COMPARATIVE DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT

Political Science 147, Sociology 112

MWF 11:00 - 12:15,
Room 200-205 (History Corner, Room 205)

Winter 2008

 

 

Larry Diamond

Hoover Tower Room 1202, (12th Floor)

Tel: 725-3420

email: diamond@hoover.stanford.edu

Office Hours:  Wednesday 2:00-4:00 and by appointment.

(alternate dates noted at bottom of page 3)

 

 

TA: Nicholai Lidow and Thomas Brambor

Dept of Political Science, Encina Hall

Email: nlidow@stanford.edu, tbrambor@stanford.edu

Lidow: Encina Central 431, Brambor: Encina West 316

 

 

 

 

 

 


Course Description and Requirements

 

This course is intended as a broad, introductory survey of the political, social, cultural, economic, institutional, and international factors that foster and obstruct the development and consolidation of democracy.  Each factor will be examined in historical and comparative perspective, with reference to a variety of different national experiences.  An important aim of the course is to encourage each student to relate the historical development and contemporary situation of a particular country or region to the various theories about democratic development, and to evaluate those theories in light of the experience of a country, set of countries, or region.  You are thus encouraged to relate the analytical readings in the course to other study you may be doing or knowledge you may have of a particular country or region.  You are also asked to read at least one of the regional chapters (8, 9, 10, 11 or12) in The Spirit of Democracy.  The instructor will happily recommend other country-specific reading.  

 

                  This course is primarily intended for upper-division undergraduates who are prepared to do a lot of work.  As an intensive survey of a broad literature, the course has very heavy reading assignments.  It is not expected that you will do all of the reading every week, but you are expected to do a substantial amount of the assigned reading each week, particularly those items to be discussed in section.  One purpose of the discussion sections is to help students review, distill, discuss, and debate with one another the required reading for each week. The more important assignments will comprise at least 100 pages of reading per week.  You will, however, be expected in each of the three essays you write to master a particular theme, problem, or debate more comprehensively, and to draw relevant linkages across themes and between theories and case studies.  Your effectiveness in engaging the readings in a systematic, responsive, and creative way in these essay exams will heavily determine your grade in the course.

 

                  The mid-term and final will be take-home essay exams.  Each student will answer one essay question for the mid-term exam and two for the final exam, with each essay counting for 30% of the grade.  Each essay should range from 2,000 to 2,500 words, not to exceed 3,000 words (about 6-10 pages typed, doubled spaced).  Ten percent of the grade will be determined by participation in class and discussion section.  To ease the load during finals week, the first part of the final exam will be distributed early, and that essay may be submitted on or before the exam due date, indicated below:

 

                  Mid-term:  Distributed Monday, February 4; due Monday, February 11

 

                  Final I:  Distributed Wednesday, March 5; due Thursday, March 20

 

                  Final II:  Distributed Wednesday, March 12; due Thursday, March 20


SCHEDULE OF LECTURES

COMPARATIVE DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT

Winter 2008

Week

1               January 9, W                  Introduction to the Course, Concepts of Democracy

 

                  January 11, F                 Assessing the Third Wave of Global Democratization

 

2               January 14, M                Democratic Consolidation

 

January 16, W                Legitimacy, Authority and Effectiveness

 

3               January 23, W               Political Culture

 

                  January 25, F                Are Democratic Values Universal? 

 

4               January 28, M                Paths and Drivers of Democratic Transition

 

                  January 30, W               Economic Development and Class Structure

 

                  February 1, F                    Conversation with Alejandro Toledo, former President of Peru

 

5               February 4, M                Civil Society

                                   

                  February 8, F                 Horizontal Accountability and the Control of Corruption

 

6               February 11, M               Presidential vs. Parliamentary Government

 

                  February 13, W              Parties and Party Systems

                                   

7               February 20, W               Electoral Systems       

 

February 22, F                 Institutional Designs

 

8               February 25, M                Managing Ethnic and Nationality Conflict

 

February 27, W               Democratic Breakdowns

 

9               March 3, M                          International Factors

                 

March 5, W                         Building Democracy after Conflict

 

10            March 10, M                       Promoting Democracy

 

                  March 12, W                     Repairing American Democracy

 

Alternate Office Hours (cancelling Wednesday of that week):  Tuesday, Jan 29, 2-4;

Monday, Feb 4, 12:45-2 pm and Friday Feb 8, 2-4 pm; Tuesday Feb 12, 2-4 pm; Tuesday,

March 11, 2-4 pm.


                  REQUIRED COURSE TEXTS

 


 

  1. Larry Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy: The Struggle to Build Free Societies Throughout the World (New York: Times Books, 2008).      

 

  1. Robert A. Dahl, Polyarchy:  Participation and Opposition (Yale University Press, 1971).

 

  1. Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave:  Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).

 

  1. Juan J. Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes:  Crisis, Breakdown and Reequilibration (John Hopkins University Press, 1978).

 


5.       Arend Lijphart, Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999).

 

6.       Andreas Schedler, Larry Diamond, and Marc F. Plattner, eds., The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999).

 

  1. Course Reader (Stanford Bookstore).

 

Recommended

 

  1. Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.        

 

  1. Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner, eds., The Global Divergence of Democracies, (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).

[Note: These essays can also be downloaded from the library’s online subscription to the Journal of Democracy.]

 

  1. Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner, eds.,  Electoral Systems and Democracy (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006).

[Note: These essays can also be downloaded from the library’s online subscription to the Journal of Democracy.]

 

 

Recommended for background and historical case studies

 

Larry Diamond, Juan J. Linz and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds., Politics in Developing Countries:  Comparing Experiences with Democracy, 2nd edition, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995. 

 

 

SCHEDULE OF READINGS

 

Note:    Readings designated by brackets [ ] are recommended.  Readings from the Journal of Democracy can be accessed at the following web site: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy. These readings are marked JOD in the margin.

 

                  Numbers in parentheses indicate sequence in the Course Reader.

 

 

January 9:                          Introduction to the Course, Concepts of Democracy

 

Larry Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy , pp. 20-26

 

                                    JOD       Philippe Schmitter and Terry Karl, "What Democracy Is...and Is Not,"  Journal of Democracy 2 (July 1991): 75-88.

 

                                                      Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 1-32.

 

                                    JOD      Larry Diamond and Leonardo Morlino, “The Quality of Democracy: An Overview,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 20-31.

                  .

January 11:                       Assessing the Third Wave of Global Democratization

                                                                                         

                                                      Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 3-46

 

                                                      Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, 39-87.

 

JOD       Thomas Carothers, “The End of the Transition Paradigm,” Journal of Democracy 13 (January 2002): 5-21.

 

                                    JOD       Guillermo O'Donnell, "Delegative Democracy," Journal of Democracy 5 (1994): 55-69.

 

                          JOD      [Larry Diamond, “Elections without Democracy: Thinking about Hybrid Regimes,” Andreas Schedler on “The Menu of Manipulation,” Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way on “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism,” and Nicolas van de Walle on “Africa’s Range of Regimes,” Journal of Democracy 13 (April 2002)]

                 

                                   

January 14:                       Democratic Consolidation

 

                  Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 64-77.

 

                                                      Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan, “Toward Consolidated Democracies,” Global Divergence of Democracies, pp. 93-112.

 


(1)           Dankwart Rustow, "Transitions to Democracy," Comparative Politics vol. 2 (1970), pp. 337-363.

 


                                                      Andreas Schedler, “What is Democratic Consolidation,” Global Divergence of Democracies, pp. 149-164.

 

                                                      Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, ch. 7, 153-168.

 

                                                      [Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 270-279]

 

                                                      [Guillermo O'Donnell, "Illusions about Consolidation," Global Divergence of Democracies, pp. 113-130]

 

                                                      [Richard Gunther, P. Nikiforos Diamondouros, and Hans-Jurge Puhle, “O’Donnell’s ‘Illusions’: A Rejoinder,” and Guillermo O’Donnell, “Illusions and Conceptual Flaws,” Global Divergence of Democracies, pp. 131-148]

 

 

January 16:                       Legitimacy, Authority, and Effectiveness

 

                                    (2)           S. M. Lipset, Political Man, Ch. 3, "Social Conflict, Legitimacy and Democracy," pp. 64-79.

 

                                    (3)           S. M. Lipset, The First New Nation, Ch. 1 "Establishing National Authority," pp. 15-23, 44-46, 59-60, 313-315.

 

                                                      J. J. Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, pp. 16-23.

 

                                                      Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 129-149.

 

Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 77-93, 174-200

 

Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 46-58.

                                   

January 23                         Political Culture

 

Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp.161-174, 200-217.

 

(4)           Robert A. Putnam, Making Democracy Work:  Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (1992), pp. 86-91, 109-115.

 

                                                      Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 124-129, [150-188].

 

JOD      From the Journal of Democracy 18 (July 2007)

 

                  Yu-tzung Chang, Yun-han Chu, and Chong-Min Park, “Authoritarian Nostalgia in Asia,” 66-80

 

                  Michael Bratton, “Formal versus Informal Institutions in Africa,” 96-110

 

                  Richard Rose, “Learning to Support New Regimes in Europe,” 111-125.

 

JOD       Marta Lagos, “The Democracy Barometers: Latin America’s Diversity of Views,” Journal of Democracy 19 (January 2008): 111-125

 

JOD       Peter deSouza, Suhas Palshikar, and Yogendra Yadav, “The Democracy Barometers: Surveying South Asia” Journal of Democracy 19 (January 2008): 84-96.

 

 

January 25                         Are Democratic Values Universal? 

 

Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, pp. 17-20, 26-38, 176-179, 198-199, 257-259, 277-278.

 

                                                      Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 298-311.

 

Amartya Sen, “Democracy as a Universal Value,” Global Divergence, pp. 3-17.

 

Russell Bova, “Democracy and Liberty: The Cultural Connection,” Global Divergence, 63-77.

 

(5)           Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of     World Order (1996), pp. 192-198.

 

JOD       Michael Bratton, “The ‘Alternation Effect’ in Africa,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 147-158.

 

                                    For Students Interested in Asia

 

(6)           "Culture is Destiny:  A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew," Foreign Affairs 73 (March/April 1994): 109-121, 125-126.

 

(7)           Kim Dae Jung, "Is Culture Destiny?"  Foreign Affairs 73 (November-December 1994): 189-194.

                                   

                                    (8)           Lucian Pye, Asian Power and Politics: The Cultural Dimensions of Authority (Harvard University Press, 1985), pp. 18-29. 

 

                  His Holiness the Dalai Lama, “Buddhism, Asian Values, and Democracy,” Global Divergence, pp. 18-22

 

                  Francis Fukuyama, "Confucianism and Democracy," Global Divergence, pp. 23-36.

 

JOD       Doh Chull Shin and Jason Wells, “Is Democracy the Only Game in Town?”  16 (April 2005): 88-101.

 

                                    JOD       [Mark Thompson, “Whatever Happened to ‘Asian Values’?” Journal of Democracy 12 (October 2001): 154-165]

 

                                    JOD       [From the Journal of Democracy, 8 (April 1997): “Hong Kong: Singapore, and ‘Asian Values’”

                                                              Margaret Ng, “Why Asia Needs Democracy,” pp. 9-23

                                                              Bilahari Kausikan, “Governance that Works,” pp. 24-34


                  Joseph Chan, “Alternative View,” pp. 35-48.]

 

                                    For Students Interested in The Middle East and Islamic World

 

 (9)         Elie Kedourie, Democracy and Arab Culture (Washington: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1992), pp. 1-11.

 

JOD       Amaney Jamal and Mark Tessler, “The Democracy Barometers: Attitudes in the Arab World,” JOD 19 (January 2008): 97-110,

 

JOD       Anwar Ibrahim, “Universal Values and Muslim Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 17 (July 2006): 5-12.

 

JOD     Abdou Filali-Ansary, “Muslims and Democracy,” Global Divergence, pp. 37-51.

 

JOD       “What is Liberal Islam?” Journal of Democracy 14 (April 2003):

                  Abdelwahab El-Affendi, “The Elusive Reformation,” pp. 34-39

                  Radwan Masmoudi, “The Silenced Majority,” pp. 40-45

                  Laith Kubba, “Faith and Modernity,” pp. 45-49.

 

JOD       Alfred Stepan with Graeme B. Robertson, “An ‘Arab’ More than ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 30-44.

 

JOD       Richard Rose, “How Muslims View Democracy: Evidence from Central Asia,” Journal of Democracy 13 (October 2002), pp. 102-111.        

 

                  [Mark Tessler and Eleanor Gao, “Gauging Support for Arab Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 16 (July 2005): 83-97.]


 

                                                                                

January 28:                      Paths and Drivers of Democratic Transition

 

                                                      Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 33-47.

 

                                    (10)        Myron Weiner, "Empirical Democratic Theory," in Weiner and Ergun Ozbudun, eds., Competitive Elections in Developing Countries (Duke University Press, 1987), pp. 18-22.

 

                                    (11)        Diamond, Hartlyn, and Linz, DDC: LA, pp. 7-16

 

                                    (12)        Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC:  Africa, pp. 6-10.

 

(13)     Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC:  Asia, pp. 10-14.

 

Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 109-207


 

                  Diamond, Spirit of Democracy, pp. 88-105. 

 

JOD       Thomas Carothers, “How Democracies Emerge: The ‘Sequencing’ Fallacy,” Journal of Democracy 18 (January 2007): 12-27.

 

JOD       Sheri Berman, “How Democracies Emerge: The ‘Sequencing’ Fallacy,” Journal of Democracy 18 (January 2007): 28-41.

 

JOD       Michael McFaul, “Transitions from Postcommunism,” Journal of Democracy 16 (July 2005): 5-19.

 

                  [Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), pp. 38-71]

 

 

January 30:                       Economic Development and Class Structure

 

                                    (14)        S. M. Lipset, Political Man, Ch. 2, "Economic Development and Democracy," pp. 27-58, [58-62], 469-476.

 

                                    (15)        L. Diamond, "Economic Development and Democracy Reconsidered," American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 35 March/June 1992, pp. 450-499.

 

                                                      Adam Przeworski, et al, “What Makes Democracies Endure?” Global Divergence, pp. 167-184.

 

                                                      Huntington, The Third Wave, 59-72, 311-316.

 

JOD      Christian Welzel and Ronald Inglehart, “The Role of Ordinary People in Democratization,” JOD 19 (January 2008): 126-140.

 

Harry Rowen, "The Tide Underneath the Third Wave," in The Global Resurgence of Democracy, pp.  307-319

 

[Steinberg, “The Republic of Korea,” in PDC, 402-405.]

 

                                                      [Dietrich Rueschemeyer, Evelyne Huber Stephens, & John D. Stephens, Capitalist Development & Democracy (University of Chicago Press, 1990), pp 12-31.]

 

                                                      Class Structure and Inequality

 

                                                      Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 81-104.

 

                                    (16)        Diamond, Jonathan Hartlyn, and Juan Linz, Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America, 48-53.

 

JOD       Terry Lynn Karl, “Economic Inequality and Democratic Instability,”

Journal of Democracy 11 (January 2000), pp. 149-156.

 

                                    JOD       Dietrich Rueschemeyer, “The Quality of Democracy: Addressing Inequality,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 76-90.

 

[Hsin Huang Michael Hsiao and Hagen Koo, “The Middle Classes and Democratization,” in Larry Diamond, Marc F. Plattner, Yun-han Chu, and Hung-mao Tien, eds., Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies: Themes and Perspectives (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), pp. 312-333.]

 

[Dietrich Rueschemeyer, Evelyne Huber Stephens, & John D. Stephens, Capitalist Development & Democracy (University of Chicago Press, 1990), pp. 5-6, 8, 46-47, 52-53, 57-63, 270-275, 282-285, 287-289]

 

                                                     

February 4:                      Civil Society

 

Larry Diamond, Developing Democracy, ch. 6, 218-260

                                                     

                                                      Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Vol. 2, Book 2,

                                                      Ch's 5-7. 

                                                      http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_05.htm

                                                      http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_06.htm

                                                      http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_07.htm

 

JOD       William A. Galston, “Civil Society and the ‘Art’ of Association,” Journal of Democracy 11, no. 1 (January 2000): 64-70

 

                                    JOD       Bronislaw Geremek, “Civil Society Then and Now,” Journal of Democracy 3 (April 1992): 3-12.

 

                                    JOD       Robert A. Putnam, "Bowling Alone:  America's Declining Social Capital," Journal of Democracy 6 (January 1995): 65-78.

 

(17)        Putnam, Making Democracy Work, pp. 171-185.

 

                                    JOD       [Michael W. Foley and Bob Edwards, “The Paradox of Civil Society,” Journal of Democracy 7, no. 3 (July 1996): 38-52]

 

                                                     Civil Society:  Case Studies (Read several)

 

JOD       Rob Jenkins, “India’s Unlikely Democracy: Civil Society versus Corruption,” Jounal of Democracy 18 (April 2007): 55-69.

 

JOD       Aleksander Smolar, “Civil Society after Communism: From Opposition

                  to Atomization,” Journal of Democracy 7 (January 1996): 24-38.

 

JOD       Marc Morje Howard, “The Weakness of Postcommunist Civil Society,” Journal of Democracy 13 (January 2002): 157-169.

 

JOD       M. Steven Fish, "Russia's Fourth Transition," Journal of Democracy 5 (July 1994): 31-42.

 

                                    JOD       Alison Brysk, “Democratizing Civil Society in Latin America,” Journal of Democracy 11 (July 2000): 151-165.

 

JOD       E. Gyimah-Boadi, “Civil Society in Africa,” Journal of Democracy 7, (April 1996): 118-132.


 

JOD       Clement Nwankwo, “Monitoring Nigeria’s Elections,” Journal of Democracy 10, no 4 (October 1999): 156-165                              

                 

JOD       [Krzystof Stanowski, “Teaching Democracy in Postcommunist Countries,” Journal of Democracy 9, no. 3 (July 1998): 157-165]

 

JOD       [Wilmot James and Daria Caliguire, “The New South Africa: Renewing Civil Society,” Journal of Democracy, 7, no. 1 (January 1996): 56-66


 

 

Febuary 6:                          Horizontal Accountability and the Rule of Law

 

                                                      Schedler, Diamond, and Plattner, The Self-Restraining State, chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 9-12, 20 (pp. 1-46, 75-81,145-214, 333-350).

 

JOD       M. Steven Fish, "Stronger Legislatures, Stronger Democracies," Journal of Democracy 17 (January 2006): 5-20.

 

JOD       Guillermo O’Donnell, “The Quality of Democracy: Why the Rule of Law Matters,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 32-46.

 

JOD      Donald L. Horowitz, “Constitutional Courts: A Primer for Decision Makers,” Journal of Democracy 17 (October 2006): 125-137.

 

                                    JOD       H. Kwasi Prempeh, “A New Jurisprudence for Africa,” Journal of Democracy 10 (July 1999): 135-149.

 

 

February 8:                      Horizontal Accountability and the Control of Corruption

 

                                                      Schedler, Diamond, and Plattner, The Self-Restraining State, chapters 13-16 (pp. 217-282).

 

                                                     Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch. 13, pp. 291-313.                                     

 

                                    (18)       Robert Klitgaard, “Political Corruption: Strategies for Reform,” Journal of Democracy 2, no. 4 (Fall 1991): 86-100.

­­­­

                                                     

February 11:            Constitutional Design: Presidential vs. Parliamentary Government

 

                                                      Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy,  pp. 1-27, 31-41.

 

Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, ch. 7, pp. 116-142.

 

(19)        Matthew Shugart and John Carey, Presidents and Assemblies, pp. 1-15, 18-24.

 

                                                      Juan Linz, "The Perils of Presidentialism," Journal of Democracy 1 (January 1990): 51-70.

 

                                                      Donald Horowitz, Juan Linz, and S. M. Lipset, Debate, "Presidents vs. Parliaments," Journal of Democracy 1 (October 1990).

 

                                    (20)        Scott Mainwaring, “Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination,” Comparative Political Studies 26 (July 1993): 198-227.

 

(21)        Shugart and Carey, Presidents and Assemblies, pp. 38-54, 281-287 [28-38 recommended].

 

JOD       Arturo Valenzuela, “Latin American Presidencies Interrupted,” Journal of Democracy 15 (October 2004): 5-19.

 

JOD       [Robert Elgie, “A Fresh Look at Semipresidentialism: Variations on A Theme,” Journal of Democracy 16 (July 2005): 98-112)]

 


[Scott Mainwaring and Matthew Shugart, eds., Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America (New York:: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 12-54, 394-437]

 

[Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela, eds., The Failure of Presidential Democracy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994)]

 

 

February 13                       The Role of Institutions in Political Development

 

                                    (22)        Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, pp. 8-24  [78-92, 397-412, 460-461], [412-460].

 

                                                      Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 93-99

 

                                                                                                           

February 13:                     Parties and Party Systems

 

Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, ch. 5, pp. 62-89

 

                                    (23)        S. M. Lipset, The First New Nation, Ch. 9, "Party Systems and the Representation of Social Groups," pp. 293-302, 306-309, 311-314.  [The entire pp. 286-317 is included in the course reader and recommended.]

 

                                    (3)           S. M. Lipset, Political Man, pp. 80-82

 


                  Scott Mainwaring, “Party Systems in the Third Wave,” Global Divergence of Democracies, pp. 185-199.

 

                                                      J. Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, pp. 24-38.

 

                                    (24)        Larry Diamond and Richard Gunther, eds., Political Parties and Democracy (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), pp. ix-xvi, 7-9. [other chapters recommended]

 

                                                      [Philippe C. Schmitter, “Parties Are Not What They Once Were,” in Diamond and Gunther, Political Parties and Democracy, pp. 67-89.]

 

                                                      [Giovanni Sartori, Parties and Party Systems (Cambridge University Press, 1976), pp. 119-145, 185-201, 230-232, 273-392.]

 

                                                     

February 20:                     Electoral Systems

 

                                    JOD       Donald L. Horowitz, “Electoral Systems: A Primer for Decision Makers,” Journal of Democracy 14 (October 2003): 115-127.   Also in Diamond and Plattner, eds., Electoral Systems and Democracy, 3-15.

 

                                    (25)        Rein Taagepera and Matthew S. Shugart, Seats & Votes (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), pp. 1-5, 61-66, 234-237.

 

                                                      Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, ch. 8, pp. 143-170 [ch 16]

 

                                                      Arend Lijphart, "Constitutional Choices for New Democracies," in Electoral Systems and Democracy, pp. 73-85.

 

Guy Lardeyret, Quentin Quade, and Arend Lijphart, "Debate:  Proportional Representation," Electoral Systems and Democracy, pp.86-104.

 

                                                      Ken Gladdish, "Choosing an Electoral System:  The Primacy of the Particular," Electoral Systems and Democracy, pp. 105-117.

 

Diamond, Developing Democracy, pp. 99-111.

 

                                    JOD       Ben Reilly, “Dealing with Divided Societies,” in Electoral Systems and Democracy, pp. 27-41.

 

                                                      [Vernon Bogdanor, "Choosing an Electoral System:  Israel Debates Reform," Journal of Democracy 4 (1), Jan 1993, pp. 66-78.]

 

                                                      [Timothy Sisk, "Choosing an Electoral System:  South Africa Seeks New Ground Rules," Journal of Democracy 4 (1), Jan 93, pp. 79-91.]

 

 

February 25:                     Social Cleavages, Ethnicity, and Ethnic Conflict

 

                                                      Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 105-123.                                                                     

 

JOD       Donald Horowitz, "Democracy in Divided Societies," Journal of Democracy 4 (October 1993): 18-38.

 

                                    JOD       [John R. Bowen, “The Myth of Global Ethnic Conflict,” Journal of Democracy 7 (October 1996): 3-14.]

 

                                                      Managing Ethnic and Nationality Conflict

 

                                    (26)        Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, 563-576, 597-652, 681-684.

 

                                    (27)        Arend Lijphart, “The Power-Sharing Approach,” in Joseph Montville, ed,  Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic States (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990), pp. 491-509.

 

Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy, pp. 270-274.


 

                                    JOD       Andrew Reynolds, "Constitutional Engineering in Southern Africa," Journal of Democracy 6 (April 1995): 86-100.  Also in Electoral Systems and Democracy, pp. 121-134.

         

                                    JOD       Joel Barkan and Andrew Reynolds, Debate: PR and Southern Africa, Journal of Democracy 6 (October 1995): 106-124. Also in Electoral Systems and Democracy, pp. 135-153.

 


(28)        Timothy D. Sisk and Andrew Reynolds, eds., Elections and Conflict Management in Africa (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 1998), Reynolds and Sisk, ch. 1, pp. 11-18, 28-34. 

                 

JOD       Adeed Dawisha and Larry Diamond, “Iraq’s Year of Voting Dangerously,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 89-103. Also in Electoral Systems and Democracy, pp. 224-238.

 

JOD       [Vincent Maphai, “The New South Africa: A Season for Power-Sharing,” Journal of Democracy 7 (January 1996): 67-82]

 

                                    JOD       [Ian S. Spears, “Africa: The Limits of Power-Sharing,” Journal of Democracy (July 2002): 123-136.]

 

[Alfred Stepan, “Federalism and Democracy: Beyond the U.S. Model,” in Global Divergence, pp. 215-230.]

 

February 27:                     Democratic Breakdowns

 

                                                      Juan Linz, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, pp. 3-16, 38-86,

                                                      [92-97].

 

                                    (29)        L. Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC:  Africa, pp. 3-5.

 

(30)        L. Diamond, "Introduction" to DDC:  Asia, pp. 3-10.

 

                                    (31)        Nancy Bermeo, Ordinary People in Extraordinary Times: The Citizenry and the Breakdown of Democracy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003), pp. 234-239, 252-256.

 

                                                      Larry Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch. 3, pp. 56-88.

 

                                                      [Arturo Valenzuela, "Chile," in PDC, 92-97, or in DDC: LA, 216-222]

 

                                                      [Ergun Ozbudun, "Turkey," in PDC, pp. 233-237.]

 

                                                      [L. Diamond, "Nigeria," in PDC, pp. 468-471.]

 

                                            [John Higley and Michael G. Burton, "The Elite Variable in Democratic Transitions and Breakdowns," American Sociological Review Vol. 54,

                                                      No. 1, Feb. 1989, pp. 17-32.]

 

March 3:                               International Factors: 

 

                                                      Huntington, The Third Wave, pp. 85-108, 281-290.

 

Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch’s 5-6, pp. 106-152.

 

                                    Robert Dahl, Polyarchy, pp. 189-201, 210-215.

 

                  JOD       Steven Levitsky and Lucan A. Way, “International Linkage and Democratization,” Journal of Democracy 16 (July 2005): 20-34.

                 

                                    (32)        Thomas Carothers, Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999), pp. 331-352.

 

                                                      Michael McFaul, “Democracy Promotion as a World Value,” The Washington Quarterly Winter 2004-2005, pp. 147-163, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/washington_quarterly/v028/28.1mcfaul.pdf

 

                                    JOD       Thomas Carothers, “The Rise of Election Monitoring: The Observers Observed,” Journal of Democracy 8, no. 3 (July 1997): 17-31

 


                                    JOD       Debating Democratic Assistance: Marina Ottaway and Teresa Chung  “Toward a new Paradigm,” Elizabeth Spiro Clark, “A Tune-up, Not an Overhaul,” E. Gyimah-Boadi, “The Cost of Doing Nothing,” and Irena Lasota, “Sometimes Less is More,” Journal of Democracy 10 (October 1999): 99-128.

 

[Schedler, Diamond, and Plattner, The Self-Restraining State, chs 8 & 19, pp. 123-142, 313-330]

 

[George P. Shultz, Turmoil and Triumph:  My Years as Secretary of State (1993), pp. 608-642, 969-982].

 

March 5:                               Building Democracy after Conflict

 

James Dobbins, et al., The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building (RAND, 2007), Summary, xvii-xxxviii, ch 8, pp. 189-211.

http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG557.pdf

 

Larry Diamond, “Promoting Democracy in Post-Conflict and Failed States: Lessons and Challenges,” Taiwan Journal of Democracy 2 (no. 2): 93-116, http://www.tfd.org.tw/docs/dj0202/05%20Larry%20Diamond.pdf.

 

JOD       Francis Fukuyama, “’Stateness’ First,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 84-88.

 

JOD       Gerald Knaus and Marcus Cox, “The ‘Helsinki Moment’ in South-eastern Europe,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 39-53.

 

JOD       Andrew Reynolds, “Constitutional Medicine,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 54-68.

                 

                  [Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (Times Books, 2005)]

 

[For further reading, see the course syllabus for PS 41Q, 2007:

http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/PS41Q.html]

 

                 

March 10:                            Promoting Democracy

 

                  Larry Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch. 14, pp. 314-344         

 

                  Thomas Carothers, “U.S. Democracy Promotion During and After Bush,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2007, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/democracy_promotion_after_bush_final.pdf.

 

President George W. Bush, Second Inaugural Address, January 20, 2005, http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/01/20050120-1.html.

 

David Hendrickson and Robert Tucker, "The Freedom Crusade," The National Interest 81 (Fall 2005): 12-21. http://personalwebs.coloradocollege.edu/~dhendrickson/Essays/TNI_Freedom_Crusade.htm

 

[“The Freedom Crusade, Revisited,” by Leslie H. Gelb, Daniel Pipes, Robert W Merry and Joseph S. Nye, Jr., The National Interest Online, December 1, 2005, http://www.nationalinterest.org/Article.aspx?id=10334]

 

                  Francis Fukuyama and Michael McFaul, “Should Democracy Be Promoted or Demoted,” The Washington Quarterly 31 (Winter 2007-2008): http://www.twq.com/08winter/docs/08winter_fukuyama.pdf.

 

JOD       Carl Gershman and Michael Allen, “The Assault on Democracy Assistance,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 36-51.

 

                  National Endowment for Democracy, “Strategy Document: January 2007,” http://www.ned.org/publications/documents/strategy2007.pdf.

 

                  [Ronald D. Asmus, Larry Diamond, Mark Leonard, and Michael McFaul, “A Transatlantic Strategy to Promote Democratic Development in the Broader Middle East,” The Washington Quarterly 27 (Spring 2004).  http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/washington_quarterly/ ]

 

March 12:                             Repairing American Democracy

 

                                                      Diamond, The Spirit of Democracy, ch. 15, pp. 345-370.

 

                                                      END