From a reputed connoisseur in the fine arts, I can present you with an observation, which is a perfect counterpart to the late decision you transmitted to me from the literary part at Lady B————’s, concerning Shakespeare’s lack of skill in conceiving and uttering amorous sentiments.

                  This connoisseur maintained, last night, in our drawing-room, amidst a large company, that Handel wanted delicacy and tenderness in his compositions; yes, he advanced it, though familiar with the elegant and enamoured sweetness which breathes through [cvii] all the strains of the delicious Acis and Galatea;—with the “Return, O God of Hosts,”—“the [sic] “Pious Orgies,”—“O Sleep, why dost thou leave me,”—“Father of Heaven;”—and, in short, with a countless number of accompanied recitatives and airs, which equally display an unmatched talent for melting softness and tender persuasion.

                  The ingenious Mr S———, whose fine voice and perfect expression do so much justice to the vocal music of Handel, was on my side in warmly defending the claims of that great master to an equal degree of excellence in the delicate and pathetic, as in the spirited and sublime composition.  It was acknowledged that we came off victorious in that controversy.

                  After the dispute was closed, I mentioned a circumstance that gives an uncommon degree of credit to one of Handel’s pathetic songs.  A deceased clerical friend of my father’s had given his female, as well as his male children, literary educations, though he could not leave them fortunes.  One of these daughters passed a few days with us when I was in my sixteenth year, in her road to town, whither she was going, in order to superintend the education of two little girls of consequence, whose mother had then lately died.

                  The governess-elect was not much more than twenty; her figure low, and ill formed; her complexion pale, and of an olive tint; her face flat; her [cviii] mouth wide; and she had so extreme a squint, that one eye appeared almost turned into her head.  With this repulsive exterior, she had a very pleasing address; her tone of voice, in speaking, was interesting, and there was an attic spirit in her conversation.

                  She went with us to pass an evening at Mr Howard’s, where it is always so pleasant to pass evenings.  After supper, the moon shining splendidly upon the gloom of a calm night, it was proposed that we should adjourn to a pretty arched grotto, formed of shells and fossils, in this gentleman’s garden.  The grotto stands on the edge of a little velvet lawn, planted with shrubs and trees, which have clumps of flowers around their base.  This lawn slopes down to a large pool, and, as we do not see its termination, it appears from the grotto like a considerable river.

                  The moon was shedding a shower of diamonds in the water, and edging with silver the highest leaves of the trees.  Singing was proposed while we were in the grotto; and our agreeable guest being solicited, favoured us with the two single verses of that beautiful duet in Athaliah:

                                    “Cease thy anguish, smile once more,

                                    Let thy tears no longer flow!”

Her voice was of the most liquid softness, and she expressed those honied and ever-soothing notes in a [cix] style the most enchantingly touching.  Tears of delight streamed down my cheeks as I listened, and I fancied it impossible to feel an anguish so keen as might not be soothed and comforted by the persuasive sweetness with which she uttered,


                                    Let thy tears no longer flow!”——&c.

                  When the song was over, Mr H——d exclaimed, “My dear young lady, whenever you shall wish to subdue a heart, let this song be your weapon of attack, and it will be impossible you should meet an invulnerable shield.”

                  When we returned to the stronger light of the candles, in the supper-room, all the personal defects of the syren were vanished; at least, I saw them no longer.

                  In a few weeks after, we heard that Mr L——— had married his children’s governess, and that the bride and groom had traveled through Shrewsbury to their seat in Wales, with a superb equipage, and a great retinue of servants.

                  A friend of mine, intimate with Mrs L———’s sister, has since told me, that when this lucky young woman had been about a month in Mr L———’s family, as governess, (yet, as she had properly stipulated, treated by himself and his company as a gentlewoman,) the house being full of guests, it was one [cx] evening proposed that the song should go round.  When the governess was called upon, she sung the very air whose witching sweetness had, in the grotto, taken prisoner every faculty of my young imagination.

                  Her sister told my friend, that was the first time Mr L——— had heard her sing.  He had shewn little attention to the charms of her conversation.  The emanations of genius and of knowledge are, to the generality of what are called polite men and women, but as colours to the blind.  We do not find it so with vocal music; where there is any ear, it speaks to the passions, and their influence is universal.

                  The next morning, Mr L——— offered to the acceptance of the songstress, in his proper person, an attractive figure, a creditable degree of intellect, at least for a man of fashion, a good character, and a splendid fortune.

                  If Handel had wanted sweetness and delicacy in his strains, it is not probable that such great effect would have been produced by an air of his, warbled through lips so little Medicean.[1]




Feb 8

HAY-MARKET. / By Desire of several Persons of Distinction. / AT the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, This Day, Feb. 8, will be performed an Oratorio called / The SACRIFICE. / Composed by Dr. ARNE. / The Opera Orchestra will accompany the Performance, / Conducted by Mr. GIARDINI. / And a Concerto on the Organ by Mr. ARNE. / Pit and Boxes 10s 6d.  1st Gal. 5 s.  Upper Gal. 3s. 6d. / By His MAJESTY’s Command, / No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. / Vivant Rex & Regina. / F Tickets to be had at Almack’s in Pall-mall; at Tom’s Coffee-house in Great Russel-Street, Covent-Garden; at the King’s-Arms in Cornhill; at Dr. Arne’s, in the Piazza next the Church, Covent-Garden; and this Day, at the Office of the Theatre.[2]




Feb 29

For the Benefit of the CHARITY. / LOCK HOSPITAL CHAPEL, / near Hyde Park Corner, This Day, February 29, will be performed an Oratorio called / JUDITH. / Composed by Dr. ARNE. / The Vocal Parts by Mr. Beard, Mr. Tenducci, Mr[.] Champness, Miss Brent, Miss Wright, and others. / First Violin and a Concerto by Mr. Giardini. / And a Concerto Hautboy by Mr. Vincent. / Gallery 10s[.] and 6d.  Bottom of Chapel 5s. / To begin at Half an Hour past Eleven in the Forenoon. / Vivant Rex et Regina. / No Persons to be admitted without Tickets. / Which may be had at the following Places: The St. James’s Coffee-house, St. James’s-street; Mount Coffee-house, Grosvenor street; George’s Coffee-house, Temple Bar; Rainbow Coffee-house, Cornhill; and at the Hospital.[3]




Wednesday, 29 [February 1764].—I heard “Judith,” an oratorio, performed at the Lock [Hospital].  Some parts of it were exceeding fine; but there are two things in all modern pieces of music, which I could never reconcile to common sense.  One is, singing the same words ten times over; the other, singing different words by different persons, at one and the same time.  And this, in the most solemn addresses to God, whether by way of prayer or of thanksgiving.  This can never be defended by all the musicians in Europe, till reason is quite out of date.[4]




On Wednesday, at the Lock Chapel, was performed, to a noble and numerous Audience, the favourite Oratorio of Judith, composed by Dr. Arne.—Mr. Beard, Mr. Tenducci, Mr. Champness, Miss Brent, (for the first Time of her appearing since her severe Illness) and Miss Wright performed: Mr. Giardini led the Orchestra, and performed a Concerto on the Violin; and Mr. Vincent another on the Hautboy: The Opera Band attended.  The general Approbation can best testify the Merit of the Performance.  It must give the Generous and Compassionate no small Satisfaction, to reflect, that the Profit of this most agreeable Amusement is given to relieve the Distresses of the most Pityable of Mankind: Nor can it but do much Honour to Dr. Arne, who appropriated so capital a Performance to the promoting so excellent a Charity.[5]




Mar 8

Mr. Beard is so well recovered from his late Indisposition, as to be able to perform in the Oratorio To-morrow.[6]




Mar 15

This Day is published, Price 1 s. / NABAL: An Oratorio or Sacred Drama.  As it is to be performed To-morrow at the Theatre Royal in Covent Garden.  The Words adapted by the Author of Judas Macchabeus to several Compositions of the late GEORGE FREDERIC HANDEL, Esq; / Printed for Benj[.] Dod, at the Bible and Key in Ave Mary-Lane, Ludgate-Street, and sold by the Booksellers of London and Westminster.[7]




Mar 25

[Thomas Twining to Daniel Twining, Fordham, 25 March 1764]


By this time, I fancy, you have receiv’d a parcel from me, containing Dr. Woodward’s Salve Regina & two other music books which belong to Mr. Stanley [friend of TT], to whom pray send them immediately; for they are Oratorio books (lent books) & will soon be wanted.[8]




Mar 27

KING’s Theatre, Haymarket, / (for two Nights only) Friday, March 30, will be performed a new Oratorio called / HANNAH. / Written by Mr. Smart, and set to Music by Mr. Worgan.  With a Concerto on the Organ.  The principal Singers from the Theatres, with a suitable Band, are engaged on this Occasion.  Pit and Boxes Half a Guinea.  First Gallery 5s.  Upper Gallery 3s. 6d. / Vivant Rex & Regina. / Pit and Box Tickets may be had at Mess. Chadel and Raysdale’s, Jewellers, in Bond-street; at Mr. Randal’s Great Tea Warehouse, at the Golden Lion, Charing [sic] Cross; at Mrs. Johnson’s Music Shop, facing Bow Church, Cheapside; at Mr. Worgan’s House, facing St. John’s Chapel, Millman-street, Bedford Row, Holborn.[9]




Mar 29

THE Oratorio of HANNAH, which was to have been performed To-morrow at the KING’s Theatre in the Haymarket, is unavoidable obliged to be deferred till farther Notice.[10]




Mar 30

[Lord and Lady Clive’s account book]


Paid at the Oratorio [L’Allegro, Il Penseroso] & Books 1-16-0[11]




Mar 31

We hear that the Proprietors of the King’s Theatre and Sig. Giardini have granted Thursday, the 12th of April, for the Benefit of the Decayed Musicians and their Families.  Sig. Giardini was so kind as to offer an Opera; but the Committee for the Concert had fixed on an Oratorio, called Israel in Babylon, compiled (from the Works of the late Mr. Handel) on Purpose for that Occasion.[12]




Apr 3

HAY-MARKET. / AT THE / KING’s Theatre, Haymarket, / This Day will be performed a new Oratorio call’d / HANNAH. / Composed by Mr. WORGAN. / With a Concerto on the Organ. / The Pit and Boxes, Half a Guinea. / First Gall. 5s.  Upper Gall. 3s. 6d. / By Their MAJESTIES Command: / No Persons to be admitted behind the Scenes. / Vivant Rex & Regina. / N.B. Tickets delivered for the 30th of March will be taken.[13]




Apr 2

To the Printer of the Public Advertiser. / SIR, / SEEING by the Papers an Oratorio, call’d The Pilgrims [actually, it was advertised as “I PELLEGRINI, / Or The PILGRIMS”], is to be performed on Thursday next, I am solicitous to be informed if it’s the same that was heard about six Years ago at Drury-Lane, which gave more universal Pleasure to a numerous and polite Audience than I ever saw; indeed so strongly did it possess the Minds of most present, that it was the Topic of almost every Company for some Time; and I doubted not from the confirmed Reputation it acquired, to have had another Hearing of it soon, but I was disappointed; however if this is a Revival of it, I cannot but congratulate every true Lover of Harmony, as well as the Person for whom it is performed [i.e. “Mr. SPILSBURY, Treasurer”]; the former, in the Opportunity they have of hearing an excellent Composition; the latter, on the Emolument that it is probable will arise from so well chosen an Entertainment, which is certainly much heightened in its Merits, from being executed by the best Band in Europe, and supposed the best Voices in this Kingdom. / I am, Sir, your’s / PHILANTHROPOS.[14]




Apr 3

This Day is published, Price 1s. / HANNAH, An ORATORIO. / Written by Mr. SMART. / The Music composed by Mr. WORGAN. / As performed this Evening at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket. / Quae mixima semper / Dicetur nobis, et erit qua maxima semper.  Virg. / Printed for J. and R. Tonson in the Strand. / Where may be had, by the same Author, / Proposals for Printing by Subscription, A new Version of the Psalms.  Also 1. A Song to Daniel.  2. Reason and Imagination, a Fable.  3. Munificence and Modesty, a Poem.  Price 1s. each.[15]




The Rehearsal of the Oratorio of Hannah proving the Necessity of increasing the Number of Voices and Instruments, Mr. Worgan was obliged to postpone the Performance intended for Friday last; and as the principal Chorus Singers, &c. were engaged on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent, Mr. Giardini was so obliging as to grant him the Opera Band, for this Evening the 3d Inst. when the Tickets for Friday last will be taken.[16]




Apr 4

To the Printer of the Public Advertiser. / SIR, / YOUR Querist (Philanthropos) of Yesterday seems to answer the Character he assumes, as ’tis evident he means to do a Service.  His Account prompted me to make an Enquiry into the Merit and Execution of the Oratorio of the Pilgrims, which [{2}] was answered in every Respect; nay, more, for he only says “ the Vocal Parts are supposed to be the best in this Kingdom.”  Now upon looking over the Advertisement of this Performance, I see a List of Names that are unequalled in any one now exhibited; it being as well supported in the Vocal as Instrumental Parts; and, I think, I may venture to flatter myself (for I intend being there) that it will be an Amusement worth the Attention of every Lover of Music: It may perhaps be never heard again, as it is the Property of a Person of Distinction, who kindly lends it for that Evening only; and is the same performed some Years since at Drury-Lane Theatre.  It is the Works of Hasse and Giardini, and has Merit enough in it to do Honour to the Composers; and I should think there is no doubt but that Merit will, in an Age in which Music is so universally practised and admired, recommend it to the Attention of a numerous Audience. / April 3.  I am, Sir, yours, MEANWELL.[17]




Apr 4

[Lord and Lady Clive’s account book]


Paid at the Oratorio [Judas Maccabaeus] & for books 1-4-0[18]




Apr 5

HAY-MARKET. / For the Benefit of Mr. SPILSBURY, / Treasurer. / AT THE / KING’s Theatre, Haymarket, / This Day, April 5, an Oratorio called, / I PELLEGRINI, / Or, The PILGRIMS.  The Vocal Parts By Mrs. Mingotti, Sig. Maziotti, Sig. Giustinelli, Sig. Peretti, and Sig. Tenducci.  First Violin and a Concerto by Mr. Giardini.  Pit and Boxes 10s. 6d.  First Gall. 5s.  Upper Gall. 3s. 6d.  ‡ Tickets to be had at the Opera-house; of Mr. Spilsbury, at Pritchard’s Warehouse, Tavistock-Street; at Almack’s, Pall-mall; and at the Mount Coffee house, Grosvenor-street.[19]




Apr 6

Mr. Worgan begs Leave to inform the Nobility and Gentry, who have done him the Honour to take Tickets for the Oratorio of Hannah for This Day, that the Performance is obliged to be postponed for a few Days, by Reason of some of the principal Performers being engaged, and that timely Notice will be given in this Paper of the Day of Performance.[20]




Apr 12

HAY-MARKET. / For the Benefit and Increase of a FUND established for the Support of Deacay’d MUSICIANS and their Families. / AT THE / KING’s Theatre, Haymarket, / This Day, April 12, will be performed an Oratorio called, / ISRAEL in BABYLON: / Or, The FORCE of TRUTH.  The Music selected from the Works of the late Mr. Handel, on purpose for this Occasion.  After Act I. Concerto Violoncello by Mr. Paxton.  Act II. Concerto Violin by Mr. Pinto.  Pit and Boxes to be put together; and no Persons to be admitted without Tickets, which will be delivered this Day, at the Office in the Haymarket, at Half a Guinea each.  F The Society’s Collector being dead, and the Places of abode of several of the Subscribers being unknown to his Successor, those Ladies and Gentlemen who have not yet received their Tickets are humbly requested to send for them to Mr. JESSE HORWOOD at his House in King-street, Golden-square, who is empowered by the Society to deliver them, and receive the Subscriptions.  N. B.  Tickets delivered to Subscribers to this Charity, will admit One Person into any Part of the House.[21]




Apr 14

The public Amusements for the Summer Season are as follow, viz. [...] At Marybone, [...] Among many other Improvements, a Temple, elegantly decorated with Paintings, is finishing, facing the Orchestra, on the Cieling [sic] are two Paintings of their Majesties, as large as Life, copied from those of in Guildhall; and two elegant Casts of Handel and Shakespear.[22]




Apr 14

We are desired to inform the Public, that the celebrated Oratorio LA PASSIONE, written by Metastasio, and set to Music by Jomelli, will soon be performed at one of the Theatres, for the Benefit of a Public Charity—This Piece is sufficiently known to every Person, that has been at Rome; where it is deposited in the Museum of a great Cardinal, as a most invaluable Composition.  The Gentleman that obtained this, which is the only Copy ever taken, is so kind as to lend it to the Governors upon that Occasion.[23]




Apr 16

To be sold by Hand, at the large Warehouse for all Kind of Houshold Furniture, in Vine-street, Golden-square, a very capital Barrel Organ, made by Tax, with three Barrels and nine Stops, the Music compos’d by Handel: [...][24]




Apr 18

This Day is published, in two Parts, / Price Three Shillings sewed, / ALL the favourite ORATORIOS set to Music by Mr. HANDEL, with his Mask of Acis and Galatea; Alexander’s Feast; the Choice of Hercules; Milton’s L’Allegro il Penseroso.  To which are added, The Pastoral of Daphnis and Amaryllis, and the Hymn of Adam and Eve; the Music of both selected from the most celebrated Italian Composers; together with the Serenata of Solomon, set by Dr. Boyce. / Printed for E. Holdich in Oxford, and sold by J. Cooke in Pater-noster Row, London, and by the Book-sellers of Oxford, Cambridge, Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford, and Salisbury.[25]




May 28

[Leopold Mozart to Lorenz Hagneauer, 28 May 1764]


[...] The king gave him not only works by Wagenseil to play, but also [Johann Christian] Bach, Abel and Handel, all of which he rattled off prima vista. He played the king’s organ so well that everyone rates his organ playing far higher than his harpsichord playing. He then accompanied the queen in an aria that she sang and a flautist in a solo. Finally he took the violin [Anderson: bass] part in some Handel arias that happened to be lying around and played the most beautiful melody over the simple bass, so that everyone was utterly astonished. [...][26]




May 31

His Father brought him [Wolfgang] to England, not doubting but that he will meet with Success in a Kingdom, where his Countryman, that late famous Vertuoso Handel, received during his Life-time such particular Protection.[27]




Jun 28

[Leopold Mozart to Lorenz Hagneauer, 28 June 1764]


I am letting Wolfgang play a concerto on the organ at this concert [benefit for the Lying-in-Hospital] in order to perform thereby the act of an English patriot who, as far as in him lies, endeavours to further the usefulness of this hospital which has been established pro bono publico.  That is, you see, one way of winning the affection of this quite exceptional nation.[28]




Oct [31]

[ca 31 October 1764: The Captivity, libretto][29]





[November 1764]


[“Account of the new serious English Opera, called Almena, written by Mr. Rolt, (author of Eliza) and composed by Mr. Arne (son of Dr. Arne) and Mr. Battishill, represented, for the first Time, at the Theatre Royal in Drury-Lane on Friday Nov. 2.”]


                  [Act III] Scene II.  Aspatia enters, and sings a very fine plaintive air.  Mohammed then advancing to Aspatia, Almena (miss Wright) is heard to sing behind the scenes an air complaintive  of her blindness, which had a fine effect, and may vie with the celebrated one of Total Eclipse in the Oratorio of Sampson.[30]





The following SONATAS are composed after the Plan of my fifth and seventh Operas [a].

                  The accompanied Sonata for the Harpsichord is so far preferable to the Concerto with Symphonies, that the Airs are less tedious---their Designs are more compact---and the principal Instrument is better heard.

                  It is the too frequent Repetition of the Subject which marks the Character of tedious Music.

                  When different Instruments repeat the same Air, the Ear is disgusted with the very Thought which at first gave it Pleasure [b].

                  To pursue the same Strain through different Divisions, hath also the same Effect; as the same Modulation is perpetually recurring [c], than which nothing can be more tiresome.

                  To search for other Strains in allowed Modulations, and of similar Air; the principal Strain returning, like the Intercalary Verse in Pastoral Poetry [d], gives the Ear that Relief which it naturally desires.

                  Among the various Productions of foreign Composers for the Harpsichord, the Sonatas of SCARLATTI, RAMEAU, and CARLO-BACH, have their peculiar Beauties.  The fine Fancy of the Italian---the spirited Science of the Frenchman---and the German’s diffusive Expression are the distinguishing Signatures of their Music.  But if we examine the Lessons of GEMINIANI we shall find them fraught with every Beauty, and, therefore, worthy the Attention of Those who would improve a true Taste, and acquire a graceful and fluent Execution [e].

                  If I have adopted a Method of Composition somewhat different from those excellent Masters, it is chiefly in the Characters of Design and Expression, which distinguish one Composer from another.

                  What is meant by Design in musical Composition, is the general Plan of some Whole; whether adapted to the Church or the Theatre, to public Concerts, or the Chamber; which [2] general Plan includes the particular Parts; whether contrived for Voices, or Instruments, either separate or united; such as may best express the intended Sentiment of the Composer.

                  The Principles of Harmony and Modulation are universally the same, while the Fashion of Air is ever changing: And yet, in the main, with little Variety that is pleasing.  As when the prime Order of the building is destitute of Proportion, the super-added Ornaments are trifling and vague.

                  But the Fate of Music is very different from that of her Sister Arts, if we except Dramatic Poetry.  Notwithstanding the united Powers of Harmony, Design, and Expression, are ascertained in the Composition, the Performer’s Art is still remaining, as necessary to exhibit its united Perfections.

                  It may be hard to determine whether Music in general suffers more in the public Opinion, from the Unskilfulness of the Performer, or from the Want of Genius in the Composer.  This Truth, however, we may venture to assert---that a good Composition, though injured by an injudicious Performance, will always be good; while the Fate of a bad one, though assisted by the best Performance, will be invariably the same.

                  Hence, therefore, the Disappointment to the Lover of Music, is likely to arise at present, from the Abuse in Composition: And sorry I am to instance the innumerable foreign Overtures, now pouring in upon us every Season, which are all involved in the same Confusion of Stile, instead of displaying the fine Varieties of Air and Design.

                  Should this Torrent of confused Sounds, which is still encreasing, overpower the public Ear: we must in Time prefer a false and distracted Art, to the happy Efforts of unforced Nature.

                  It is not the incidental and local Fancy of mere Air which ought to be the Object of our Concern, but the Construction of a solid and well planned Music.

                  If the completest Harmony—the happiest Modulation—and the most striking Invention, have their Powers; we must repair to the Concertos of CORELLI—the Solos of GEMINIANI—and the Chorusses of HANDEL, for the Perfection of those Powers.

                  From these great Originals, other excellent Composers cannot fail to arise, not only as their Disciples, but as Originals themselves, catching the living Flame of Harmony, that it may never expire.





[Biographia Dramatica]


ABEL.  An Oratorio, perform’d at Cov. Gard. 1755.


ACIS and GALATEA.  An English Pastoral Opera, in three Acts.  It is in Recitative and Air, the Story taken from the 13th Book of Ovids Metam. the Music compos’d by Handel, and was perform’d at the Hay-market, 1732.


                  ADMETUS.  King of Thessaly.—An Ital. Op.  8vo. 1727, perform’d at the Th. Roy. in the [page] Haymarket.  Music by Handel.  Scene in Larissa, the chief City of Thessaly.


                  ALEXANDER.  An Ital. Op. perform’d at the K’s The. in the Hay-market; the Music by Handel.—Scene Oxidraca, 8vo. 1726.


                  ALEXANDER’S FEAST.  An Oratorio.—This is no more than Dryden’s Ode on St. Caecilia’s Day, set to Music by Handel.


                  BELSHAZZAR.  An Oratorio, perform’d at Cov. Garden, 4to. 1745.


                  DAVID’S LAMENTATION.  Oratorio, by J. Lockman, 4to. 1740; performed at the Th. Roy. in Covent Garden.


                  ESTHER.  An Oratorio, 4to. 1732; performed at the King’s Theat. in the Haymarket.—The Music by Handel.


                  FLAVIUS KING OF LOMBARDY.  An Italian Op. 8vo. 1723.—Perform’d at the King’s Th. in the Haymarket.—Dedication by N. Haym.—This Drama is composed of two Actions, One is taken partly from the History of the Kings of the Lombards, the other from the Cid of Corneille.—Scene Lombardy.


                  FLORIDANTE.  An Ital. Op. by P. A. Rolli, 8vo. 1721.—Acted at the K.’s Th. in the Hay-market.—The Plot is taken from an ancient Drama, called La Costanza in trionfo.—The Scene in and near Persepolis.


                  HERCULES.  An Opera.


                  JUDAS MACCABAEUS.  An Oratorio, 4to. 1747.—Perform’d at the Th. Roy. in Cov. Garden.—Music by Handel.


                  The JUDGMENT OF PARIS.  A Masque, by W. Congreve, 4to. 1700.—This is a very pretty Piece of Poetry, and is now very frequently perform’d to Music, by Way of an Oratorio.


                  JULIUS CAESAR IN EGYPT.  An Italian Opera, 8vo. 1724.—Performed at the K.’s Theatre in the Haymarket.—The Facts are taken from the third and fourth Books of Caesar’s Commentaries, the 13th Book of Dion Cassius, and Plutarch’s Lives of Caesar and Pompey.—The Scene in Egypt.


MUTIUS SCAEVOLA.  An Ital. Opera, by P. A. Rolli, 8vo. 1721.—Performed at the King’s Th. in the Haymarket.—Most of the Circumstances of the Story are to be found in Livy, Lib. 2. Dec. 1.—Scene in and near Rome.


                  PTOLEMY, KING OF EGYPT.  Ital. Opera, by N. Haym.  8vo. 1728—This was performed at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, the Music by Handel, and the Scene supposed to be laid in a Maritime Country in Cyprus.


RINALDO.  Opera.  8vo. 1711.—Performed at the Queen’s Theatre in the Haymarket.—The Plan of this Piece was laid by Aaron Hill, that Gentleman’s Design was fill’d up with Italian Words by Sig. Giacomo Rossi, and the Music composed by Handel.—The Hint of the Story is taken from Tasso, and the Scene in and near Jerusalem.


RODELINDA[,] QUEEN OF LOMBARDY.  An Italian Opera, by N. Haym, 8vo. 1725.  This Opera was performed at the Q.’s Theatre, in the Haymarket.—For the Story, see the History of Paolo Diacono.—The Scene in Milan; the Music composed by Mr. Handel.


                  SAMPSON.  An Oratorio, Anonym. 4to. 1743.  performed [sic] at Covent Garden Theatre.—The Plot and Story of it is bespoken [page] in the very Title of the Piece.


                  SAUL.  An Oratorio.  Anon. 4to. 1738.—This Piece was set to Music by Handel, and performed at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket.—Merab’s scornful Behaviour in Act I. Scene II. is a Hint borrowed from Cowley’s Davidies, but has no Foundation in the sacred History.


                  SCIPIO.  An Italian Opera, Anonym. 8vo. 1726.—This Piece was performed at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket.—The Author confesses the first Hint of this Drama, and some Lines in it to be borrowed, but declares that what otherwise relates either to the Plot itself, or the Diction through the whole, is entirely new.—The Scene is laid in New Carthage, and the Music composed by Handel.


                  TAMERLANE.  An Italian Opera, by N. Haym, 8vo. 1724.  performed [sic] at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket.—The Scene is laid at Prusa, now called Bursa, tha Capital of Bythinia, and the first City that Tamerlane possess’d himself of after the Overthrow of the Turks.


                  THESEUS.  An Opera, performed at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, but in what Year I know not.


                  The TRIUMPH OF TIME AND TRUTH.  An Oratorio, 4to. 1757.  performed [sic] at Covent Garden Theatre.


                  ZIMRI.  An Oratorio, 4to. 1760.—This Piece, tho’ anony. was written by Dr. Hawkesworth.—Yet, like most of the Pieces written for the Sake of Music, Sound has been too much considered in it to give Scope for any very strong Testimonials of that Genius which the Author has shewn in many of his other Writings.—Nor can I indeed greatly approve of the Choice of the Subject.—For altho’ it is borrowed from the sacred Writings, and that historical Fact is sufficient to authorize the Catastrophe, yet the Circumstances of a Father, (Zuran) and him a Prince, a Chief of a powerful People, urging his Daughter to Prostitution, the Daughter glorying in that Prostitution, not from Affection to her Lover, but for the Destruction of a Nation at Variance with her own, together with the Conclusion of the whole infamous Bargain in the Transfixion of them both in the very Act of Transport, seems to me to have somewhat too gross in them to suit a Drama intended to serve the Purposes of Religion, and destined to be represented in a Time of Mortification, Penance and Abstinence from every human, or at least corporeal Desire.




The CONTRETEMS, or Rival Queens.  A small Farce, as it was lately acted with great Applause at H—d——r’s private Th—re near the H—y M—t.  Anonym. 4to. 1727.—This Piece was never intended for public Representation, but was written only in Ridicule of the Confusion which at that Time reign’d in the K.’s Theatre in the Haymarket, in Consequence of the Contests for Superiority between the two celebrated Italian Singers Signora Faustina, and Signora Cuzzoni, the divided Opinions of the Public with Regard to their respective Merits, and the insolent Airs of Importance assumed by them in Consequence of the public Favor [sic] shewn to them.—In the Dramatis Personae, which consists entirely of the Persons belonging to that Theatre, HEIDEGGER the Manager, is characterized as High Priest of Discord, and that great Composer, Mr. Handel, stiled Professor of Harmony.


                  JOSEPH AND HIS BRETHREN.  Oratorio, 4to. 1742.—This Piece, tho’ printed Anonymous, was written by the Rev. Mr. James Miller, and is one of the best among the sacred Dramas, which are for the most Part composed solely for the Sake of the Music, and without any View to the Beauties of the Poetry.


                  SEMELE.  Opera, by William Congreve, 4to.—This Piece was not performed at the Time when it was written, nor indeed during the Life of it’s [sic] Author; but has been since set to Music by the great Mr. Handel, and frequently represented at te Theatre Royal in Covent Garden with universal Applause.


[Volume 2]


                  ARNE, Dr. Thomas Augustine.—The Particulars of this Gentleman’s Life having probably had nothing extraordinary in them, have no Claim to a Place here, especially as he is still living, and it may perhaps appear as a Business of unnecessary Repetition to observe to the Public what almost every individual of it well knows already, viz. that he is [page] one of the greatest Masters of Musical Composition at present existing, either in this or any other Kingdom.—To him the World stands indebted for the Music of many of our best Oratorios, for the Accompanyments in others of our more regular theatrical Entertainments, and for the whole of one dramatic Piece, of which he is said to be not only the Composer, but the Author, viz.

                  ARTAXERXES.  Opera.  Vid. APPENDIX.


                  BETTERTON, Mr. Thomas. […] The Profits of this Night [benefit for him 7 April 1709 in recognition of his services to London’s theater goers] are said to have amounted to upwards of £500, the Prices having been raised to the same that the Operas and Oratorios are at present, […]


                  BONONCINI, Sign. Giovanni.—This Gentleman was a very eminent Composer of Music, and for some Time divided the Opinions of the Conoscenti of this Kingdom with Respect to the comparative Merits of himself and the great Handel, which gave Occasion for the following Epigram, said to have been written by Dean Swift.

Some say that Signior Bononcini

Compar’d to Handel’s a meer Ninny;

Others aver that to him Handel

Is scarcely fit to hold the Candle:

Strange! that such high Disputes should be

’Twixt Tweedle Dum and Tweedle Dee.

                  There is one Opera published with his Name prefixed to it, entitled,

                  PHARNACES.  Ital. Opera.

But whether the Words, or only the Music, are his Composition, I cannot pretend to determine, and indeed in the general the Language of those Pieces, written me[re]ly for Musical Representation, is so extremely paltry and so opposite to every Thing that can be deemed Poetry, that the greatest Compliment can be paid to the Authors of them is to suffer their Names to lie buried in the Shades of Obscurity.


                  CONGREVE, William, Esq; [… 3 pages …]

                  His dramatic Pieces are seven in Number, and their Titles as follow [sic],


6. SEMELE.  Oratorio.


                  DRYDEN, John, Esq; [… 8 pages …]

                  Besides his other numerous Writings, he was Author of, and concerned in, the following dramatic Pieces, viz.

                  1. ALBION and ALBANIUS.  Oratorio.

                  2. ALEXANDER’s Feast.  Oratorio.


HAWKSWORTH, John, L.L.D.—This Gentleman is still living, and has been more remarkable for his Essays in a periodical Paper, entitled the ADVENTURER, whose Merit certainly stands strongly in Competition even with the celebrated Spectators and Ramblers, than for his dramatic Pieces.  However, what little he has done in the dramatic Way, is far from wanting Merit, and may be seen in the following List.


3. ZIMRI.  Oratorio.


                  HAYM, Mr. Nicholas.—What Country this Gentleman was of I know not, nor whether he was himself the Author of the Pieces to which his Name is prefixed: I am apt to believe, however, that he was a German, and preceded Mr. Heidegger in the Management of the Opera House in the Haymarket, and that therefore in that Light only he has signed his Name to the Dedication of the following dramatic Pieces performed at that Theatre, the Authors of which were probably obscure Hirelings, employed by this Gentleman to write, or rather put together, a Set of Words, the only Merit requir’d in which was an Aptness to go well by Way of Accompanyment to, or Vehicle for, those Italian Airs and Voices, which were to charm away the Senses and drain the Pockets of all the Persons of either real or pretended Taste in this poor infatuated Nation.—The Titles of the Pieces, which I thus find with his Name to them as Dedicator, are the six following.

                  1. ASTYANAX.  Ital. Op.

                  2. FLAVIUS, King of LOMBARDY.  Ital. Op.

                  3. PTOLEMY, King of EGYPT.  Ital. Op.

                  4. RODELINDA.  Queen of LOMBARDY.  Ital. Op.

                  5. TAMERLANE.  Ital. Op.

                  6. VESPASIAN.  Ital. Op.


                  HILL, Aaron, Esq; [… page …]

                  In 1709 he was also made Master of the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, and, at the Desire of Mr. Booth, wrote his first Tragedy of Elfrid, or the Fair Inconstant. […] it met with sufficient Encouragement to induce [page] him to a second Attempt in the dramatic Way, tho’ of another Kind, viz. the Opera of Rinaldo, the Music of which was the first Piece of Composition of that admirable Master Mr. Handel, after his Arrival in England.—This Piece, in the year 1710, Mr. Hill brought on the Stage at the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, of which also he was at that Time Director, and where it met with very great and deserved Success.

[… 5 pages …]

                  Our Author seems to have lived in perfect Harmony with all the Writers of his Time excepting Mr. Pope, with whom he had a short Paper War, occasioned by that Gentleman’s introducing him in the Dunciad, as one of the Competitors for the Prize offer’d by the Goddess of Dulness, […]


                  LOCKMAN, Mr. John, Secretary to the British Herring Fishery.—His poetical Talents seem not very extensive, as the greatest Part of what he has favoured the World with of that Sort, have been only a few Songs, Odes, &c. written on temporary Subjects, and intended to receive the Advantage of musical Composition before they reached the Public.—I find, however, two Pieces of the dramatic Kind, both of them designed to be set to Music, but only the first of them, I believe, ever performed.  They are entitled,

1. DAVID’s Lamentations.  Oratorio.

2. ROSALINDA.  Dram. Piece.

Mr. Lockman has been concerned in several Translations and Compilements of very considerable Works; particularly the General Dictionary and Blainvill’s Travels.


MILLER, the Rev. Mr. James [… 2 pages …]

3. Hospital for Fools.  Farce.


5. JOSEPH and his Brethren.  Oratorio.


ROSSI, Sign. Giacomo, an Italian, who, on a Plan laid down for him by Aaron Hill, Esq; wrote the Words of one dramatic Piece, which, being set to Music by Mr. Handel, was performed with Success at the Opera House in the Haymarket.—It was entitled,

                  RINALDO.  Ital. Opera.


                  ROLLI, Sign. Paolo Antonio.—This Gentleman, who I believe is yet living, is by Birth a Florentine, has an Estate in the Campania of Rome, and stiles himself a Roman Senator.——He resided [page] several Years in this Kingdom, during which Time he had some Concern in the Management of the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, and wrote the greatest Part of the Operas which were represented there in that Period; and indeed, to do him Justice, they were in general much superior to those which have been since introduced to the Publick thro’ the Channel of that Theatre.  At length, however, after having, I believe, considerably better’d his Fortune by his Residence in England, and the Encouragement he met with from the Nobility and Gentry, he chose to retire to his own patrimonial Estate, and spend the Remainder of his Days in Ease and Indulgence; for which Purpose he quitted England about the Year 1744.—The Pieces that he wrote are very numerous; and, as the Publication of these Operas, which is intended principally for the Use of the Audience within the Theatre, by Way of Direction to the Ear during the Time of Representation, by no Means give a Chance for Immortality, since the Number of them which are destroyed greatly exceeds those which are preserved, I am aware that the following List is very imperfect; but as, in a Course of Time, the Remainder may fall into my Hands, that Deficiency, and such others in this Work, as even the utmost Assiduity and most diligent Search has not been able to avoid during the Time allotted to a first Compilement, the Reader may depend on finding supplied, if it should have the good Fortune to reach to a second Edition.—Those Pieces, however, which have come to my Hands of this Author’s, are entitled as follow,

                  1. ARSACE.  Ital. Op.

                  2. ASTARTUS.  Ital. Op.

                  3. CRISPUS.  Ital. Op.

                  4. FLORIDANTE.  Ital. Op.

                  5. GRISELDA.  Ital. Op.

                  6. IPHIGENIA IN AULIS.  Ital. Opera.

                  7. MUTIUS SCAEVOLA.  Ital. Opera.

                  8. NARCISSUS.  Ital. Op.

                  9. NUMITOR.  Ital. Opera.

Signior Rolli has also obliged the World with a good Translation of Milton’s Paradise Lost, in Italian; a Work which does him great Honour.[32]






I BELIEVE that, generally speaking, persons eminent in one branch of taste, have the principles of the rest, and to try this, I have often solicited a stranger to hum a tune, and have seldom failed of success.  This, however, does not extend to talents beyond the sphere of taste; and Handal was evidently wrong, when he fancied himself born to command a troop of horse.

                  MANKIND, in general, may be divided into persons of understanding, and persons of genius; each of which will admit of many subordinate degrees.  By persons of understanding, I mean persons of sound judgment; formed for mathematical deductions, and clear argumentation.  By persons of genius, I would characterize those in whom true and genuine fancy predominates; and this whether assisted, or not, by cultivation.

                  I HAVE thought that genius, and judgment may, in some respects, be represented by a liquid and a solid.  The former is, generally speaking, remarkable for it’s [sic] sensibility, but then loses it’s [sic] impression soon: The latter is less susceptible of impression, but retains it longer.

                  DIVIDING the world into an hundred parts, I am apt to believe the calculation might be thus adjusted.

                  Pedants                                                                                                                                               15

                  Persons of common sense                                                                                  40 [187]

                  Wits                                                                                                                                     15

                  Fools                                                                                                                                   15

                  Persons of a wild uncultivated taste                                                           10

                  Persons of original taste, improved by art                                               5[33]




“Je, croirois volontiers que Handell, qu’on regarde comme le restaurateur de notre musique, la gâta; parceque la dose d’Italien qu’il y introduisit est trop forte.  Méthode qui a été réligieusement observée par les compositeurs qui sont venus après lui.  Nos airs Bretons aujourd’hui sont remplis de roulades, & de fredons.  Handell a réformé un chant vrai rempli de candeur, pour en substituer un faux & imposteur.  Un Anglois ne dit plus vrai en chantant: devenu Italien dans l’expression musicale, il cherche plus à surprendre les sens, qu’à captiver le coeur.[”]


[summary in the table of contents]

[...] l’Italienne [musique] réduite aux roulades & aux passades semble avoir tout gâté: & Handell en s’y astreignant a entierement corrompu la musique Angloise.[34]




[Benjamin Franklin to his brother, before 1765]


Dear Brother,

***I like your ballad, and think it well adapted for your purpose of discountenancing expensive foppery, and encouraging industry and frugality.  If you can get it generally sung in your country, it may probably have a good deal of the effect you hope and expect from it.  But as you aimed at making it general, I wonder you chose so uncommon a measure in poetry, that none of the tunes in common use will suit it.  Had you fitted it to an old one, well known, it must have spread much faster than I doubt it will do from the best new tune we can get compos’d for it.  I think too, that if you had given it to some country girl in the heart of the Massachusets, who has never heard any other than psalm tunes, or Chevy Chace, the Children in the Wood, the Spanish Lady, and such old simple ditties, but has naturally a good ear, she might more probably have made a pleasing popular tune for you, than any of our masters here, and more proper for your purpose, which would best be answered, if every word could as it is sung be understood by all that hear it, and if the emphasis you intend for particular words could be given by the singer as well as by the reader; much of the force and impression of the song depending on those circumstances.  I will however get it as well done for you as I can.

                  Do not imagine that I mean to depreciate the skill of our composers of music here; they are admirable at pleasing practised ears, and know how to delight one another; but, in composing for songs, the reigning taste seems to be quite out of nature, or rather the reverse of nature, and yet like a torrent, hurries them all away with it; one or two perhaps only excepted.

                  You, in the spirit of some ancient legislators, would influence the manners of your country by the united powers of poetry and music.  By what I can learn of their songs, the music was simple, conformed itself to the usual pronunciation of words, as to measure, cadence or emphasis, &c. never disguised and confounded the language by making a long syllable short, or a short one long when [540] sung; their singing was only a more pleasing, because a melodious manner of speaking; it was capable of all the graces of prose oratory, while it added the pleasure of harmony.  A modern song, on the contrary, neglects all the proprieties and beauties of common speech, and in their place introduces its defects and absurdities as so many graces.  I am afraid you will hardly take my word for this, and therefore I must endeavour to support it by proof.  Here is the first song I lay my hand on.  It happens to be a composition of one of our greatest masters, the ever famous Handel.  It is not one of his juvenile performances, before his taste could be improved and formed: It appeared when his reputation was at the highest, is greatly admired by all his admirers, and is really excellent in its kind.  It is called, The additional FAVOURITE Song in Judas Maccabeus [“Wise men flatt’ring may deceive us,” from Act II].  Now I reckon among the defects and improprieties of common speech, the following, viz.

                  1. Wrong placing the accent or emphasis, by laying it on words of no importance, or on wrong syllables.

                  2. Drawling; or extending the sound of words or syllables beyond their natural length.

                  3. Stuttering; or making many syllables of one.

                  4. Unintelligibleness; the result of the three foregoing united.

                  5. Tautology; and

                  6. Screaming, without cause.

                  For the wrong placing of the accent, or emphasis, see it on the word their instead of being on the word vain.

[musical example, “with their vain Mysterious Art”]

And on the word from, and the wrong syllable like. [541]

[musical example, “God-like Wisdom from above.”]

For the Drawling, see the last syllable of the word wounded.

[musical example, “Nor can heal the wounded Heart”]

And in the syllable wis, and the word from, and syllable bove

[musical example, “God-like Wisdom from above”]

For the Stuttering, see the words ne’er relieve, in

[musical example, “Magick Charms can ne’er relieve you”]

Here are four syllables made of one, and eight of three; but this is moderate.  I have seen in another song that I cannot now find, seventeen syllables made of three, and sixteen of one; the latter I remember was the word charms; viz. Cha, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, a, arms.  Stammering with a witness!

                  For the Unintelligibleness; given [sic] this whole song to any taught singer, and let her sing it to any company that have never heard it; you shall find they will not understand three words in ten.  It is therefore that at the oratorio’s and operas one sees with books in their hands all those who desire to understand what they hear sung by even our best performers. [542]

                  For the Tautology; you have, with their vain mysterious art, twice repeated; Magic charms can ne’er relieve you, three times.  Nor can heal the wounded heart, three times.  Godlike wisdom from above, twice; and, this alone can ne’er deceive you, two or three times.  But this is reasonable when compared with the Monster Polypheme, the Monster Polyphme, a hundred times over and over [“Wretched Lovers!” Act II], in his admired Acis and Galatea.

                  As to the screaming; perhaps I cannot find a fair instance in this song; but whoever has frequented our operas will remember many.  And yet here methinks the words no and e’er, when sung to these notes, have a little of the air of screaming, and would actually be scream’d by some singers.

[musical example, “No magic charms can e’er relieve you”]

I send you enclosed the song with its music at length.  read the words without the repetitions.  Observe how few they are, and what a shower of notes attend them: You ill then perhaps be inclined to think with me, that though the words might be the principal part of an ancient song, they are of small importance in a modern one; they are in short only a pretence for singing.  I am, as ever, Your affectionate brother,                             B.F.

P. S. I might have mentioned Inarticulation among the defects in common speech that are assumed as beauties in modern singing.  But as that seems more the fault of the singer than of the composer, I omitted it in what related merely to the composition.  The fine singer in the present mode, stifles all the hard consonants, and polishes away all the rougher parts of words that serve to distinguish them one from another; so that you hear nothing but an admirable pipe, and understand no more of the song, than you would from its tune played on any other instrument.  If ever it was the ambition of musicians to make instruments that should imitate the human voice, that ambition seems now reversed, the voice [543] aiming to be like an instrument.  Thus wigs were first made to imitate a good natural head of hair; but when they became fashionable, though in unnatural forms, we have seen natural hair dressed to look like wigs.[35]



[1] The Poetical Works of Anna Seward; with Extracts from her Literary Correspondence, ed. Walter Scott, 3 vols. (Edinburgh: Ballantyne and Co., 1810), 1:cvi-cx.

[2] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 8 February 1764, [1].

[3] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 29 February 1764, [1].

[4] John Wesley, The Journal of the Reverend John Wesley, A.M., ed. John Emory, 2 vols. (New York: Carlton & Phillips, 1856), 2:168.

[5] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 3 March 1764, [2].

[6] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 8 March 1764, [2].

[7] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 15 March 1764, [1].

[8] A Selection of Thomas Twining’s Letters, 1734-1804: The Record of a Tranquil Life, ed. Ralph S. Walker, 2 vols. (Lewiston/Queenston/Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1991), 1:44.

[9] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 27 March 1764, [1].

[10] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 29 March 1764, [1].

[11] Ian Woodfield, “New Light on the Mozarts’ London Visit: A Private Concert with Manzuoli,” Music & Letters 76 (1995), 187-208: 208.

[12] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 31 March 1764, [2].

[13] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 3 April 1764, [1].

[14] The Public Advertiser, Monday 2 April 1764, [2].

[15] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 3 April 1764, [1].

[16] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 3 April 1764, [2].

[17] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 4 April 1764, [1-2].

[18] Ian Woodfield, “New Light on the Mozarts’ London Visit: A Private Concert with Manzuoli,” Music & Letters 76 (1995), 187-208: 208.

[19] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 5 April 1764, [1].

[20] The Public Advertiser, Friday 6 April 1764, [2].

[21] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 12 April 1764, [1].

[22] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 14 April 1764, [2].

[23] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 14 April 1764, [2].

[24] The Public Advertiser, Monday 16 April 1764, [2].

[25] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 18 April 1764, [1].

[26] Mozart: A Life in Letters, ed. Cliff Eisen, trans. Stewart Spencer (London: Penguin, 2006), 38; also The Letters of Mozart & His Family, trans. and ed. by Emily Anderson, 3 vols. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1938), 1:68.

[27] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 31 May 1764, [3].

[28] The Letters of Mozart & His Family, trans. and ed. by Emily Anderson, 3 vols. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1938), 1:72.

[29] Oliver Goldsmith, Collected Works of Oliver Goldsmith, ed. Arthur Friedman, 5 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966), 4:214-31.

[30] The General Magazine of Arts and Sciences [14] (1764): 533.

[a] See the Advertisements prefixed to those Works.

[b] Handel’s Concertos for the Harpsichord.

[c] The Follia in the last Solo of Corelli.

[d] The Minuet in Geminiani’s first Concerto, Opera seconda.

[e] The Lessons here referred to are taken from his second Book of Solos for the Violin, which were first published in Paris.

[31] Charles Avison, Six Sonatas, for the Harpsichord.  With Accompanyments for two Violins and a Violoncello (London: the author, 1764).

[32] [David Erskine Baker], The Companion to the Play-House: Or, An Historical Account of all the Dramatic Writers (and their Works) that have appeared in Great Britain and Ireland, from the Commencement of our Theatrical Exhibitions, down to the Present Year 1764.  Composed in the Form of a Dictionary, for the more readily turning to any particular Author, or Performance, 2 vols. (London: T. Becket and P. A. Dehondt, C. Henderson, and T. Davies, 1764), no pagination.

[33] The Works in Verse and Prose of William Shenstone, Esq., 2 vols. (Dublin: G. Faulkner, 1764), 2:186-87.

[34] [Ange Goudar], L’Espion Chinois: ou, L’Envoye Secret de la Cour de Pekin, pour examiner l’Etat présent de l’Europe.  Traduit du Chinois, 6 vols. (Cologne [?London]: 1764), 6:149, 277.

[35] The Papers of Benjamin Franklin.  Volume 11: January 1 through December 31, 1764, ed. Leonard W. Labaree (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1967), 539-43.