1776

 

 

Jan 23

January 23.

[critical note on The Duenna]

Were old Dennis to again revisitthe pit of Covent-Garden play-house, he would forgive the improbable incident of the change of clothes between the Duenna and Louisa, [...] or in the last scene, though Handel might think very little of the composer, he would postpone the enjoyments of the table, and wait for half an hour to see little Isaac, taunted with a repetition of his boasting expressions of his own superior a<c>t and cunning, by his intended father in law, and his very amiable spouse.[1]

 

 

 

Jan 27

                  Anecdote of the late Mr. Handel. – When this great master of harmony had finished his excellent oratorio of Samson, he fixed a day, and obtained the use of Carlisle House for the purpose of a public rehearsal, at which many persons of distinction were present; amongst the rest, his late Royal Highness Frederick, Prince of Wales, father of his present Majesty.  The rehearsal began to a full auditory, the band was an extraordinary good one, and much applause was given to several of the early passages in it.  At length that divine actress, Mrs. Cibber (who, in the early part of life, made a capital figure as a singer) began the enchanting air of “Lord God of Hosts,” in which her most expressive and exquisite manner took possession of the very soul of Handel; but unfortunately, at this instant, the prince had entered into a full and loud conversation with some noblemen who sat near him; their talk, indeed, was so very loud, that Handel was not a little piqued to find that the merit of his composition, when aided by the amazing excellence of Cibber, had not sufficient charms to win their attention; he patiently bore for a while, what, at length, he could no longer endure: accordingly he made a loud crash upon the full organ, which made them stare for a while, and wonder what was the matter: the wonder being over, she continued singing, and they continued talking.  Handel’s patience was now quite exhausted, when rising from his seat, and turning round to the band and the audience, he exclaimed with a loud voice in broken English, “You dam musician, why you make all this noise?  Do you no perceive his Royal Highness is dispose for conversation, why you disturb him with your music?”  A dead pause ensued, when the prince mildly replied, “Handel, some princes would not brook such treatment, but I kiss the rod; I perceive my error, and desire you would go on with your rehearsal.”[2]

 

 

 

Jan 31

[Richard Brinsley Sheridan to Thomas Linley, 31 January 1776]

 

                  I have had a young man with me who wants to appear as a Singer in Plays or Oratorios[.]—I think you’ll find him likely to be serviceable in either.  He is not one and twenty, and has no conceit.  He has a good Tenor Voice—very good ear and a great deal of execution, and of the right kind.  He reads Notes very quick, and can accompany himself.—This is Betsey’s Verdict, who sat in Judgement [sic] on him on sunday [sic] last.—I have given him no answer—but engaged him to wait ’till you come to Town.[3]

 

 

 

Feb 21

[Joah Bates to his sister, Feb 21 [after 1773]]

 

Our Concert begun on the first Monday in this

month, & is acknowledged to be far the best in

London.  People were in such a hurry to subscribe

that we found it necessary to limit our numbers

to 150; among them we have 4 Bishops, Durham,

Ely, Worcester & Rochester.  There is only one

inconvenience attending it, which is that the

whole weight of it falls upon my shoulders, &

that & the Admiralty together hardly allow me

time to eat, drink & sleep.[4]

 

 

 

Feb 23

BY COMMAND OF

Their MAJESTIES.

AT THE

THEATRE-ROYAL

In DRURY-LANE,

On FRIDAY next, FEB. 23, 1776,

Will be PERFORMED

Acis and Galatea.

To which will be added

An ODE,

Written by DRYDEN,

And set to Music by Mr. HANDEL.

WITH

A CONCERTO on the ORGAN,

By Mr. STANLEY,

C Tickets to be had, and Places for the Boxes to be taken, of Mr. FOSBROOK, at the Stage-Door of the Theatre, at HALF a GUINEA each.

Pit 5s.  First Gallery 3s. 6d.  Second Gallery 2s.

The Doors will be opened at Half an hour after FIVE o’Clock.

To begin exactly at Half an Hour after SIX.                      Vivant Rex & Regina.[5]

 

 

 

Feb 23

The Oratorio of Judas Macchabaeus, was received last Night, at Coveny-Garden Theatre, with every Mark of Approbation and Applause.  Mr. La Motte’s Concerto on the Violin met with uncommon Admiration.  On Wednesday next will be performed the Oratorio of Omnipotence, selected from the Works of Handel; between the Acts will be a Concerto on the Violin by Mr. La Motte, and (for the first Time) a new Concerto on three Chromatic French Horns.[6]

 

 

 

Feb 28

The Oratorio of Omnipotence, performed last Night at Covent-Garden Theatre, was honoured by a numerous and elegant Audience with very great Applause.  The Band was led by Mr. Richards, Mr. La Motte having met with an Accident by a Fall from his Horse; that Gentleman, however, determining not to disappoint the Audience, performed a Concerto at the End of the Second Act, which (though interrupted a little by excessive Burst of Astonishment) was honoured at the End with repeated and universal Marks of the greatest Admiration.  The Concerto on the three French Horns, was likewise greatly applauded.[7]

 

 

 

Mar 1

AT THE

Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden,

To-morrow, FRIDAY, MARCH 1, 1776,

WILL BE PERFORMED

The MESSIAH.

A SACRED ORATORIO.

Composed by Mr. HANDEL.

The FIRST VIOLIN,

By Mr. LA MOTTE.

The PRINCIPAL VOCAL PARTS by

Mr. VERNON,

Mr. CHAMPNES,

AND

Mr. LEONI.

Mrs. WRIGHTEN,

AND

Mrs. WEICHSEL.

End of PART FIRST,

A NEW CONCERTO on

THREE CHROMATIC FRENCH HORNS,

(Being their SECOND PERFORMANCE.)

After Part the Second, a Concerto on the VIOLIN,

By Mr. LA MOTTE.

Boxes 7s. 6d.  Pit 5s.  First Gallery 3s.  Second Gallery 2s.

Places for the Boxes to be taken of Mr. SARJANT (only) at the Stage-Door of the Theatre.

Books of the Oratorio to be had at the Theatre.

The Doors to be opened at HALF after FIVE.

To begin exactly at HALF after SIX.                    Vivant Rex & Regina![8]

 

 

 

Mar 5

Died.] A few Days ago, at Brenchley in Kent, Charles Handell, Esq. a Relation of the great Musician Handell.[9]

 

 

 

A few Days since [previous entry starts “Sunday last”] died at Brenchley in Kent, Charles Handell, Esq; a Relation of the great Musician Handell.[10]

 

 

 

[Died] A few days ago, at Brenchley, Kent, Charles Handel, Esq; related to the great Mr. Handel.[11]

 

 

 

Mar 6

At the Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden,

To-morrow, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 6, 1776,

WILL BE PERFORMED

A Concerto Spirituale.

Part First, An ANTHEM,

Composed by Dr. ARNOLD

Part Second, STABAT MATER,

Composed by Signor B. PERGOLESI,

With ADDITIONAL CHORUSSES.

PART THIRD,

The POWER of HARMONY,

AN ODE,

Composed by Dr. ARNOLD.

The FIRST VIOLIN,

By Mr. LA MOTTE.

The PRINCIPAL VOCAL PARTS by

Mr. VERNON,

Mr. CHAMPNES,

AND

Mr. LEONI.

Mrs. WRIGHTEN,

AND

Mrs. WEICHSEL.

After Part the First, a Concerto on the GERMAN FLUTE,

By Mr. FLORIO.

After Part the Second, a Concerto on the VIOLIN,

By Mr. LA MOTTE.

Boxes 7s. 6d.  Pit 5s.  First Gallery 3s.  Second Gallery 2s.

Places for the Boxes to be taken of Mr. SARJANT (only) at the Stage-Door of the Theatre.

Books of the Oratorio to be had at the Theatre.

The Doors to be opened at HALF after FIVE.

To begin exactly at HALF after SIX.                    Vivant Rex & Regina![12]

 

 

 

Mar 6

[Mary Delany to Mrs Port, 6 March 1776]

 

[...] whilst your two brothers, Mr. Marsh and [200] Mr. Edge, were drinking your health I read your letter.  They went to the oratorio, and I have had my visiters [sic], [...][13]

 

 

 

Mar 7

MUSIC. / This Day is published, / A New Edition of Mr. Handel’s celebrated first Sett [sic] of Organ Concertos, which have ever been esteemed for their Compositions, and also as the most proper and useful Lessons for those who wish to excel [sic] on the Organ, or Harpsichord.  The Perplexities which arose to young Practitioners from the Variety of Clefs, are now removed by reducing the whole to the common Bass and Treble. / N. B. As most of the Plates are new, the Editor has been obliged to make the Price 5s. / Printed for William Randall, Successor to the late Mr. J. Walsh, in Catherine street, in the Strand. / Where may be had most of Mr. Handel’s Oratorios printed compleat in Score, with Chorusses.[14]

 

 

 

Mar 8

Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden,

To-morrow, FRIDAY, MARCH 8, 1776,

WILL BE PERFORMED

S A M S O N.

An ORATORIO,

Composed by Mr. HANDEL.

The FIRST VIOLIN,

By Mr. LA MOTTE.

The PRINCIPAL VOCAL PARTS by

Mr. VERNON,

Mr. CHAMPNES,

AND

Mr. LEONI.

Mrs. WRIGHTEN,

AND

Mrs. WEICHSEL.

End of PART FIRST,

A NEW CONCERTO on

THREE CHROMATIC FRENCH HORNS,

(Being their THIRD PERFORMANCE.)

After Part the Second, a Concerto on the VIOLIN,

By Mr. LA MOTTE.

Boxes 7s. 6d.    Pit 5s.   First Gallery 3s.                Second Gallery 2s.

Places for the Boxes to be taken of Mr. SARJANT (only) at the Stage-Door of the Theatre.

Books of the Oratorio to be had at the Theatre.

The Doors to be opened at HALF after FIVE.

To begin exactly at HALF after SIX.                    Vivant Rex & Regina![15]

 

 

 

Mar 13

AT THE

THEATRE ROYAL

In DRURY-LANE,

To-morrow, WEDNESDAY, March 13, 1776,

Will be PERFORMED

L’ALLEGRO ed il PENSEROSO.

To which will be added

An ANTHEM.

Composed by Mr. HANDEL,

For the late Duke of CHANDOIS.

The Principal Vocal Parts by

Miss LINLEY,

Miss M. LINLEY,

Miss DRAPER,

Mr. NORRIS,

And Mr. REINHOLD.

End of the First Part,

A CONCERTO on the ORGAN,

By Mr. STANLEY,

End of the Second Part,

A CONCERTO on the VIOLIN,

By Mr. LINLEY, jun.

C Tickets to be had, and Places for the Boxes to be taken, of Mr. FOSBROOK, at the Stage-Door of the Theatre, at HALF a GUINEA each.

Pit 5s.  First Gallery 3s. 6d.  Second Gallery 2[s].

The Doors will be opened at Half an Hour after FIVE o’Clock.

To begin exactly at Half an Hour after SIX.                      Vivant Rex & Regina.[16]

 

 

 

Mar 20

NEVER PERFORMED. / At the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, / This Day will be performed / The ASCENSION, / A SACRED ORATORIO. / The Music entirely new, composed by Mr. HOOK. / The First Violin by Mr. Lamotte. / The principal Vocal Parts by Mr. Vernon, Mr. Champnes, and Mr. Leoni; Mrs. Wrighten, and Mrs. Weichsell. / Between the Parts ofthe Oratorio, a Solo on the Pedal Harp, by Mr. Jones. / And a Concerto on the Violin by Mr. Lamotte. / Boxes 7s. 6d. Pit 5s.  First Gall. 3s.  Second Gall. 2s. / Places for the Boxes to be taken [(]of Mr. Sarjant only) at the Stage Door of the Theatre.[17]

 

 

 

Mar 22

BY COMMAND OF

Their MAJESTIES.

AT THE

THEATRE ROYAL

In DRURY-LANE,

To-morrow, FRIDAY, MARCH 22, 1776,

Will be PERFORMED

SAMSON.

An ORATORIO.

Composed by Mr. HANDEL.

The Principal Vocal Parts by

Miss LINLEY,

Miss M. LINLEY,

Miss DRAPER,

Mr. NORRIS,

Mr. REINHOLD,

And Mr. DINE.

End of the First Part, a Concerto on the ORGAN,

By Mr. STANLEY,

C Tickets to be had, and Places for the Boxes to be taken of Mr. FOSBROOK, at the Stage-Door of the Theatre, at HALF a GUINEA each.

Pit 5s.  First Gallery 3s. 6d.  Second Gallery 2s.

The Doors will be opened at SIX o’Clock.

To begin exactly at SEVEN.                      Vivant Rex & Regina.[18]

 

 

 

Mar 25

The Oratorio of the Prodigal Son, (composed by Dr. Arnold) which was performed, with general Approbation, many successive Nights, at the Theatre-Royal in the Hay-Market, and afterwards at the University of Oxford, will be performed on Wednesday next, at Covent-Garden Theatre.[19]

 

 

 

Mar 26

We hear that the sacred Oratorio, called Messiah, will be performed at the Chapel of the Foundling Hospital on Tuesday next the 2d of April.[20]

 

 

 

Mar 27

AT THE

THEATRE ROYAL

In DRURY-LANE,

To-morrow, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 27, 1776,

Will be PERFORMED

MESSIAH.

A Sacred Oratorio.

Composed by Mr. HANDEL.

The Principal Vocal Parts by

Miss LINLEY,

Miss M. LINLEY,

Miss DRAPER,

Mr. NORRIS,

Mr. DINE,

And Mr. REINHOLD.

End of the First Part,

A CONCERTO on the VIOLIN,

By Mr. LINLEY, jun.

C Tickets to be had, and Places for the Boxes to be taken of Mr. FOSBROOK, at the Stage-Door of the Theatre, at HALF a GUINEA each.

Pit 5s.  First Gallery 3s. 6d.  Second Gallery 2s.

The Doors will be opened at SIX o’Clock.

To begin exactly at SEVEN.                      Vivant Rex & Regina.[21]

 

 

 

Mar 27

This Day is published, Price 1s. / A New Edition in Quarto, with an Ornamental Title Page, designed by Edwards, and engraved by Walker, / THE PRODIGAL SON, an ORATORIO, written by Mr. HULL, and set to Music by Dr. ARNOLD; as it will be performed this Evening at Covent Garden Theatre, for the first Time. / Printed for John Bell, near Exeter Exchange in the Strand, and C. Etherington, York.[22]

 

 

 

Mar 27

The Last Oratorio but One. / NEVER PERFORMED HERE. / AT the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. / This Day will be performed / The PRODIGAL SON, / Composed by Dr. ARNOLD. / The First Violin by Mr. Lamotte. / The principal Vocal Parts by Mr. Vernon, Mr. Champnes, Master Harrison, and Mr. Leoni; Mrs. Wrighten, and Mrs. Weichsel. / Between the Parts of the Oratorio, a Solo on the Pedal Harp, by Mr. Jones. / And a new Concerto on the Violin by Mr. Lamotte. / Boxes 7s. 6d.  Pit 5s.  First Gall. 3s.  Second Gall. 2s. / Places for the Boxes to be taken of Mr. Sarjant only) at the Stage Door of the Theatre.[23]

 

 

 

Mar 27

Covent-Garden Theatre. / The Oratorio of the Prodigal Son was performed here last Night to a numerous Audience, with great and universal Applause, and will (by particular Desire) be repeated Tomorrow.[24]

 

 

 

Mar 28

We hear that a College Wag, having newly written an ingenious and humourous Parody on Alexander’s Feast, and presented it to Dr. Arne, he has, with his utmost Attention, set it to Music, and that it will be performed, with several of the most favourite Catches and Glees, at the Theatre Royal in the Hay-market on Thursday the 18th of April next, being his last Performance this Season.[25]

 

 

 

Mar 29

BY COMMAND OF

Their MAJESTIES.

The Last Time of performing this Season.

AT THE

Theatre Royal in Drury-Lane,

This present FRIDAY, MARCH 29, 1776,

Will be PERFORMED

MESSIAH.

A Sacred Oratorio.

Composed by Mr. HANDEL.

The Principal Vocal Parts by

Miss LINLEY,

Miss M. LINLEY,

Miss DRAPER,

Mr. NORRIS,

Mr. DINE

And Mr. REINHOLD.

End of the First Part,

A CONCERTO on the ORGAN,

By Mr. STANLEY.

C Tickets to be had, and Places for the Boxes to be taken of Mr. FOSBROOK, at the Stage-Door of the Theatre, at HALF a GUINEA each.

Pit 5s.  First Gallery 3s. 6d.  Second Gallery 2s.

The Doors will be opened at SIX o’Clock.

To begin exactly at SEVEN.                      Vivant Rex & Regina.[26]

 

 

 

Mar 30

[Charles Burney to Lord Mornington, 30 March 1776

 

... pray what idea am I to form of the new oratorios that are

springing up every day.  The King of Harmony died when Handel

died, We shall never have such chorus musick again. I remember to

have heard from a Lady the following anecdote of him. She

being very musical, was invited by him to a private Rehearsal

of the Messiah, and being struck with the Exceeding dignity of

expression in the Chorusses, and other parts of ye oratorio so

inimitably sett to the sacred words, after the musick was over

she asked him how it was possible for him who understood the

English Language but imperfectly, to enter so f d y into the sublime

spirit of the Words. His Answer is I think a Lesson to all

Composers, at least of Sacred Musick. Madam, I thank God I have

a little Religion. And certainly if a composer does not in some

measure feel the passion he means to express, why his musick

cannot have expression in it.[27]

 

 

 

Apr 2

Foundling Hospital. / THIS DAY, at Twelve o’Clock at Noon precisely, the sacred ORATORIO called / MESSIAH, / Will be performed in the Chapel of the said Hospital, under the Direction of Mr. STANLEY.  The Vocal Parts by Miss Linley, Miss M. Linley, M. Draper, Mr. Norris, Mr. Dyne, and Mr. Reinhold.  The first Violin and Concerto by Mr. Linley, Jun.  The above Performers have generously offered their Assistance for the Benefit of the Charity.  There will be no Collection. F Tickets, Half a Guinea each, to be had of the Steward, at the Hospital; at Arthur’s Chocolate-house, St. James’s street; at Batson’s Coffee house, in Cornhill; and at Will’s Coffee-house, the Corner of Serle-street, Lincoln’s-inn-fields.[28]

 

 

 

Apr 3

For the Benefit of the CHARITY. / AT the Lock Hospital Chapel, near Hyde-Park Corner, This Day, April 3, will performed / RUTH, / An ORATORIO, set to Music by Mr. GIARDINI. / The Vocal Parts by Miss Linley, Miss M. Linley, Signor Rauzzini, Mr. Vernon, Mr. Champnes, and others.  First Violin and Concerto by Mr. Giardini. / FNo Persons to be admitted without Tickets, which may be had at the following Places at Half a Guinea each: Mr. Stephen’s, Mercer, in New Bond-street; St. James’s Coffee-house, St. James’s street; the Mount Coffee-house, Grosvenor-street; George’s Coffee-house, Temple-bar; the Rainbow Coffee-house, Cornhill; and at the Hospital.  To begin at Twelve at Noon.[29]

 

 

 

Apr 5

[Charles Burney to Brigg Fountaine, 5 April 1776]

 

                  If you take a Master for the Violin, during your Residence at Bath, I wd recommend to you Mr Linley Junior, who is a Charming Performer, and of a Good School, having been under Nardini, Tartini’s best Scholar, in Italy, a considerable Time.  I therefore Enclose a Letter to him upon a supposition that he is by this Time returned to Bath, after leading at the oratorio in Drury Lane & at 2 or three Hospitals {…}[30]

 

 

 

May 9

[Mary Delany to Mrs. Port, 14 May 1776]

 

                  Miss Ducarol play’d here last Thursday three hours.  I treated your brothers and Mr. Williams with her.  She is a very ready and clever player and enters into the designs of the different masters; is majestic [sic], pathetic, harmonious, when she plays Corelli, Geminiani, Handel, but scours away the keys with the modern musick![31]

 

 

 

late May

[Lord Mornington to Charles Burney, 30 March 1776: “pray what Idea am I to form of the new oratorios that are springing up every Day[?]—The King of Harmony died when Handel died, we shall never have such Choruss Musick again.”]

 

[Charles Burney to Lord Mornington, ca late May 1776]

 

With respect to Modern Oratorios, I, who endeavour as much [as] I’m able to divest myself of prejudices of all kinds, cannot say much in their Favour.  The Dignity & learning of Handel’s Chorusses will certainly not be reached by his imitators of this Country, if they ever are by more original Composers in any other.  With respect to Fugues, so fitted for Church Music, & now with Propriety wholly devoted to its Service, all other writers seem Children, learning the 1st rudiments of Composition when they attempt them.  His subjects are so bold & varied that those of others wch are not stolen from him seem [/214] always feeble & Common.  With respect to most of Handels airs, they by frequent imitation and performance are become common; & indeed Time has rendered many of them ungraceful & even uncooth: however, those which have been lately made tho’ of a more modern Cast are in a frivolous, light, & improper Style for the words to which they are set, as well as for the general Subject of a Sacred Drama.  Your Lordship will often find me a Defender of the Moderns against the Prejudices of outrageous admirers of antiquity—here I must give them up.  The modern oratorios of Italy are in general too light & are too much in the style of Theatrical Music.—A Line shd certainly be drawn between the Church & Stage; but, as the French say of the universal finery & Foppery of all ranks of People: ‘il n’y a Point d’Etat.’—Jomelli & Bach have Composed some admirable Oratorios, in the true Church Style, with Good Chorusses, & slow airs that are truely [sic] pathetic, with others that are full of Passion, or chearful, Cum dignitate.[32]

 

 

 

It is not, however, certain that Ptolemy’s doctrine [“the taking those keys first that are at consonant distances” i.e. modulation {51}] was immediately adopted by all the musicians of his time [...]; if it was, their minds must have been more flexible than those of [58] modern professors.  For had the most popular composers of modern times, had Alexander Scarlatti, for instance, in Italy, Sebastian Bach, in Germany, or Handel, in England, proposed to their cotemporaries [sic] so considerable a change in the established musical system, it is hardly possible to believe that it would have been immediately received into general practice.

[57-58]

 

                  There is something like a specimen of Greek modulation in Plutarch’s Dialogue [...] the beginning [...] was in A; then it passed to E and B, and ended in G (f) and [64] D.

[63n-64]

 

Mirth, admit me of thy crew, by Handel, as well as several popular songs by Dr. Arne, Mr. Jackson, and others, are sufficiently conformable to poetical numbers and Rhythm, to satisfy the greatest admirers of ancient simplicity, or even such [86] as love poetry better than music, from whom complaints of non-conformity generally proceed.

[85-86]

 

(q) During his younger years Mr. Pope chose to pass for a friend and admirer of music.  He wrote a charming ode on St. Cecilia, because his model, Dryden, had written one before on the same subject; and he speaks respectfully of music in his notes on Homer, out of regard and veneration for his author, whom he is to defend on all occasions.  But nothing is more certain than that Pope was by nature wholly insensible to the charms of music, and took every opportunity of throwing contempt upon those who either cultivated, or listened to it with delight.  He asked his friend Dr. Arbuthnot, whose nerves were more tuneable than his own, whether at lord Burlington’s concerts, the rapture which the company exprest upon hearing the compositions and performance of Handel, did not proceed wholly from affectation?  I may therefore apply to Mr. Pope in defence of music, what this admirable writer himself says of de la Motte, when he speaks favourably of Homer: that “no praise can be more glorious than that which comes from the mouth of an enemy.”  Iliad, book ix. note on verse 295.

[343][33]

 

 

 

1286                                                            To Peter Fountain

 

Dear Sr                                                                                                                               Tuesday [ante June 1776]

I have it not in my Power to assist you & Mrs Fountain to get into ye house before ye doors are open’d— I have been oblig’d from ye many Clamours private & publick to forbid it, at plays— if you can make interest at an Oratorio I have no Objection But I have no Managemt those nights

Dr Sr Ever Yours.

D: Garrick.[34]

 

 

 

Jun 13

[John Mainwaring to Dodsley in Pall Mall, London]

 

Cambridge, St. John’s College, 13th. June 1776.

Sir,

 

I am just now favour’d with your Letter of yes-

terday’s date, informing me, that you had paid Ten

Pounds 2s : 5d into Gosling’s hands, as the Balance

due to me for 2/3rds of the Profits arising from the Sale

of the Life of Hendel. I wish you had also inform’d

me, that the Book, I have so often requested you to

send to Mr. Thomas, has been deliver’d. I suppose

it has not, & must again intreat that it may be,

from the Author written within the Cover, to shew

it is a present from me. If you have forgot to in-

clude it in the Account, as I desir’d, I will be accoun-

table to you for it; but shall not be at ease, unless

you, or your Apprentice assure me by a line, that it

is actually deliver’d.

I am, Sir,

Your most humble Servt.

J. Mainwaring[35]

 

 

 

Aug 12

Monday 12 [August] […] Being the birth-day of the Prince of Wales, the same was observed at Windsor with unusual splendor.  At six in the morning the festivity was announced by ringing of bells.  At seven some small guns were fired, as a signal to prepare.  Before nine the Prince, with his attendants, came to the King’s apartments.  At nine the whole guard were under arms.  At ten their Majesties, and the whole Court, walked in procession, properly arranged, to the South door of the Cathedral, where they were received by the Provost, Prebends, Canons, and Poor Knights, who joined the procession till the Court were seated.  Before service began, the King, the Prince of Wales, the Bishop of Osnaburg, and Duke of Montague, walked to the altar, and made their offerings of gold and silver.  The service then began: Mr. Kent’s Te Deum and Jubilate were sang; and Dr. Green’s anthem, God is our hope and strength, &c. concluding with the grand chorus from the Messiah.  After hearing divine service performed, the whole Court, attended by the clergy, returned to the Castle in procession.[36]

 

 

 

Aug 22

FOR THE ST. JAMES’S CHRONICLE.

ANECDOTE of HANDEL.

ONE Goupee had offended Handel to such a Degree, that he declared he never would forgive him:  The Man had Interest enough to prevail with the best natured Gentleman in the World, [F]rederick Prince of Wales, to intercede for him. – “Come, (said the Prince) Handel, I must insist on your forgiving Groupee [sic].” – He begged his Royal Highness would say no more on the Subject; he was a Rascal who had abused his Friendship, and had besides endeavoured to give his Royal Highness an ill Impression of him.  He never would forgive him, even on his Death-Bed; Let me interpose, said the Princess of Wales, I ask it as a Favour that you would forgive him.  Madam, sai[d] Handel, since you command it, I will do it, but, by G— it is impossible.[37]

 

 

 

Sep 3

To the Printer of the St. J. CHRONICLE.

SIR,

YOU gave us the other Day an Anecdote of Handel and one Goupee; now pray take in Return an Anecdote of Goupee and one Geo. Handel.

                  Goupee, Mr. Baldwin, was an ingenious Painter, not inferior to Handel as a Musician; the latter had said some cutting Thing to the former, on which he painted Handel’s Figure, with a Hog’s Face, playing on the Organ, and further characterised him as a Glutton, by hanging round it and in the Apartments [sic] Hams, Turkeys, Venison, and many Sorts of Dainties.  Goupee, however, lost 5000 l. by this Joke, Handel having left him that Sum in his Will, which he now took Care to alter.  This very Hogarthish Picture Goupee once shewed me, and told me the Consequence, but, said he, I did not mind it, I was then in high Favour with George’s Father, and the Caricature entertained him and his Wife exceedingly.  Unfortunately, however, for the Public, as well as poor Goupee, George’s Father died, and Goupee, who loved him affectionately, was so shocked at the News, that he broke a Blood Vessel in the first Emotions of his Grief, and brought up two Quarts of Blood; yet he lived till within these few Years, and di[e]d in great Want at the Age of 86.  It was necessary to tell you this, Mr. Baldwin, to introduce the Anecdote.

                  Know then, that there was no Love lost between Goupee and George’s Father.  Goupee was with him every Day to draw or paint some humorous or b——y [bawdy] Picture.  Upon his entering the sumptuous Apartments of George’s Father, (for though he was a poor Man he lived in Fashion) he found young George a Prisoner behind a Chair.  Come, Goupee, said the Father, sit down and make me a d——’d [damn’d] good b——y Picture.  Sir, said Goupee, permit me first to take little George out of Prison.  How can I sit down or employ my Invention while so fine a young Gentleman stands before me deprived of Liberty, and under your Displeasure?  Come out, George, said the Father, Goupee has obtained your Liberty and Pardon.

                  About twelve Years ago Goupee, who lived and died at Kensington, was standing at the Coffee-House Door, while George happened to pass by.  George recollected the Face of Goupee, called him to his Coach Door, and spoke to him kindly, and among other Things asked him whether he had enough to support him in his old Age?  Goupee, who had great Spirit and Pride, paused a little, gave George an affectionate and respectful Look, (for he loved his Father, as I said above) and then added, Sir, I once took you out of Prison; I hope you will not suffer me to be put into one; and, lest another Blood Vessel should burst, bowed and retired.

                  Now, Mr. Baldwin, I know you love to record Acts of Generosity, so let the World know that George gave Goupee a Guinea every Monday Morning, even unto the Day of his Death; but as Goupee had kept a Mistress in his Youth, who became mad, and could not bear to see in his old Age the Object of his Love and Pleasures confined in Bedlam, he took her to his own House, where the Expence of Attendance, &c. was so great, that he lived and died in very indigent Circumstances.

W.[38]

 

 

 

Sep 12

To the Printer of the Public Advertiser.

                  SIR,

I AM a young Man, unexperienced in Matters of Dispute, having never hitherto presumed to offer my Sentiments thus publicly, therefore hope the Goodness of my Intentions will apologize for the Roughness of my Style.

                  I have lately read two Anecdotes, the first of Handel, and one Goupee; the second of Goupee, and one George Handel.  The first is immaterial, and not to my Purpose:  But how far the second has adhered to Truth those who are unacquainted with the several Characters and Incidents composing the Story are unable to determine.  Now this said second Anecdote Writer has really got a Notion of the Outlines, without possessing the Materials to build with, and had therefore determined sooner than let the Story rest in that Oblivion, in which it has been buried for so many Years, to present the World with it truly, in a well-patched up Sort of a Manner, but hobbling, as he had it.

                  That I may gain some little Credit with the World, it is necessary to say, that I was very intimately acquainted for several Years with Goupy (not Goupee.) [sic] Here, not to digress, the bare miss-spelling of the Name is, I think, an Indication of your Author’s Ignorance of the Person and Story.  Now, Goupy has often related to me (since he took a Pleasure in the Relation) something similar to what your Author has presented you with, but widely different in Fact; for your Author blunders at the very Threshold:  He says that Handel had said some cutting Thing to Goupy, for which Goupy painted him as he represents.  Now this is false; for Handel, who was a morose, ill-bred, ill-mannerly Fellow, had, in one of his brutal Fits, given George’s Father the Lie.  Frederic, whose Excess of Good-nature was among his Faults, took no Notice of it; for which Reason the Princess, his Wife, took it in Hand; and attempted to prevail on him to make some Concessions for the Affront; but she lost her Labour, and therefore applie[d t]o Goupy, who, after much Time, and much Words spent to no Effect, returned in the same Manner.  Goupy however painted his Figure in the Manner mentioned, with a Number of Additions unnoticed in the Anecdote:  He printed it afterwards, and of these said Prints I have at least twenty or thirty, if not more, now in my Possession.

                  The Story of the breaking of the Blood vessel, and his bringing up two Quarts of Blood, is absolutely true.  And in the Story of taking little George out of Prison, for meddling with some Pictures contrary to Orders, I likewise agree with your Author:  But the Story of George’s recollecting Goupy’s Face, while he was standing at the Kensington Coffee house Door, and calling him to his Coach, and enquiring about his Circumstances, is a Story indeed, for there is not one Word of Truth in it.

                  The Case, Mr. Printer, is this:  Goupy finding himself reduced to the lowest Ebb, determined to petition George (which Petition I now possess with Goupy’s own Hand-writing) and for which Reason he prevailed on a Gentleman, George’s Librarian, to present it; the Gentleman presented it, and prevailed on George to grant Goupy that Allowance specified by your Writer; and this he received not Weekly, but Half-yearly.

                  So far I would not have disturbed the goodly Repose of your Author:  It was not worth my while to take up my Pen, merely to contradict those Assertions, since they are Matters of no Consequence.  However they lead me to think, and I dare say will lead the World to think, that your Author would have a better Taylor than Coffee-house Keeper and Lawyer, since he is so excellent at Botching; which said Coffee house Keeper and Petty-fogging Lawyer, that you may the better know him, is now, and has been for some Time, safely lodged in the King’s-Bench.  My Reason then for thus troubling you, is to expose the Villainy of the Man, who under the Cloak of an intimate Acquaintance with, and from whence he supposes a Knowledge of, Mr. Goupy and his Affairs, has imposed upon the World a bare-faced Lie, in attempting to vilify an unspotted Character, a wretched, distracted Woman, divested of every Species of Defence, and now labouring under every Frailty of human Nature.  An unmanly Deed!  My Soul almost denies that a Man can be guilty of so base a Crime.  Surely there is not his Equal!  Can he read this without blushing?  No.— Then leave him, and let him blush, and ask Forgiveness of the injured, distracted Person.

                  He says, Mr. Printer, that Goupy kept a Mistress in his Youth, who became mad, and whom he in his old Age took to his own House:  I repeat it again, that this is an imprudent, scandalous, direct Falshood [sic].  The Person hinted at lived with him, but that in the Capacity of a House-keeper; and did not even live with him, or know that there was such a Being in Nature, till he was turned of 70 Years old.  Now this Age your wrong-headed Author calls Youth:  This Blunder alone is sufficient to up-set his whole Narration.

                  Let us leave it now to every impartial Reader, supposing I had not caught this Anecdote Writer in so extravagant a Falsity, to judge what Business a Man of Goupy’s Age, entirely debilitated and worn out, who had once broken a Blood vessel, and who was I assure you quite childish, could have with a Mistress.  Reason urges against it, and to believe it a Man must be infatuated indeed.  It is needless to speak further on the Subject; the Thing speaks of itself.  It remains therefore to say something on this your good-natured and exact Author; and to be short, I cannot help thinking him one of those who,

 

                                    ———————inverting Nature’s Right,

                  The Night have chang’d to Day, the Day to Night:

                  Who live in Body foul, oppress’d with Shame;

                  A ruin’d Carcass and a branded Name.

 

                                    I am, Mr. Printer,

                                                                        Your’s, &c.

A. P.[39]

 

 

 

Sep 21

[performed at the opening of Drury-Lane theatre, 21 September 1776.]

Phelim.  May I be so bould as to ax you, Sir Dulcimer, how you came to be so fond of musick, when you are so hard of haring, sir?

Sir Dulc.  Oh there’s nothing at all extraordinary in that, sir.

[…] And I, sir, that can scarce hear the guns at the Tower, without the help of this trumpet, always put it up at a Concert.

Phelim.  With or without ’tis all the same thing, I suppose.

Sir Dulc.  Handel’s thunder strikes upon the nerve like electricity; the ear piercing fife serves for a syringe;—nay, I should not lose a single demi-semi-quaver of a solo on the flageolet.—Musick, sir, musick plays on the drum of my ear, like the wind on an Aeolian harp, sir.[40]

 

 

 

December

Mr. URBAN,

Some years since, an ingenious Frenchman, in his Lives of the Painters, gave us a scale to measure their different abilities, which, of late, has been imitated and applied to poets, orators, and even to beauties.  Musicians have as yet been unweighed in the critical balance: but the time is now come for them, and I have undertaken  the office; which I shall immediately enter upon, after professing a strict impartiality in the execution of it, (thoug, no doubt, many will differ from me in opinion,) and explaining a few necessary preliminaries.

All the columns (except one) suppose 20 for the point of ideal perfection, 19 for the utmost pitch of human attainment, and 18 for the greatest height to which it has yet been carried.  The second column alone supposes 4 for the maximum.  There was a necessity for this difference: for if natural and imitated melody were upon the same proportion, a composer who excels as much in the latter, as another in the former, might seem of equal rank; whereas natural melody is superior to imitated, at least, in the rates of 5 to 1, as I have put it.  The seventh column is of more consequence than may at first appear; for many productions shew a fertility of genius, and give a larger scope for criticism.  No one can put Gray and Pope upon the same footing, supposing them equal in all other respects, on account of the latter exceeding the former so much in the quantity of his poetical works.  Handel seems by this balance to outweigh Geminiani but little, until you throw in the bulk of his works, and then the scale of the latter “kicks the beam.”

The sixth column only notices such musicians as have appeared in public as performers, otherwise their merit [544] in this respect is supposed to be unknown.  The other parts explain themselves.                                                                   Yours, &c.

                                                                                          JUSTICE BALANCE.

 

[continued in next page]

 

 

Original

melody.

 

 

20

Imitated

melody.

 

 

4

Expres-

sion.

 

 

20

Know-

ledge.

 

 

20

Correct-

ness.

 

 

20

Perfor-

mance.

 

 

20

Quantity

published

or known.

 

20

Abel      

Arne     

Avison

Bach, John

Blow    

Boyce  

Corelli 

Croft    

Dibdin 

Fischer

Garth   

Geminiani

Giardini

Greene

Handel

Howard—

Jackson—

Marcello—

Paradies—

Piccini 

Purcel  

Sacchini—

Scarlatti Domenico

Schobert—

  6

17

10

  6

  4

14

18

  9

  6

  6

10

17

13

10

18

  8

17

12

11

  6

16

  9

14

12

3

2

2

3

2

1

 

1

3

3

2

2

3

2

2

2

 

2

2

3

1

3

2

3

12

12

10

13

  4

10

  8

  8

10

11

  6

12

14

  7

12

  4

18

  9

10

10

12

10

  9

14

10

15

  8

10

12

17

17

10

  8

  8

  9

17

  1

12

18

12

17

  6

12

12

15

12

12

  3

  8

14

  6

  6

10

17

18

12

  6

  6

  6

18

  1

13

16

15

18

  4

12

14

15

12

10

  4

18

 

 

13

 

 

14

 

 

18

 

15

18

 

18

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

16

18

  3

  9

  4

  9

  4

  9

  4

  6

  6

  1

  3

  4

  4

  7

18

  4

  5

  9

  1

  9

  9

  8

  1

  3[41]

 

 

 

Dec 3

[Horace Walpole to Lady Ossory, Tuesday 3 December 1776]

 

{...} I have been three days at Strawberry and have not seen a creature but Sir John Hawkins’s five volumes, the two last of which, thumping as they are, I literally did read in two days.  They are old books to all intents and purposes, very old books; and what is new, is like old books too, that is, full of minute facts that delight antiquaries—nay, if there had never been such things as parts and taste, this work would please everybody. {...} My friend Sir John is a matter-of-fact man, and does now and then stoop very low in quest of game.  Then he is so exceedingly religious and grave as to abhor mirth, except it is printed in the old black letter, and then he calls the most vulgar ballad pleasant and full of humour.  He thinks nothing can be sublime but an anthem, and Handel’s choruses heaven upon earth.  However he writes with great moderation, temper and good sense, and the book is a very valuable one.[42]

 

 

 

[Hannah More to one of her family]

 

LONDON, 1776.

[… 33 …] I wish you could see a picture Sir Joshua has just finished, of the prophet Samuel, on his being called.  “The gaze of young astonishment” was never so beautifully expressed.  Sir Joshua tells me that he is exceedingly mortified when he shows this picture to some of the great—they ask him who Samuel was?  I told him he must get somebody to make an Oratorio of Samuel, and then it would not be vulgar to confess they knew something of him.  He said he was glad to find that I was intimately acquainted with that devoted prophet.  He has also done a St. John that bids fair for immortality.  I tell him that I hope the poets and painters will at last bring the Bible into fashion, and that people will get to like it from taste, though they are insensible to its spirit, and afraid of its doctrines.[43]

 

 

 

XXV.  Short Sketches of the most illustrious Men of all Ages...

[...]

GRAMMARIANS, ANTIQUARIANS, and ARTISTS.

[...]

H

Handel George-Frederic, an illustrious master in music, was born at Hall [sic], a city of Upper Saxony, February 24, 1684.  He died the 14th of April, 1759; and was buried in Westminster-Abbey.

 

[Handel is the only musician and one of the more recently-deceased ones listed in this biographical dictionary.][44]

 

 

 

Vauxhall Gardens...On entering the Gardens, several noble Vistas appear at some Distance; neat Hedges fill up the intervening Space.  [S]weet-smelling Shrubs and Flowers are planted in the painted Representation of triumphal Arches, some terminated in a Prospect of the adjacent Country, and some in a View of Ruins.  There is a fine Marble Statue of the late Mr. Roubiliac’s Workmanship, that [33] represents Mr. Handel in the Character of Orpheus, playing on a Lyre.

[…]

Handel’s Monument, was the last Performance which the late celebrated Artist Roubiliac lived to put a finishing Hand to.  By exhibiting that great Master of Harmony, the excellent Sculptor seems to have begun and concluded in Point of Fame; because Handell’s well known Statue in Vauxhall, was what first rendered Roubiliac conspicuous, and the late Figure of him for Westminster-Abbey, is a most elegant Performance.  The Face bears a striking Resemblance to its great Original.  His left Arm is represented as leaning on a Groupe of musical Instruments, than which no other Attitude could be rendered more expressive of a most elevated Attention to the Harmony of an Angel, that over his Head is playing on a Harp in the Clouds.  The celebrated Oratorio called the Messiah, opens in that Part where is, “I know that my Redeemer lives,” an Air that can never be too much admired: There is only this [/62] plain Inscription underneath, “GEORGE FREDERIC HANDELL, Esq; born Feb. 23, 1684, died April 14, 1759.”

[…]

[Foundling Hospital]...The Altar-Piece in the Chapel is finely painted by an Italian Artist: It represents the wise Men making their Offering to the Infant Jesus, his Mother holding him in her Arms.  The fine Organ here was made a Present of by Mr. Handel, who likewise contributed to this Hospital’s Advancement by several Benefit-Oratorios in which he used to perform gratis on this Organ.[45]

 

 

 

                  I CANNOT quit a subject relative to an art, of which I am so fond, without making a few slight remarks upon English musical composition in general.  Foreigners greatly object to our harmonies: they accuse them of being almost [161] always overcharged, and that there is never room enough left for occasional force of expression.  Whether their dislike to Handel be just or not, I will not pretend to determine; but certain it is, they seem highly displeased with his stile and manner, nor will they bear to hear him named with Hasse, Pergolese, Faradellas, or any of the principal foreign composers.  The fire of his music, as they express it, is much too great, and generally unfitted to the subject and the performers.  They should have considered, however, that it is in general adapted to the audience: the English have been ever remarked for being fond of loud music.  Scaliger, as early as the time of Queen Elizabeth, gives that peculiarity among the features of their national character.  Handel seems to have studied his audience perfectly: he knew that an English ear found less pleasure in the sound of a violin, than in the glorious notes of a drum. [162]

[… 163] modern Italian music, I say, is still more defective than ours.  Whatever variety of expression ours may want from too much harmony, theirs actually wants from a deficiency of genius.  I have heard a judicious friend observe, that he thought all the modern Italian cantata’s [sic] but a repetition of the same tune.  In fact, though they at present aim so much at simplicity, contrary to what is [164] usually imagined upon this subject, I have heard a singer throw more song into his voluntary close, than the composer had given him in his part.  But in proportion as the composers are steril [sic], their performers are compelled to be wild, and to make up in tawdry ornament what the piece wants in solidity.  Music, notwithstanding, must be owned to have been indebted for many improvements to some later composers.  Alberti is graceful, Tartini delicate, Rameau, though a Frenchman, often sublime: Handel’s music is well adapted; but, after all, Correlli [sic] is still inimitable.[46]

 

 

 

BIRMINGHAM,

A most noisy, unharmonious, smoaky town, where the harsh sound of the hammer and anvil, together with the incessant clashing of pots, frying-pans, and coppers, which was the only music I heard at my arrival, made me augure ill of my success at this place.  However, I was well informed that it had lately been the seat of oratorios, and the receptacle of the castrati, that its inhabitants had studied oratory under the tuition of the celebrated Mr. Herries, that they were [75] moreover honoured once a year by the presence of the manager of the Opera-house at London, and, if I mistake not, had even heard Lord S. himself play upon the kettle-drum at their music-meeting.

[…]

Here the entrance of the young ladies interrupted any further conversation on the subject.  The eldest, his niece, who was called Gluckinelli Inglesina, desired me to sing, which I did in the softest and most unmanly tone, that I might not again offend.  I asked her what was her real opinion of my voice? she answered me with the most perfect affability, that I acquitted myself tolerably well considering; though she thought me (like Handel) too ambitious of displaying my talent of [90] working parts and subjects, and added, that my cantilena was often rude.

[…]

Mr. Collier then desired me to desist, and leave him in repose during the short time he had yet to live.  He thanked me affectionately for my attention to him during his last illness.  He recommended his wife and children to my care, whose circumstances, he said, he should lament, if he had not deserved too well of the [26] public, to doubt it’s gratitude towards his family.  He declared himself an enemy to all ostentation, and begged that no statue might be erected, at the public expence, to his memory; though, said he, should the parliament chuse to bury me in Westminster-abbey, near the tomb of Handel, I would not have my executors oppose it.[47]

 

 



[1] The London Magazine.  Or Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer 45 (1776): 47.

[2] The Morning Chronicle, and London Advertiser, no. 2086, Saturday 27 January 1776, [3]; repr. The London Packet: Or, New Lloyd’s Evening Post, no. 978, Friday 26 – Monday 29 January 1776, [1]; repr. The General Evening Post (London), no. 6571, Tuesday 30 January – Thursday 1 February 1776, [2].

[3] The Letters of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, ed. Cecil Price, 3 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966), 1:101.

[4] Betty Matthews, “Joah Bates: A remarkable amateur,” The Musical Times 126 ([no. 1714, December] 1985), 749-53: 753.

[5] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[6] The Public Advertiser, Saturday 24 February 1776, [3].

[7] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 29 February 1776, [3].

[8] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[9] The St. James’s Chronicle or, British Evening-Post, no. 2348, Saturday 2-Tuesday 5 March 1776, [3].

[10] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 5 March 1776, [3].

[11] The London Evening-Post, no. 8419, Tuesday 5-Thursday 7 March 1776, [1].

[12] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[13] The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany, ed. Lady Llanover, second series, 3 vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1862), 2:199-200.

[14] The Public Advertiser, Thursday 7 March 1776, [2].

[15] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[16] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[17] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 20 March 1776, [1].

[18] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[19] The Public Advertiser, Monday 25 March 1776, [3].

[20] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 26 March 1776, [3]; repr. Wednesday 27 March 1776 [3].

[21] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[22] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 27 March 1776, [1].

[23] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 27 March 1776, [1].

[24] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 28 March 1776, [3].

[25] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 28 March 1776, [3].

[26] Broadsheet: The Eighteenth Century microfilm collection.

[27] William C. Smith, A Handelian’s Notebook (London: Adam & Charles Black, 1965), 149; see also The Letters of Dr Charles Burney.  Volume I: 1751-1784, ed. Alvaro Ribeiro, SJ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 213, n10.

[28] The Public Advertiser, Tuesday 2 April 1776, [1].

[29] The Public Advertiser, Wednesday 3 April 1776, [1].

[30] The Letters of Dr Charles Burney.  Volume I: 1751-1784, ed. Alvaro Ribeiro, SJ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 207.

[31] The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany, ed. Lady Llanover, second series, 3 vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1862), 2:217.

[32] The Letters of Dr Charles Burney.  Volume I: 1751-1784, ed. Alvaro Ribeiro, SJ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 213-14.

(f) Handel is the only one I know of who has hazarded a modulation from B to G with a flat third; a passage of this kind occurs in the last act of the Oratorio of [64] Athaliah, which is so bold and wonderfully happy in expressing the words, that I shall insert it here as a great stroke of the composer, as well as of musical imitation.  Athaliah is relating a dream which she had had just before the execution of that conspiracy, which put an end to her tyranny and life. [excerpt]

[33] Charles Burney, A General History of Music, from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period.  To which is prefixed, A Dissertation on the Music of the Ancients...Volume the First (London: the author, 1776).

[34] David Garrick, The Letters of David Garrick, ed. David M. Little and George M. Kahrl, 3 vols. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963), 3:1297.

[35] Foundling Museum, Gerald Coke Handel Collection, accession no. 2386.

[36] The Gentleman’s Magazine 46 (1776): 383.

[37] The St. James’s Chronicle; Or, British Evening-Post, no. 2411, Tuesday 20 – Thursday 22 August 1776, [1].

[38] The St. James’s Chronicle; Or, British Evening-Post, no. 2416, Saturday 31 August – Tuesday 3 September 1776, [4]; repr. (addressed “To the PRINTER” and with no reference to “Mr. Baldwin”) The Public Advertiser, no. 14641, Thursday 5 September 1776, [4].

[39] The Public Advertiser, no. 14647, Thursday 12 September 1776, [1].

[40] George Colman [the elder], New Brooms!  An Occasional Prelude (London: T. Becket, 1776), 25.

[41] The Gentleman’s Magazine 46 (1776): 543-44.

[42] Horace Walpole’s Correspondence with the Countess of Upper Ossory I (“The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole’s Correspondence, Vol. 32”), ed. W. S. Lewis and A. Dayle Wallace (New Haven: Yale University Press / London: Oxford University Press, 1965), 333.

[43] Hannah More, The Letters of Hannah More, selected and ed. R. Brimley Johnson (London: John Lane the Bodley Head, 1925), 32-33.

[44] John Ryland (compiler), The Preceptor, or Counsellor of Human Life; for the Use of the British Youth, 4th edition (London: [?], 1776), 368.

[45] Sir John Fielding (?denied authorship), A Brief Description of the Cities of London and Westminster, the Public Buildings, Palaces, Gardens, Squares, &c. (London: J. Wilkie, 1776), 32-33, 61-62, 125.

[46] Oliver Goldsmith, A Survey of Experimental Philosophy, Considered in its Present State of Improvement, 2 vols. (London: T. Carnan and F. Newbery jun, 1776), 2:160-64.

[47] Joel Collier [=John Bicknell], Musical Travels through England (London: G. Kearsly, 1774), 74-75, 89-90, Appendix: 25-26.