Samson, Acis and Galatea, Judas Macchabeus, and Alexander’s Feast; and then proceeds to try the Cure of Saul by the same Rules.

                  His first Remarks relate to the Poetry and structure of the Pieces, which are generally performed as Oratorios.  There are, says he, only two capital Performances of this Kind extant in our Language, Mr. Dryden’s and Mr. Pope’s Odes for St. Cecilia’s Day; and even these noble Pieces, in their complex Character, are not free from Imperfections.  Mr. Dryden begins with a Detail of Particulars—

’Twas at the Royal Feast for Persia won, &c.

which detracts greatly from that Enthusiasm which is peculiar to the Opening of the Odal Species; and Mr. Pope begins with what is equally common to great and little Poets, an Invocation, neither of which can be render’d very affecting by Music.

                  But, the Cure of Saul breaks out in the genuine Spirit of an Ode, (abrupt and sublime)

                                                      Vengeance arise from thy internal Bed.

And pour thy Tempests o’er his guilty Head.

                  The Music corresponding to these Lines constitute the first Chorus, and, says our Author, is grand and tremendous.  The Symphony is striking and proper, because it here rouses the Attention, without anticipating the Subject.—In the next Chorus—

                                    Hark! loud Discord breaks her Chain,

                                                      The hostile Atoms clash with deaf’ning Roar;

Her hoarse Voice thunders thro’ the dear Domain,

                                    And kindles every Element to War;

The Music is as sublime and terrible as the Words; and the Expression on Thunders and Kindles is peculiarly happy.  But fine as this Chorus is in itself, the Author has contrived to render it still more striking by the Song,

Tumult cease,

Sink to Peace,

Which succeeds it.  The Conduct is masterly, and the Contrast admirable.

                  The Chorus,

And lo the radiant Sun,

Flaming from his orient Bed,

His endless Course begun,

Is spirited and joyous; but the last Line, from an Attempt to great Expression, is rather over-wrought.  The Song,

Hark! the solemn Nightingale

Warbles to the Woodland Dale;

is an elegant and natural Imitation of the Nightingale’s Song.  The Similarity lies chiefly in the Accompanyment, and is, perhaps, one of the happiest yet attempted.

                  Of the Second Act, the Author observes that the first Song—

Why, why is Peace the welcome Guest

Of every Heart but mine?

is solemn and sorrowful.  The second,

Heavenly Harp, in mournful Strain,

O’er yon weeping Bower complain,

is softly plaintive.  The third Chorus,

Lo!

Hapless, hapless Pair,

Goaded by Despair,

Forlorn, thro’ desert Climes they go!

is in mournful and learned Stile.  The fourth Duet,

Wake, my Lyre! can Pity sleep,

When Heaven is mov’d and Angels weep?

is tender, while the next Song,

Flow, ye melting Numbers, flow

Till he feel that Guilt is Woe,

melts insensibly into the serene Pathetic.  Here then we have five different Movements upon the same Subject; yet, by the Difference of their Conduct, the Continuance of the Subject is not perceived, and the Passion is heighten’d by so powerful a Succession.

                  The Conduct and Expression of the following Chorus is hardly to be parallelled [sic] in the tremendous Style.  Korah and his Company cry out, as they sink—

                                    Oh save us, Heaven---

The Recitative then breaks the Chorus—

Hark! from the Deep, their loud Laments I hear.

The Chorus goes on—

                                    O save us, save us Heaven! we sink, we die!

The Recitative breaks it again—

                                    They lessen now, and lessen on the Ear!

The Chorus goes on again, Piano,

                                    O save us, save us Heaven! we sink, we die!

Then the whole Chorus of Israelites breaks out in the most awful Manner—

                                    Now the strife of Fate is o’er;

                                                      The countless Host

                                                      For ever lost;

                                    Their Cries are heard no more;

and closes the dreadful Scene by a most sublime Piece of Harmony.  The whole Music is the Composition of the immortal Handel; and, by being thus happily broken, is strengthened in its Power and Effect.

The first and second Song in the Third Act—

                                    Listen to your Shepherd’s Lay

                                    Whose artless Carols close the Day---

And—

                                    Bounding Kids around him throng,

                                    The steep Rock echoes back his Song,

are both cheerful [sic] and pastoral; but, from an entire Difference of Manner form an agreeable Contrast.  The Song,

                                    Gentle Sleep, becalm his Breast,

                                    And close his Eyes in healing Rest!

is soft and soothing.  The Notes on Becalm are peculiarly expressive, and the whole Air perfectly worthy of the delicate Bononcini.  The Chorus,

                                    Where Choirs immortal hymn their God,

                                    Intranc’d in Extasy of ceaseless Praise;

is solemn, grand and celestial.  Nothing can be added, but that the Music is Corelli’s.

                  The concluding Chorus—

’Twas, then, ye Sons of God, in bright Array,

Ye shouted o’er Creation’s Day:

                  Then, kindling into Joy,

The morning Stars together sung,

                  And through the vast ethereal Sky,

Seraphic Hymns and loud Hosanna’s rung:

is grand and sublime in the Subject, and admirably conducted.  This whole Conclusion leaves such a Glow of Harmony on the Mind, as affords us the strongest Idea of the celestial Concerts of the Angelic Host.

                  So far in regard to the Songs, choirs, &c.  And as to the Recitative, the Author observes that they are a happy Exception to the general Imputation of Languor and Insipidity; and quotes several striking Instances of the Truth of this Remark, which, for Brevity’s Sake, are here omitted.

                  The Music of the Airs and Choirs, we are told, is selected from Handel, Marcello, Bononcini and Corelli; but chiefly from the two former, whose Abilities and distinguishing Characters, the Author critically examines.

                  The Subject of the Piece, viz. the Recovery of Saul (from the Fiend of melancholy that possess’d him) thro’ the Power of Music, under the Conduct of David, the sweet Singer of Israel, is sufficiently known.

                  Such, says the Author, is the Plan and execution of this Piece, where perhaps it would be hard to determine, whether the Pathos, Sublimity, and Variety of the Subjects is more to be admir’d, than their Propriety, Order, and Connection.

                  Since, therefore, this piece hath never been perform’d but once before, the Author having generously reserved its second Performance for the Benefit of the laudable Charity above-mentioned; and as the Managers of the theatre have most disinterestedly concurred in the Design, and the principal Performers, vocal and instrumental, offered their Services gratis, it is not doubted but these benevolent intentions will be encouraged and made effectual, by the good Disposition of the Town, especially as the Weather is so cool and favourable to the Purpose.  The Author, we hear also, hath made some Additions and Improvements, to render the piece still more worthy of the Reception it has met with; and some new Performers are added to the vocal Parts, who, it is thought, will give great Satisfaction.[28]

 

 

 

May

Remarks on our Cathedral and Parochial Musick: From Dr. Brown’s Dissertation on Poetry and Music.[29]

 

 

 

May

An examination of the oratorios that have been performed this season.  1s Kearsley[30]

 

 

 

Art. 23.  An Examination of the Oratorios which have been performed this Season at Covent-Garden Theatre.  8vo.  Pr. 1s.  Kearsly.

If doctor Brown has an enemy in the world, the author of this pamphlet, be who he will, is the man; for the flattery contained in it is so fulsome in some parts, that it loses all the ends of praise; and where it is tolerable, every reader of taste and discernment must suspect that it comes from the doctor’s own hand.  This Examination is a most tasteless farrago of common-place criticisms, without the end of useful information, or the merit of gratifying the lowest curiosity.  If a man has an ear, he will relish music; and with the smallest portion of capacity he must feel poetry: but five thousand critics, let them write like Longinus himself, cannot create either an ear or brain.  The performance before us is one of the most gross insults ever offered to the understanding of the public; though [/326] it is plain, the author is not absolutely devoid of that kind of knowledge which may be acquired by an humble attendant upon operas and oratorios, or that which may be obtained at the expence of ten shillings a year from a circulating library.

We would willingly have omitted any severity either upon the words or music of doctor Brown’s ode on the Cure of Saul, because they have had fair play from the public, the discerning part of which has done them both (to speak the least) justice; and we firmly believe, that all the arts either of the doctor, or this, his despicable puffer, will never be able to reverse the judgment already pronounced upon them, however the effects of it may, for certain reasons, be a while suspended, or even mollified.  But we can more easily pardon the insults offered to the public, than those intended to the memories of Dryden or Pope, whom this despicable pufster has dared to mention in the same page with Brown.  He has gone farther, and, what in a discerning age might be thought incredible, has even preferred Brown’s ode, which has not much above the merit of sing-song poetry to recommend it, to the St. Cecilia odes, composed by the two great ornaments of English poetry.

In short, were we not afraid of being censured for a pun, we should be apt to apprehend that the doctor’s friends (for we shall suppose him quite out of the question) are now labouring to translate the sect of the BROWNISTS from the church and religion, into the provinces of poetry and music.  That we may not seem to censure from any caprice, we shall appeal to the mind of every sensible reader, whether the sober, and at the same time manly and spirited exordium of Mr. Dryden’s ode, which this scribbler censures, is not one of the most striking beauties in it, and quite agreeable to the practice of the greatest masters of antiquity in that species of poetry.[31]

 

 

 

June

[Lichfield, June 1763]

 

                  Then the orchestra of the Italian cities!—their celebrated orchestra!  But, beneath my expectations of its graces, no very warm enthusiasm kindles in my bosom.  As to the powers of execution, both in the vocal and instrumental line, unprejudiced judges assure me, the best Italian performers find their way [/lxxxvii] to England; and what spirit that has melted, chilled, and glowed beneath the influence of Handel’s strains of those different and contrasting passions, awakened to so much energy by his lofty harmonies, and angelic airs, can be more than transiently pleased with the cloying sweetness of one eternal love-song, varied only by the fury of a jealous rant?  I speak of the serious opera.  The burlesque, or even convivial music of any country, is not much to my taste; and, in the graver line, can the most perfect tones of voice and instrument, the silver heights of the clear soprano, the trill, the shake, the brilliant execution, that artful and “long-drawn cadence,” make amends for the sameness of their melodies, and the poverty respecting air, that renders their drumming basses contemptible?

                  After all, to what numbers do the Italian delicacies, as they are called, more than recompence the want of Handelian variety, pathos, and sublimity!  Our polite people, it seems, desert the oratorios, and swarm in the opera-house.

                  It is a national disgrace; but I think it will not be a lasting one.  Nature, and the generous perceptions, must awaken from this musical frivolity into which the sorcery of fashion, and the cunning of the Italian masters, have plunged them.  The eclat of sublime genius, in almost every science, seems doomed to suffer a long suppression, ere it rises to its just [/lxxxviii] level.  Shakespeare’s plays were, in a great measure, banished our stage, and, consequently, were familiar only to the few, from the time of Charles II., till Mr Garrick recalled them; and Milton had no general attention till Addison brought him forward.

                  Surely those who do really prefer an opera to an oratorio, must be more pleased with the modern tragedies than with those of Shakespeare!  A trivial and effeminate taste will prevail alike in every science.[32]

 

 

 

July

[“Part of a letter from a gentleman on a journey, giving an account of the Encaenia at Oxford”]

 

Between every three or four speakers, the musick made a short interval, so that it was about one o’clock before the assembly broke up; and then all hurried home to their dinners to have the advantage of being early at the theatre in the afternoon, where the company were detained from three to eight, hearing that absurd composition called Acis and Galatea.  Eight hours in the theatre in one day, I rather tho’t unconscionable, and I don’t doubt but many rosy faces I saw there were of the same opinion, and would have wished for less music and more wine.  To many of the ladies, likewise, I fancy it would have been as agreeable not to have assembled so early in the morning, and to have spent the evening in private amusements; but the fashion must be complied with, and perhaps there was some secret policy in it, which I shall not pretend to explain.

On Thursday and Friday more honorary degrees were conferred, and we had a repetition of the same scenes as on the first day of the Encaenia, only enlivened by the brilliancy of the company, and the agreeable variety of the speakers; all of whom, one or two excepted, met with loud and deserved applause. In one thing, however, I think they merited censure; for notwithstanding the numerous company of British fair that crouded the theatre, beauty past uncelebrated by almost all of them.  On Thursday evening the oratorio of Judas Maccabeus, and on Friday evening that of the Messiah, were performed to a crowded and genteel audience.[33]

 

 

 

[review of Dr. Brown’s Dissertation]

 

We shall pass over our author’s remarks on the anthem, which have nothing in them very new or striking, that we may have more room to lay before our readers his opinion of oratorios, which constitute so essential a part of our Lenten entertainment.[34]

 

 

 

Jul 23

[Thomas Twining to Daniel Twining, Colchester, 23 July 1763]

 

[…] I like the humour of your avoiding Dr. Woodward because you did not know what to say to him. […] When you fall in his way next, & are at a loss for other matter of conversation, give my service to him, & tell him I hope he received his Mass safe […] Moreover – tell him I shou’d take it as a great favour, if He wou’d let me have a copy of Pergolesi’s Salve Regina […] If this conversation is not enough, you may proceed to ask him […] whether he has yet Jomelli’s Passion from Italy […] If you chuse to moon further, by talking with a grave face of things you know nothing of, & in [/36] the language of us connoisseurs, you may tell him, that I have lately met with first Act of that Oratorio (last-mention’d) & that it is exquisite!!!! &c. […]

[Jomelli’s oratorio Passion was produced in 1753. TT made a MS copy of a duetto bearing a note “Written from memory by Thomas Twining some years before the oratorio was published – no copy being permitted to be taken” 2:705][35]

 

 

 

[critique of fashionable noblewomen]

[…]

If music fires her, the delighted fair

Will rummage Oswald’s with fantastic care;

And while great Handel’s in the corner plac’d,

Purchase Arne’s fripperies to shew her taste;

[…][36]

 

 

 

At Vauxhall, a village near London, on the Surry side of the Thames, there are some spacious gardens, which have been for many years converted into a place of genteel entertainment, during two or three months in the Summer season.  In the middle of the garden is a magnificent orchestra, with a fine organ, a band of music, and some of the best voices.  Round the orchestra are boxes, disposed to the best advantage for hearing the music; and in most of the boxes are paintings designed by Mr. Hayman, of subjects admirably adapted to the place.  Here is a Rotunda and ball room, finely illuminated, in which is an orchestra, with an organ, where, on rainy evenings, the company may be safely sheltered and entertained.  In this room are some good historical paintings by Hayman; and in the grand pavilion are several pieces by the same master, from the historical plays of Shakespeare, which are greatly admired for the design, colouring, and expression.  In this garden are several noble vistas of very tall trees, where the spaces between each are filled up with neat hedges, and on the inside are planted flowers, and sweet smelling shrubs.  Some of these vistas terminate in a view of ruins, and others in a prospect of the adjacent country; and some are adorned with the painted [/53] representation of triumphal arches.  Here are also several statues, and, in particular a good marble one by Roubiliac, of the late Mr. Handel, playing on a lyre in the character of Orpheus.[37]

 

 

 

[...] et entre les Statues des Particuliers, celui du celebre Handel par Roubellac [sic] est le principal: [...][38]

 

 

 

[p. 4/5:]

Wild-mans Feast

or the

Power of Music

 

[rule]

Set to the Music of Mr Handel

[rule]

 

[p. 6/7:]

Wildmans Feast

or the

Power of Music

[rule]

[by another hand:] by Mr Bentley

 

ACT the FIRST

 

Recitative.

’Twas at the Faction Club, held to display,

What Powr’s had join’d the Fray:

Aloft in angry State

The Party-Hero sate,

As Chairman of the day:

His placeless Peers were rang’d around,

Their brows with Briars, and with Nettles bound;

So love of Tumult should be crown’d.

Shelly ’nd Onslow, by his side,

Sate, and the Government defy’d

In Oppositions daring pride.

 

Air

Happy, happy, happy Race!

None but ourselves,

None but ourselves,

None but ourselves deserve a Place.

 

[p. 8/9:]

Chorus

Happy, happy, happy Race!

None but ourselves,

None but ourselves,

None but ourselves deserve a Place.

 

Recitative.

Here Churchill plac’d on high,

Amid the scouling Quire,

With black’ning fingers touch’d the Lyre:

Th’ abusive Notes where ’re they fly,

Malicious joys inspire.

 

Recitative accompany’d.

The Song from Wilks began,

E’re from his seat above he ran;

(Such is the pow’r of Guilt on Man!)

A Dragons fiery form he roll’d along,

No fear restrain’d his venom’d tongue,

When he to sugar’d Beckford press’d,

And while he stole upon his breast,

Then round the Coomon Councill [sic] curl’d

He stamp’d an Image of himself, a brand to fire ye World.

 

Chorus

The list’ning Crowd admire the sound,

The Devil damn the Peace! they shout around,

The Devil damn the Peace! the vaulted Roofs rebound.

 

[page break]

[Air]

With ravish’d ears

Earl Temple hears;

Assumes the God,

Affects to nod.

And seems to guide Affairs.

 

Recitative

Our mighty Patriot, then, the sweet Musician sung;

Pit, ever in the Right, and never Wrong:

From Hayes in Triumph, lo! he comes;

Sound the Trumpets, beat the Drums,

And shews in pallid grace

His unembarass’d face;

Now bid the Mob huzza; He comes! he comes!

 

Air

Pit, still right, and never wrong.

Winks at ev’ry Factious Rout;

What he likes is a right Measure,

Faction is the City’s pleasure:

Right the Measure,

Sweet the Pleasure;

Sweet is Faction, when we’re Out.

 

Chorus

What Pit likes is a right Measure,

Faction is the City’s Pleasure:

Right the Measure,

Sweet the Pleasure

Sweet is Faction when we’re Out.

 

[p. 10/11:]

[Recitative]

Sooth’d with the sound, the Earl grew vain;

Spoke all his speeches o’er again;

And thrice fell foul upon the Scots, and Bute with might & main.

The Master saw the Madness rise,

His glowing cheeks, his ardent eyes;

And while he Court, and Shame defy’d,

Chang’d his hand, and check’d his Pride.

 

Recitative accompany’d

He chose a mournfull Muse,

Soft Pity to infuse.

 

Air

He sung Newcastle wise, as good,

By too severe a Fate,

Fallen, fallen, fallen, fallen,

Fallen from his high Estate,

And flound’ring in the Mud.

Deserted at his utmost need,

By those he join’d against his Creed,

At Claremont he neglected lies,

Without the sense to ope his Eyes.

 

Recitative

With downcast looks the joyless Leader sate,

Revolving in his alter’d Soul

The various turns of Courts below,

And, now and then, a Sigh he stole,

And tears began to flow.

[page break]

Chorus

Behold Newcastle wise, as good,

Fallen, flound’ring in the Mud;

At Claremont he neglected lies

Without the sense to ope his Eyes.

 

Recitative

The mighty Master smil’d to see

Contempt was in the next degree;

’Twas but the neighb’ring string to move,

For One may pity Fools, not love.

 

Recitative accompany’d

Softly sweet in Lay-mens Measures

Soon he sooth’d the soul to Pleasures.

 

Air

Pray’rs, he sung, were toil and trouble,

Orders, but an empty bubble:

Preaching, still one tale beginning,

Satan to no purpose clawing;

Since the next World there’s no winning,

Think, O think, This worth enjoying.

Shelly, ’nd Onslow, sit beside thee,

Take what help, the Times provide thee.

Pray’rs, he sung were toil and trouble.

Orders, but an empty bubble:

Preaching, still one tale beginning,

Satan to no purpose clawing;

Since the next World there’s no winning,

Think O think This worth enjoying.

 

[p. 12/13:]

Chorus

Minoritys are lavish of Applause;

The Song was prais’d, but Party was the Cause.

 

Air—

The Earl unable to conceal his Pain,

Gaz’d on the Pair,

Who caus’d his Care;

And curs’d and swore, curs’d and swore,

Curs’d and swore, and curs’d again:

At length with cares and Wine at once oppress’d,

The anxious Leader clos’d his eyes in rest.

The Earl unable to conceal his Pain,

Gaz’d on the Pair,

Who caus’d his Care;

And curs’d and swore, and curs’d and swore,

Curs’d and swore, and curs’d again.

 

Chorus repeated

Minoritys are lavish of Applause;

The Song was prais’d, but Party was the Cause

 

End of the first Act.—

[page break]

ACT the SECOND

 

Recitative accompany’d

Strike Oppositions Lyre again;

A colder yet – and yet a bolder strain;

Break his bands of Sleep asunder,

And roar Two-Hundred-and-Eighteen like Thunder.

 

Chorus

Break his bands of Sleep asunder,

And roar Two-Hundred-and-Eighteen like Thunder.

 

Recitative

Hark, hark! the pleasing sound

Has rais’d up his Head,

As awak’d from the Dead

And amaz’d, he stares around.

 

Air

Revenge, revenge, now Churchill cries,

See the juries arise,

See the Verdicts they find.

How they Wilks doubly bind

And how Mansfield our clamour defys.

 

[p. 14/15:]

Air

Behold a ghastly Band,

Where unoffic’d they stand!

These Resigners are, who for Votes ’gainst the Peace,

Still remain in disgrace,

Inglorious out of Place.

 

Recitative accompany’d

Get Employments new,

To the Albemarle Crew:

Behold how they toss Defiance on high,

At St. James’s itself how they hoot,

And Luton Hoo, the seat of hated Bute.

 

Air

The Faction took fire at so odious a Name,

And the Earl seiz’d a Libell, with zeal to defame.

 

Air

Onslow led the way,

To shew him to his prey,

And gave the Surry Toasts to heighten still the flame.

 

Chorus

The Faction took fire at so odious a Name

And the Earl seiz’d a Libell, with zeal to defame.

Onslow led the way

To shew him to his prey.

And gave the Surry Toasts to heighten still the flame.

[page break]

Recitative accompamy’d [sic]

Thus t’other day,

When Wilks was fled beyond the Sea,

The true North Briton mute,

Charles Churchill to his foul-mouth’d Flute,

And desp’rate Lyre,

Could swell the soul to rage, and set the Mob on fire.

 

Grand Chorus

At last, thank Prat, Licentia came,

And taught a blameless Prince to blame;

The mad Enthusiast open’d scandals store,

Shook off the bands of Legal tyes,

And added face to solemn Lies,

With new born Insolence, and Arts unknown before.

 

[after 16:]

Recitative

To Wilks let Churchill yield the prize,

Or both divide the Crown;

Both puff’d a Mortal to the Skies,

Both wrote an Angel down.

 

Chorus

To Wilks let Churchill yield the prize,

Or both divide the Crown;

Both puff’d a Mortal to the Skies,

Both wrote an Angel down.

 

Finis[39]

 

 



[1] Ian Woodfield, “New Light on the Mozarts’ London Visit: A Private Concert with Manzuoli,” Music & Letters 76 (1995), 187-208: 208.

[2] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 24 February 1763, [1].

[3] The Public Advertiser, Friday 25 February 1763, [4].

[4] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 26 February 1763, [1].

[5] The St. James’s Chronicle, Tuesday 1–Thursday 3 March 1763, [3]; reprinted, Thursday 3–Saturday 5 March 1763, [2].

[6] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 3 March 1763, [1].

[7] The St. James’s Chronicle, Thursday 3–Saturday 5 March 1763, [3].

[8] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 5 March 1763, [2].

[9] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 8 March 1763, [2].

[10] The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany, ed. Lady Llanover, second series, 3 vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1862), 1:14.

[11] The St. James’s Chronicle, Tuesday 8–Thursday 10 March 1763, [4].

[12] John Brown, A Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of Poetry and Music.  To which is prefixed, The Cure of Saul.  A Sacred Ode (London: L. Davis and C. Reymers, 1763), 213-14, 226, 236-37.

[13] The St. James’s Chronicle, Tuesday 15–Thursday 17 March 1763, [3].

[14] The St. James’s Chronicle, Tuesday 15–Thursday 17 March 1763, [4].

[15] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 24 March 1763, [2].

[16] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 19 March, [4].

[17] The St. James’s Chronicle, Tuesday 22–Thursday 24 March 1763, [2].

[18] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 23 March 1763, [2].

[19] The London Magazine: Or, Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer 32 (1763): 126-27.

[20] The Public Advertiser, Friday 8 April 1763, [2].

[21] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 14 April 1763, [1].

[22] The Public Advertiser, Friday 15 April 1763, [1].

[23] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 19 April 1763, [2].

[24] The Public Advertiser, Friday 22 April 1763, [1].

[25] The Public Advertiser, Monday 25 April 1763, [3].

[26] [The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 27 April 1763, [1]; first advertisement: Tuesday 12 April 1763, [1].

[27] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 26 April 1763, [3].

[28] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 27 April 1763, [4].

[29] The London Magazine: Or, Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer 32 (1763): 252-53.

[30] The Gentleman’s Magazine 33 (1763): 259.

[31] The Critical Review 15 (January-June 1763): 325-26.

[32] The Poetical Works of Anna Seward; with Extracts from her Literary Correspondence, ed. Walter Scott, 3 vols. (Edinburgh: Ballantyne and Co., 1810), 1:lxxxvi-lxxxviii.

[33] The Gentleman’s Magazine 33 (1763): 349.

[34] The Critical Review 15 (January-June 1763): 252.

[35] A Selection of Thomas Twining’s Letters, 1734-1804: The Record of a Tranquil Life, ed. Ralph S. Walker, 2 vols. (Lewiston/Queenston/Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991), 1:35-36.

[36] [Edward Burnaby Greene], The Satires of Juvenal Paraphrastically Imitated, And adapted to the Times (London: J. Ridley, 1763), 76.

[37] The beauties of nature and Art displayed, in a Tour through the World… 14 vols. (London: J. Payne, 1763), 2:52-53. a monumental series of 14 volumes coming out at the end of the seven year war; reflects global interests of the Empire

[38] The Foreigner’s Guide: Or, a necessary and instructive Companion both for the Foreigner and Native, in their Tour through the Cities of London and Westminster, 4th edition, revised and improved (London: H. Kent et al.: 1763), 143.

[39] William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, UCLA, *PR3419.A41.1750.