Feb 9

Signor Guadagni will perform in the Oratorios at the Theatre Royal Covent-Garden, during the ensuing Lent Season.

Mess. Stanley and Smith, who conduct the Oratorios at the Theatre Royal in Drury-lane, have engaged the following Singers for the Lent Season, Signor Tenducci, Mr. Norris, and Mr. Parry, from Salisbury (being the first Time of his performing in London) Mrs. Scot, and Mrs. Weichsel.[1]




Feb 12

The Vocal Performers engaged by Messrs. Toms and Arnold, during the Oratorio Season ath the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, are Signor Guadagni, Mr. Reinhold, Mr. Vernon, Mrs. Mattocks, and Mrs. Pinto.  Signora Lombardini Sirmen will also perform every Evening between the Parts of the Oratorio on the Violin.[2]




Feb 15

Signora Lombardini Sirmen who performed on the Violin between the Parts of the Oratorio at the Theatre Royal in Covent-Garden last Night, was received with uncommon Applause.  Signor Guadagni being seized with a violent Cold and Hoarsness, which rendered him incapable of singing[,] did not make his Appearance Yesterday Evening, but is retained for the Remainder of the Season.[3]




Feb 19

Signor Guadagni is so well recovered of his late Indisposition as to be able to sing in the Oratorio of the Messiah, which will be performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent-Garden, To-morrow Evening.  Between the Parts of the Oratorio will be a Solo on the Violin by Signora Lombardini Sirmen, and a Concerto on the German Flute by Mr. Florio.[4]




Feb 21

By the particular Desire of several Persons who were disappointed of Places for the Oratorio of The Messiah, at the Theatre Royal in Covent-Garden last Night, it will be repeated To-morrow Evening, when Signora Lombardini Sirmen will play a Solo on the Violin after the first Part, and a Concerto after the second Part.[5]




Feb 26

For the greater Advantage of the Oratorio of the Cure of Saul, which is to be performed To-morrow Evening, at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, Mr. Arnold has recomposed all the Songs in the Part of Sig. Guadagni.[6]




Feb 26

The Paragraph that appeared in a Morning Paper of Yesterday, “that our first Serious Man of the Opera-House was gone for foreign Kingdom,” is utterly void of Truth, and thrown out by his Enemies to injure him in the Opinion of the Public.  As he has been extremely ill with a violent Cold, he went to visit a Friend in the Country, where he staid from Saturday to Monday for the Benefit of the Air, in order to recover himself to do Justice to his Parts of Singing.  He is to perform at the Oratorios, Opera-House, &c.[7]




Feb 29

Signora Sirmen will perform twice on the Violin between the Parts of the Oratorio of Samson at Covent-Garden Theatre This Evening; and Signor Guadagni will, after the second Part, sign a favourite Italian Song composed by Signor De’ Maio.[8]




Mar 7

The Oratorio of the Messiah, (will by particular Desire) be repeated at the Theatre Royal Covent-Garden, To-morrow Evening, between the Parts thereof Signora Lombardini Sirmen will perform twice on the Violin, and Signor Guadagni will sing a favourite Italian Song.[9]




Mar? 8

[David Garrick to George Garrick, 15 ?March 1771]


Tell Johnston I us’d but four Tickets for ye Messiah, [ed: presumably the Covent Garden performance on March 8] ye other two are wrap’d up in [?] ye little table by ye Settee I generally sit upon.[10]




Mar 8

The Accident which confined Dr. Hill to his Bed for a Fortnight was owing to the indelicate Custom some Persons have of spiting upon the Floor; a Gentleman had done this to a great Degree in the Stage Box on Friday was Se’nnight at the Oratorio, and Dr. Hill not knowing it, and being the first Person that went out, slipped into it, and received the Hurt that has been so mischievous to him.[11]




Mar 12

The Oratorio of the Messiah will be performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent-Garden, for the last Time this Season, To-morrow Evening.  Between the Parts of the Oratorio Signora Lombardini Sirmen will perform on the Violin, Signor Florio on the German Flute, and Signor Guadagni will sing a favourite Italian Air.  On Friday, not performed this Season, the Resurrection, composed by Mr. Arnold.[12]




Mar 15

The Sacred Oratorio of the Resurrection, composed by Mr. Arnold, will be performed this Evening (for the first Time this Season) at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, Signora Sirmen will perform twice on the Violin, between the Parts of the Oratorio.[13]




Mar 16

Signor Guadagni having been prevented by Illness from singing his Part in Judas Maccabaeus, when it was performed at the opening of the present Oratorio Season, it will, by the Desire of several Ladies and Gentlemen who wish to hear him in that Piece, be performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, next Wednesday Evening, being the last Oratorio but one this Season.[14]




Mar 20

Signor Tenducci is so well recovered as to be able to perform in the sacred Oratorio of Messiah this Evening at Drury-Lane Theatre.[15]




Apr 15

The Oratorio of Ruth, set to Music by Mr. Giardini, will be performed at the Theatre-Royal in the Haymarket, on Thursday the 25th Instant, at the particular Desire of the Governors of a Public Charity.[16]




Apr 20

Lock Hospital, April 20, 1771. / The Governors of this Hospital being obliged to change the Day for the Performance of their Oratorio of Ruth, on account of the prior Engagement of some of the principal Performers on the 25th instant, which did not occur to them at the Time they promised to perform for the Benefit of the Charity; it is now fixed for Saturday next the 27th inst. at the Chapel of the hospital in the Morning as usual, when and where Tickets delivered for the 25th at the Theatre Royal in the Hay-market, will be admitted.[17]




May 23

[Charles Burney to Baron d’Holbach, 23 May 1771]


{…} I speak not thus Contemptiuously {sic} of French Music in order to exalt our own, for we have none that we can properly call our own, for that of Handel, a Saxon, is not ours, any more than that of Lulli, a florentine {sic}, belongs to the french {sic}.  At present your Countrymen, Sir, seem the first people on the Globe for Instrumental Music both as to Composition & performance; as the Italians are now & have long been, superiour to all other people in a Musical Language & in Vocal Music.[18]





                  II. The present State of Music in France and Italy.  By Charles Burney, Mus. Doc.  1 vol.  8vo.  5s.  Becket.

                  Dr. Burney, the ingenious author of this performance, lately made a tour into Italy for the purpose of collecting materials to form a general history of music.—In this tour he visited the most celebrated of the foreign masters, and gives us the following anecdotes of the famous Farinelli, by whom he was treated with great civility.—

[... 274 ...] He told me [...] of the feuds of the two operas; of the part which the late Prince of Wales took with that managed by the nobility; and the queen and princess royal with that which was under the direction of Handel.[19]




Jul 3-4

[Report of the celebratory meeting of the Radcliffe Infirmary at Oxford:]


On Wednesday morning the 3[r]d of July, a great many of the Governors and Benefactors to the Infirmary, met at the Committee-Room, and from thence went in regular procession to St. Mary’s church.  When I entered into this august edifice, I was immediately struck with the sight of a most brilliant company of ladies, elegantly dressed, and seated in the galleries at the west end of the church.  The service was chanted throughout, in the course of which, was introduced Mr. Handel’s Dettingen Te Deum.  After prayers were ended, a numerous band, with instruments, in the organ loft, sung the hundredth psalm, accompanied with the true spirit of devotion, which prepared the hearts of the audience to receive the important doctrine of Christian Benevolence, from the mouth of the pious and learned Bishop of Oxford...The sermon being concluded, six gentlemen, of high rank and stations, took their stands at the several doors, and received with gratitude, the assistance of the public, towards compleating the benevolent design of the present meeting.  The collection then made, fully evinced the force of the good Prelate’s endeavours, it amounting to upwards of 266l. a much greater sum than the most sanguine had expected.

On Thursday morning was celebrated Lord Crew’s annual commemoration, when the appearance in the Theatre was uncommonly splendid; there being present his Excellency the Polish Ambassador, Earl Temple, the Bishops of Oxford, Chester, and Dromore, with many other persons of distinction.  During the ceremony Earl Temple, Sir Watkin Williams Wynne, and Martin Bladen Hawke, Esq; were presented to the honorary degree of Doctor in Civil Law: As were the Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham, of Christ Church; Thomas Frankland, and Richard Aldworth Neville, Esq; Gentlemen Commoners of Merton College; and Joseph Battin, Esq; Gentleman Commoner of Trinity, to that of Master of Arts: After which th[e] Chancellor’s Prize-Compositions were recited, the first in English verse, On the Love of our Country, by Mr. Butson, of New College; the other in English prose, On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Travel, by Mr. John Scott, Bachelor of Arts, of University College; both which were justly received with the greatest applause.——The Commemoration Speech, equally classical and judicious, was spoken by the Reverend Dr. Wheeler, Poetry Professor.—In the evening the oratorio of Judas Maccabaeus was performed in the Theatre.[20]




Aug 20

[Christoph Daniel Ebeling to Charles Burney, 20 August 1771]


{…} the Life of Handel is very imperfectly written in english, but translated into German, corrected and augmented by Mr. Matheson am ancient friend of Mr. Handel’s.[21]








[… 120126 …]

A coxcomb once in Handel’s parlour found

A Grecian lyre, and try’d to make it sound;

O’er the fine stops his awkward fist he flings,

And rudely presses on th’ elastic strings:

Awaken’d discord shrieks, and scolds, and raves,

Wild as the dissonance of winds and waves,

Loud as a Wapping mob at midnight bawls,

Harsh as ten chariots rolling round St. Paul’s, [127]

And hoarser far than all th’ ecstatic race

Whose drunken orgies stunn’d the wilds of Thrace.

FRIEND! quoth the sage, that fine machine contains

Exacter numbers, and diviner strains,

Strains such as once could build the Theban wall,

And stop the mountain torrent in its fall:

But yet, to wake them, rouze them, and inspire,

Asks a fine finger, and a touch of fire,

A feeling soul whose all expressive pow’rs

Can copy nature as she sinks or soars;

And, just alike to passion, time, and place,

Refine correctness into ease and grace.

He said—and, flying o’er each quiv’ring wire,

Spread his light hand, and swept it on the lyre.

Quick to his touch the lyre began to glow,

The sound to kindle, and the air to flow,

Deep as the murmurs of the falling floods,

Sweet as the warbles of the vocal woods: [128]

The list’ning passions hear, and sink, and rise,

As the rich harmony or swells, or dies;

The pulse of avarice forgets to move,

A purer rapture fills the breast of love;

Devotion lifts to heav’n a holier eye,

And bleeding pity heaves a softer sigh.

LIFE has its ease, amusement, joy, and fire,

Hid in itself, as music in the lyre;

And, like the lyre, will all its pow’rs impart

When touch’d and manag’d by the hand of art:

But half mankind, like Handel’s fool, destroy,

Thro’ rage and ignorance, the strain of joy,

Irregularly will their passions roll

Thro’ nature’s finest instrument, the soul:

While men of sense, with Handel’s happier skill,

Correct the taste, and harmonize the will,

Teach their affections like his notes to flow,

Not rais’d too high, nor ever sunk too low; [129]

Till every virtue, measur’d and refin’d,

As fits the concert of the master-mind,

Melts in its kindred sounds, and pours along

Th’ according music of the moral song.[22]




Sep 22

[22 September]


The grand Jubilee at West Wycombe.


Description of the Grand JUBILEE at Lord Le Despencer’s, at West-Wycombe, in a Letter from Oxford, dated Sept. 22.

I am just arrived from that terrestrial paradise the seat of Lord Le Despencer, at West Wycombe, and indeed the pleasure I received there during the last festive week will well justify my giving it that appellation.  As you know my passion for music, you may imagine how it must have been gratified by a five days repetition (rehearsals included) of those masterly compositions of Mr. Handel, the Oratorios of Jephtha and Sampson.  The exquisite exactness of the performance, the solemn magnificence of the place of exhibition, and brilliant appearance of the audience, formed together a scene much easier to be conceived than described.  But how will you envy me my musical luxury, when I tell you that the plenteous elegancies of the table, both at noon and night, were constantly succeeded by an harmonious desert of glees, catches, canons, &c. performed in a manner I will venture to say not to be equaled by any other company in England, and these entertainments even still enriched with occasional instrumental concerts?  From this description, you may possibly form some idea of the taste of our noble host, but you will be much better pleased with this instance of his humanity, that he did not fail to make this indulgence of the rich conducive to the consolation of the poor, by appointing a collection each day at the church door for their benefit, the extraordinary amount of which gave ample proof of the charitable benevolence of the auditors.

On Saturday a new and unexpected scene presented itself; these delightful gardens were opened for the amusement of the public in general, and a rural walk exhibited, in which a very novel and pleasing representation was introduced.  You must know, a fine portico at the west end of the house has lately been erected, in imitation of that belonging to the ancient temple of Bacchus, for the dedication of which a Bacchanalian procession was formed, consisting of Bacchanals, Priests, Priestess, Pan, Fawns, Satyrs, Silenus, &c. all adorned in proper habits, and skins wreathed with vine leaves, ivy, oak, &c. in the most picturesque manner imaginable.  This procession arriving in the portico, the High Priest addressed the statue in an invocation, which was succeeded by several hymns and other pieces of music, both vocal and instrumental, suitable to the occasion; and having finished the sacrifice, proceeded through the groves to a tent pitched among several others at the head of the lake, where the Paeans and Libations were repeated; then ferrying to a vessel adorned with colours and streamers, again performed various ceremonies accompanied by the discharge of cannon, and bursts of acclamations from the populace, who surrounded the shore, and testified thereby their surprise and admiration at so pleasing and novel a spectacle.  At the close of the evening, the procession, which consisted of Ladies and Gentlemen, returned to the temple, and finished the ceremony with a congratulatory ode to the Deity of the place, leaving the numerous populace to enjoy their mirth and jollity, for which proper provision had been made.

I should not forget to acquaint you, that some masques appeared in the garden, who, supporting their various characters with great spirit, wit, and humour, added greatly to the entertainment of this very rural and poetic scene.  In short, the greatest pleasure I can wish you is, that you might enjoy such a week as has luckily fallen to the lot of,                                     Your’s, &c.[23]





[Charles Burney to Christoph Daniel Ebeling, November 1771]


{…} I confess to you, that of all the Composers of songs that have ever existed in any Country, Hasse stands the highest in my opinion.  He is possessed of grace, invention, propriety beyond all others.  The Poet & the singer are equally respected by him, & he never sacrifices either to the pedantry of crowding his Score, or the vanity of Instrumental Performers.  He has not perhaps the nervous grandeur, I had almost called it martial grandeur of Handel, which so well suited his age & the English nation; but he has more Melody, more simplicity, more taste, & more happiness in the expression of words.[24]

[… 104105 …]

                  The offer you so kindly make of procuring me Books, I accept with the utmost gratitude. {…} & if you will push your zeal {…} as far as to send me over the following Books, {…} you will serve & oblige me extremely {…}

[… 106 …]

                  Mathewson’s Life of Handel, as translated & augmented.[25]




Dec 28

[Mary Delany to Mrs Port, 28 December 1771]


Wednesday devoted to the happy purposes of the day [i.e. Christmas]—the anthem at St. James’s Chapel, by the King’s order, was “Glory to God, he shall feed his flock,” &c., and the last chorus out of the Messiah.[26]




The too frequent use of turns, slurs, shakes, and appoggiaturas is tiresome even in a solo, but disgusting in parts, where no one should move beyond the composer, but in conjunction with his associates. […] Nor ought the accompanier to take more liberty than the singer of introducing his beats, trilles, and flourishes.  Not so the two late eminent masters Greene and Handel; who guided the singer with the most exquisite delicacy, by interspersing such notes only, and those [59] stolen in, or whispered as it were by a soft prompture, as might meliorate the harmony, or in emphatic passages give it fullness and dignity, enliven the singer’s imagination, and cover any accidental defect, catching him as it were when falling.


These observations may perhaps be more distinctly apprehended by reference to some particular words set to musick: for instance, he was despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief.  The acute according to rule must be placed thus, déspised, réjected, sórrows, ácquainted; but Handel in setting these words, attentive to the sentiment only, is regardless of quantity, emphasis and accent, particularly in the first part, elevating was, unemphatic with a longer note, above he emphatic with a shorter, depressing de, re, and elevating spise, ject and ed; also raising of unemphatic above men emphatic, all in equal measure: a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief, this part is finely and properly set, excepting with man and sorrow, as also and, ac with quaint; but this it is easy for the singer to correct. [72]

Handel is guilty of the like faults in another favourite air; He shall feed his flock—where the syllables or feet move in trochaick measure; that is, the first long and second short, but the musik begins the reverse, in iambick.

The first care of the composer then should be to express short syllables and unemphatic words by quick notes, very little acuted where proper, with no repetition or division, but the long and emphatic by holding notes, repetition or division, according as the sense of the word will bear.


In the Te Deum to animate the musician’s imagination are three great ideas, namely, praise, adoration and petition, varied and heightened by names and epithets of dignity and mercy; which it may be proper to take some notice of with observations on Purcel’s and Handel’s grand Te Deum.  We, that is, a particular, single congregation of Christians, praise thee O! God, we acknowledge thee to be the Lord.  In these sentences the words of distinction are praise[,] [82] God, Lord.  Praise may be distinguished by a long note, or short division; which may be repeated according to the Latin position, Te Deum Laudamus, thee O! God we praise: God and Lord should have holding notes with pleasing harmony; not too crouded, whether considered as names of attribute only and speciallity, or of essence and universality.  God, that is, the good, the kind, the merciful saviour, espe[cially] of us believers, and lord, answering to Adonai, our governor, supporter, helper and defender, or Jehovah, the Being.  According to this sense of the words, the strain and harmony should be plain and modest, opening with one, or two voices, as in Purcel’s grand Te Deum, and Handel’s first: in his last, or detingen Te Deum, the musick is too complex and noisy, one voice and instrument pursuing another as fast as they can crying out with quick notes O God, O God just as if each were pricking on the other behind with a needle, and in a tedious division, first down hill and then climbing up the same way back, ’till at length arrived at the top again, with much ado and out of breath, all bawl out again, thee O God on the same spot, from which the counter[t]enor began [83] the race; surely he might have varied his ground. […]

The movement to the first words should be very simple, that it may stand in contrast to the next, “All the earth,” that is, the whole world Christian and unchristian doth worship thee under the universal relation of the father everlasting, the being of all mankind; where it is impossible to be too full and solemn, the notes plain and in unison rather than in harmony, particularly on all and everlasting….Handel less simple and less expressive than Purcel, in his first Te Deum runs away in a fugue with too long and too gay a division on the [84] solemn word worship: in the second Te Deum this verse opnes simply with a solo, and ends in unison, grand and solemn.

“To thee all angels cry aloud, the heavens and all the powers therein.”  These words afford an opportunity either in full harmony or unison for the most striking contrast; which may be increased by repeating according to the latin construction, “To thee all angels, the heavens and all the powers therein, to thee cherubim and seraphim continually do cry aloud.[”]  In Handel’s second Te Deum, “To thee all angels,[”] taken by the boys in verse, and “the heavens with all the powers therein” by the whole choir in unison makes a fine contrast.  The like contrast may be on the next words “To thee cherubim and seraphim[”]—The Hebrew word sa-ba-oth of three syllables, signifying hosts, particularly those hosts of heaven, the sun, moon, stars and winds, is by modern composers mistaken for Sabbath, and so printed in Purcel’s and Handel’s Te Deum, but the singers should correct it.

“The holy church” — These words require slow and solemn notes, and give the organist as well as composer an opportunity of [85] shewing his art by crouding in all the notes possible, particularly on “throughout all the world.”  [“]Thine honourable, true and only son; also the holy Ghost the comforter” standing in apposition to the father everlasting should be near as possible in the same movement, ending with a full cadence on comforter, not on Christ; where the first composer was guilty of a fault in making a pause, and almost every succeeding writer hath implicitly followed in the same erroneous track: […] “Thou art the king of glory O Christ or, thou O Christ art the king of glory:  When thou tookest upon thee to deliver man, thou didst not abhor the virgin’s womb, that is, wast graciously pleased to take human nature—When thou hadst overcome the sharpness of death, that is, when thou didst take away the sting of death by rising from the grave—these words reciting gracious and pleasing events, and standing in immediate succession, require to be set in a pleasing as well as the same kind of strain without any painful flats and sharps, yet in a contrasted strain, less joyous and triumphant than in [86] thou didst open the kingdom of heaven to all believers”  Here Aldrich in G. is very pleasing; but Handel is superior even to himself in his first Te Deum, “Thou di[d]st not abhor, and in the last, thou didst open the kingdom of heaven”  “We believe that thou shalt come to be our judge”—this passage is usually set with too grave ideas of horror and despair, as if in the mouth of the wicked ready to be condemned, instead of true believers to be saved; who stand before their judge with reverential awe indeed, but with certain hope and uplift countenances, as finely expressed by Handel in his first Te Deum.

The last verse, O Lord in thee have I trusted, may be considered the former part, as expressive of an humble, complacent confidence in God, and the latter of an earnest request, “let me never” or well grounded assurance of salvation, “I shall never be confounded.”  The air therefore should not be, as it often is, in the extreme too grave, or too triumphant, but modest and pleasing even to exceed [sic], if it be possible to exceed, that of Handel in his last Te Deum. [87]

We may now proceed to make a few observations on the jubilate; which is set by composers in general with many beauties and few defects.

Handel in the verse “Be ye sure”—is guilty of a fault in putting a very short note to he [be?], which is emphatick, finely pointed out with a rest and repetition by Purcel. […] Handel also in “Be thankful unto him and speak good of his name” makes good, on which lies the stress of the whole sentence, short and unemphatick, and enters into the courts of the Lord in a fugue with too little solemnity: he also is too full of repetitions, and tedious wi[t]h his divisions in the first ver.  O be joyful, especially on all lands”: Here Purcel likewise is too diffusive […] and making divisions on the word presence, namely, the divine presence; which requireth a more reverential approach, as finely expressed by Handel.

The Gloria patri is set with great ideas of exaltation and praise by both these eminent composers in styles, which differ as much as their character.  Purcel proceeding per arsin and thesin [88] delighteth with noble simplicity; Handel surpriseth with fullness and grandeur.[27]




[“The Second Book of the Epistles of Horace, Epistle I. To His Majesty.”]



If Roman genius claim our fainter praise,

Ere learning triumph’d in Augustan days,

Why not our own in Reason’s balance weigh,

And rev’rence, not to age, but merit, pay?

In sister arts our tastes superior spring,

We play like Handel, and like Vincent sing;

Like Reid we paint; in dancing we excel,

Thanks to great Hart!—and why not rhyme as well?


“Trades prosper by experience’d artists plan’d;

“Safe glides the ship beneath the pilot’s hand;

“Med’cines confess the learned doctor’s skill,

“Lost to all virtue when they’re cook’d by Hill;

“A Handel’s pow’rs the sounds of music feel,

“While Arne, too idle to compose, must steal;

“From Scott and you the verse unmeaning rolls,

“No ray of genius dawning in your souls.”






born at Lyons in France, became a formidable rival to Rysbrach, and latterly was more employed.  He had little business till sir Edward Walpole recommended him to execute half the busts at Trinity-college, Dublin; and by the same patron’s interest he was employed on the monument of the general, John duke of Argyle, in Westminster-abbey, on which the statue of Eloquence is very masterly and graceful.  His statue of Handel, in the garden at Vauxhall, fixed Roubiliac’s fame.[29]




[James Northcote, after 1771:]


At the time that Miss Linley was in the highest esteem as a public singer, Dr Johnson came in the evening to drink tea with Miss Reynolds, and when he entered the room, she said to him, “See, Dr Johnson, what a preference I give to your company; for I had an offer of a place in a box at the oratorio, to hear Miss Linley: but I would rather sit with you than hear Miss Linley sing.”[30]



[1] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 9 February 1771, [2].

[2] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 12 February 1771, [2].

[3] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 16 February 1771, [3].

[4] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 19 February 1771, [3]; repr. verbatim, Wednesday 20 February 1771, [2].

[5] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 21 February 1771, [2].

[6] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 26 February 1771, [3].

[7] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 27 February 1771, [3].

[8] The Public Advertiser, Friday 29 February 1771, [3].

[9] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 7 March 1771, [3]; repr. with the substitution “This Evening,” Friday 8 March 1771, [3].

[10] David Garrick, The Letters of David Garrick, ed. David M. Little and George M. Kahrl, 3 vols. (Cambridge, MA: Belknap-Harvard University Press, 1963), 2:730, 731.

[11] The Public Advertiser, Monday 18 March 1771, [3].

[12] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 12 March 1771, [3].

[13] The Public Advertiser, Friday 15 March 1771, [3].

[14] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 16 March 1771, [3].

[15] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 20 March 1771, [3].

[16] The Public Advertiser, Monday 15 April 1771, [1].

[17] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 24 April 1771, [2].

[18] The Letters of Dr Charles Burney.  Volume I: 1751-1784, ed. Alvaro Ribeiro, SJ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 79.

[19] The London Magazine: Or, Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer 40 (1771): 272-74.

[20] The Gentleman’s Magazine 41 (1771): 302-03.

[21] The Letters of Dr Charles Burney.  Volume I: 1751-1784, ed. Alvaro Ribeiro, SJ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 106, n28.

[22] James Cawthorn, Poems (London: W. Woodfall, 1771), 119, 126-29; repr., The London Magazine: Or, Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer 40 (1771): 419.

[23] The Gentleman’s Magazine 41 (1771): 409.

[24] [From Burney’s unpublished notebook “Materials Towards the History of German Music & Musicians”:] Handel’s operas did not exceed 40.—But his Oratorios amount to upwards of 20 & indeed Hasse has likewise Composed a great No of oratorios, Masses, Cantatas, Duets, Misereres, Salvs [sic] Reginas, Stabat Maters &c wch are very much esteemed in Italy & Germany, so that he may be said to be as voluminous a Composer as Handel.  Wch was the best of the two I shall not pretend to determine.  Both had great merit in a different way.  Such as admire manliness of style, richness of Harmony & ingenuity of Contrivance will vote in favour of Handel: while others who admire an Elegant simplicity, refined Taste, clearness, & a judicious & happy Expression of Words, will give their Suffrage to Hasse.  But nothing can be more illiberal & unjust than to exalt the one at the Expence of the other, especially when it is done, as is frequently the Case, sans connoissance de Cause, as the best Works of Hasse are but in few Hands in England, so that where 9 out of 10 [104] think it blasphemy to name him in Competition wth Handel: yet on the Continent little more than the Name of Handel, carried thither by the English has been heard.  How is it then possible either for the generality of English or Foreigners to form a Comparative Judgmt Concerning the Merit of these great Composers?

[25] The Letters of Dr Charles Burney.  Volume I: 1751-1784, ed. Alvaro Ribeiro, SJ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 103-06.

[26] The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany, ed. Lady Llanover, second series, 3 vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1862), 1:392.

[27] Anselm Bayly, A Practical treatise on Singing and Playing With Just Expression and Real Elegance… (London: J. Ridley, 1771), 58-59, 71-72, 81-88.

[28] [Edward Burnaby Greene], Poetical Essays (London: J. Ridley, 1772; original edition, 1771), 126, 132.

[29] Horace Walpole, Anecdotes of Painting in England; With some Account on the principal Artists; And incidental Notes on other Arts; Collected by the late Mr. George Vertue, 4 vols. (Strawberry-Hill [Twickenham]: Thomas Kirgate, 1771), 4:99.

[30] Dr Johnson: Interviews and Recollections, ed. Norman Page (London: Macmillan, 1987), 46.