Building Democracy after Conflict:

Iraq in Comparative Perspective

Political Science 41Q (Sophomore Seminar)

Spring Quarter 2007, Monday, 2:15-5:05

Room 205-251 K (unless otherwise noted)


Professor Larry Diamond (diamond@hoover.stanford.edu, 725-3420)

Office Hours: Wednesdays, 2-4, unless otherwise noted


This is a seminar on the challenge of building democracy in the wake of violent conflict and state failure. All of the cases it examines are of efforts at political and economic reconstruction after civil war or—in the case of Iraq and Afghanistan, international military intervention. The seminar also focuses specifically on international efforts to assist—or even manage directly—the process of state reconstruction after conflict and the transition to a new, democratic political system.


As we will see, building democracy in these war-torn and often dysfunctional countries is difficult, but not impossible. Before there can be a democratic state, however, there must first be a state. Since the state has—to varying degrees in the cases under consideration, but sometimes totally—collapsed, the early phases of intervention must focus on restoring the most basic function of any state: the maintenance of order. Economic stabilization and the restoration of basic services are also urgent priorities. Sometimes, there is also an imperative for humanitarian relief. Thus, it is not until the fifth week of the class that the seminar considers some explicit challenges of democracy building—writing a constitution, designing democratic institutions, preparing for and holding elections, and reviving civil society. If the process of restoring and reviving the failed or war-torn state does not tackle more basic challenges of state-building—security, governance, and economic stabilization—there is no hope of building democracy.


The process of international intervention to transform failing and failed states is often referred to as “nation building” (a term used in the title of four of the seven texts). This term, which dates from the post-World War II literature on political development, suggests the challenge of forging not just viable states but a common sense of shared nationhood among peoples who were arbitrarily inducted into a single territorial state under European colonial rule. In many of the countries we will be examining—not least, Iraq—nationhood remains an elusive, acutely contested concept. However, in other cases—including Germany and Japan after World War II, and more recently El Salvador and even Afghanistan—the question is not so much the legitimate boundaries of “the nation” as the legitimate character of the state. That is the one challenge all of these cases share in common: reconstructing a legitimate and effective state. Thus, the more precise or universally valid term is “state building” and the particular challenge is how to build states that will be more resilient and legitimate because they have the democratic consent, participation, and validation of their own people. Because many states that fail have done so as a result of civil war, a parallel challenge we examine in the seminar is the conditions for successful implementation of negotiated peace agreements—again, usually with significant international mediation and assistance, if not military presence.


International interventions to (help) rebuild failed states and implement peace agreements take many forms, from a “light footprint” to formal occupation. Typically, they have followed two forms, one in which the United Nations was in the lead, through a formal UN mission, and another in which an international coalition (with varying degrees of authorization from the UN Security Council) was responsible. In the latter instances, it has typically been the United States that has played the lead role, and thus two of the case study volumes are devoted, respectively, to the UN’s role in nation-building and to America’s role.


The lessons of the case studies in this class are deeply sobering. Many putatively “post-conflict” countries revert to violent conflict. Many international interventions fail, often badly. Sometimes, when they succeed (as in Cambodia) they bring peace but not democracy. The overarching lesson of the cases is that the scope of resources (financial, military, diplomatic, administrative, and technical) committed to the task must be commensurate with the difficulty of the challenge and the goals to be achieved. “Nation-building” is not condemned to fail always. Many of the interventions accomplished a great deal, even when they did not succeed in building democracy at the outset. But missions that are poorly prepared and coordinated and under-resourced will fail. Unfortunately, there aren’t enough resources, nor is there sufficient political will, to enable successful international intervention in all the cases of conflict and humanitarian abuse that cry out for it. This is one of the hardest lessons to absorb.


The challenge is first to understand the core conditions for success of all international “nation-building” efforts, and then the factors specific to particular types of cases. It is hoped that this seminar will benefit students broadly interested in international security and political and economic development, and that it will be of particular value to those of you who will deal with the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction for many years to come as scholars, policy experts, diplomats, NGO leaders, military officers, or simply citizens concerned to see more responsible policy.


Course Requirements


This is a new and ambitious course. It seeks to cover a lot of ground, empirically and analytically. While the course should be accessible to students with relatively little background in political science or international relations, it will probably demand more work than the typical introductory seminar. No student is expected to do all of the “required” reading for the course, but to benefit from the course you will have to do a considerable amount of it, as well as the following:


All students are expected to attend every seminar session and participate actively in seminar discussions. From week to week, students will sometimes present (summarize and comment on) particular readings. In addition, each student will:





The grade for the course will be determined roughly as follows:


Class participation: 10%

Mid-term essay: 25% (Distributed May 7, due May 14)

Oral presentation: 25%

Final paper: 40%


Schedule of Classes


April 3 (Tuesday, noon introductory meeting) Encina Hall E 108 (East Wing)


April 9 Iraq: What Went Wrong?


April 16 The Historical Experience of the U.S. and the U.N. with Nation-

Building and Peace Implementation


April 23 The Security Challenge: Military, Policing, and Disarmament (Begins 2:25)


April 30 Transitional Administration, Governance, and Economic Reconstruction


May 7 Constitution-making, Constitutional Design, & Electoral Systems


May 14 Elections and Democracy Building (Mid-term essay due in class)


May 21 Rule of Law and Human Rights, & Country Presentations (1 or 2)


May 23 Special Event: Iraq War Documentary “No End in Sight,” to be followed by panel discussion, Kresge Auditorium, (probably 7 p.m.)


May 29 Country Team Presentations (2 or 3), including Afghanistan

(Special Tuesday evening session. May 28 is a holiday)


June 4 Country Team Presentations (1 or 2), and Policy Directions

Required Texts


James Dobbins, et al., America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq (RAND, 2003) [Note: This book can be downloaded for free at:

http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1753/]


James Dobbins, et al., The UN’s Role in Nation-Building: From the Congo to Iraq (Rand, 2005). [Note: This book can be downloaded for free at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG304.pdf]


James Dobbins, et al., The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building (RAND, 2007)

[Note: This book can be downloaded for free at:

http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG557.pdf]


Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens, eds., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2002)


Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (New York: Times Books, 2005)


Francis Fukuyama, ed., Nation-Building: Beyond Afghanistan and Iraq (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006)


Simon Chesterman, You, the People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)


Recommended Text


Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)


Note: The above will also be on reserve in the library. There is no course reader. Readings from the Journal of Democracy can be accessed at the following web site: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy. Most of the other readings from journals and periodicals are also available online, generally or through the Stanford library system.



Schedule of Class Meetings and Readings


[ ] indicates suggested reading


(Page numbers of documents from websites refer to the printed text page numbers and not the computer screen page numbers)


April 3 (Tuesday, noon introductory and organizational meeting)

Meets in Encina Hall E 108 (first floor, East wing)


April 9 Iraq: What Went Wrong?


Dobbins et al., The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building, ch. 1, Preparing, pp. 1-17.


Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory, ch’s 1-4, 10, 11, & Afterword, pp. 1-102, 279-360.


Toby Dodge, “Review Essay: How Iraq Was Lost,” Survival 48 (Winter 2006-07): 157-172.


Toby Dodge, “The Causes of US Failure in Iraq,” Survival 49 (Spring 2007): 85-106.


James Dobbins, “Learning the Lessons of Iraq,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp 222-227.


Jonathan Landay and John Walcott, “Iraq Reconstruction Efforts Overcome by Ongoing Violence,” Knight Ridder Newspapers, October 16, 2004, and Warren STrobel and John Walcott, “Post-war planning non-existent,” http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/9928087.htm.


[Nora Bensahel, “Mission Not Accomplished: What Went Wrong with Iraqi Reconstruction,” Journal of Strategic Studies 29 (June 2006): 453-473.]


[James Fallows, “Blind into Baghdad,” The Atlantic Monthly, January-February 2004, http://www.epic-usa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=185.]


[the other books cited in Dodge’s review essay]


April 16 The Historical Experience of the U.S. and the U.N. with Nation-

Building and Peace Implementation


Dobbins, America’s Experience with Nation-Building (ch’s 1-3 & 9) pp 3-53, 149-166.


Ray Salvatore Jennings, “The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation-Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq,” U.S. Institute of Peace, Peaceworks 49 (April 2003), pp. 13-19, 25-30. http://www.usip.org/pubs/peaceworks/pwks49.html.


Douglas Porch, “Occupational Hazards: Myths of 1945 and U.S. Iraq Policy,” The National Interest (Summer 2003): 35-47.


Dobbins, The UN’s Role in Nation-Building, ch’s 11-13, pp. 213-257, & Table S.3, pp. xxxi-xxiv.


Francis Fukuyama, “Nation-Building and the Failure of Institutional Memory,” in Fukuyama, ed., Nation-Building, pp. 1-16.


Minxin Pei, Samia Amin, and Seth Garz, “Building Nations: The American Experience,” in Fukuyama, ed. Nation-Building, pp. 64-85


Chesterman, You, the People, pp. 1-7, 25-37 (Germany), 46-47.


George Downs and Stephen Stedman, “Evaluation Issues in Peace Implementation,” in Stedman, Rothchild, and Cousens, eds., Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, pp. 43-69.


April 23 The Security Challenge: Military, Policing, and Disarmament (2:25 – 5:30)


Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide, chapters 2-3, pp. 19-72.


Chesterman, You, The People, chapter 3, 99-125.


Charles T. Call and William Stanley, “Civilian Security,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 303-325.


Joanna Spear, “Disarmament and Demobilization,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 141-159 [141-182]


Diamond, Squandered Victory, ch. 8, pp. 211-245.


Robert Perito, “Policing Iraq: Protecting Iraqis from Criminal Violence,” USIPeace Briefing, June 2006, http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2006/0629_policing_iraq.html.


[Annika S Hansen, From Congo to Kosovo: Civilian Police in Peace Operations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.]


[Charles T. Call, “War Transitions and the New Civilian Security in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 35 No.1 (October 2002): 1-21.]


[Charles T. Call, “”Democratisation, War, and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador,” Journal of Latin American Studies 35 (November 2003), pp. 1-12 of online version).]



April 30 Transitional Administration, Governance, and Economic Stabilization & Reconstruction

Administration and Governance


Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide, chapter 6, 135-159.

Chesterman, You: The People, chapter 4, pp. 126-153.


Gerald Knaus and Felix Martin, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina: Travails of the European Raj,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 60-74.


Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict, pp. 205-211.


[Richard Caplan, “International Authority and State Building: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Global Governance 10 (2004): 53-65. This provides a more sympathetic view of the international administration in Bosnia than Knaus and Martin, and will be discussed in class.]


[Richard Caplan, A New Trusteeship? The International Administration of War Torn Territories, Adelphia Paper 41, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2002.]


[Mortimer, Edward. “International Administration of War-Torn Societies.” Global Governance 10 (2004): 7-14.]


[Harland, David. “Legitimacy and Effectiveness in International Administration.” Global Governance 10 (2004): 15-19.]


Economic Stabilization and Reconstruction


Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building ch 7, 161-188 [ch 9, 213-253]


Susan L. Woodward, “Economic Priorities for Successful Peace Implementation,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 183-191, 199-210 [191-199]


S. Frederick Starr, “Sovereignty and Legitimacy in Afghan Nation-Building,” in Fukuyama, ed., Nation-Building, pp. 115-118 (on NGOs).


Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 166-168


Iraqi Reconstruction


Anne Ellen Henderson, “The Coalition Provisional Authority’s Experience With Economic Reconstruction in Iraq: Lessons Identified,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 138 (April 2005), 18 pages. http://www.iraqfoundation.org/reports/pol/2005/sr138.pdf.


James Glanz, “Agency Says Rebuilding Failures Show Need for Change,” New York Times, March 22, 2007.


Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons In Program and Project Management, March 2007, pp. 7-12 [the entire report is recommended]. http://www.sigir.mil/reports/pdf/Lessons_Learned_March21.pdf.


Anthony Cordesman, “Reconstruction in Iraq: The Uncertain Way Ahead,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2, 2007, pp. ii-iv, 1-3, 50-53 [4-32, or all]

http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070202_reconstruction_iraq.pdf.


These articles on Iraqi reconstruction are all “recommended”


James Glanz, “In Race to Give Power to Iraqis, Electricity Lags,” New York Times June 14, 2004, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/14/international/middleeast/14POWE.html?pagewanted=2&ei=5007&en=3e8bb47983b53c86&ex=1402545600&partner=USERLAND.


Aram Roston, “Slow Progress with Iraq Reconstruction,” MSNBC, Sept. 3, 2004.


James Glanz and Erik Eckholm, “Reality Intrudes on Promises in Rebuilding,” New York Times, June 30, 2004, http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/mideast/iraq/2257.html.


Paul Krugman, “Accounting and Accountability,” New York Times, July 23, 2004.


Johanna Mendelson Forman, “Striking out in Baghdad: How Postconflict Reconstruction Went Awry,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 196-217.


For More on Iraq

The website of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction: http://www.sigir.mil/ and especially their “lessons learned” studies:

http://www.sigir.mil/initiatives/lessonslearned.aspx


Frederick Barton and Bathsheba Crocker, et al., Progress or Peril: Measuring Iraq’s Reconsturction, Center for Strategic and International Studies, September 2004.



May 7 Constitution-making, Constitutional Design, & Electoral Systems


Constitution-Making:


Jamal Benomar, “Constitution-Making after Conflict: Lessons for Iraq,” Journal of Democracy 15 (April 2004): 81-95.


Chesterman, You: The People, pp. 210-218.


Diamond, Squandered Victory, chapter 6, pp. 140-178.

Democratic Principles Working Group of the Iraqi Opposition, “Iraqi Opposition Report on the Transition to Democracy,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 13-29.

Larry Diamond, “Key Democratic Principles of Iraq’s Transitional Administrative Law,” Remarks in Salah ad Din Governorate, March 21-22, 2004, http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/speechTAL032104.htm

Jonathan Morrow, “Iraq’s Constitutional Process II: An Opportunity Lost,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 155, December 2005, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr155.pdf.

Institutional Designs and Electoral Systems :


Andrew Reynolds, “Building Democracy after Conflict: Constitutional Medicine,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 54-68.


Donald Horowitz, “Electoral Systems: A Primer for Decision Makers,” Journal of Democracy 14 (October 2003): 115-127.


Arend Lijphart, “Constitutional Design for Divided Societies,” Journal of Democracy 15 (April 2004): 96-109.


Benjamin Reilly, “Electoral Systems for Divided Societies,” Journal of Democracy 13 (April 2002): 156-170.


Adeed Dawisha and Larry Diamond, “Iraq’s Year of Voting Dangerously,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 89-103.


Andrew Reynolds, “The Curious Case of Afghanistan,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 104-117.


Carrie Manning and Miljenko Antić, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzogovina: The Limits of Electoral Engineering,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 45-59.


[Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict (University of California Press, 1985), pp. 563-576, 597-652, 681-684.]


[Donald Horowitz, “Making Moderation Pay” and Arend Lijphart, “The Power-Sharing Approach,” in Joseph Montville, ed, Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic States (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990)]


May 14 Elections and Democracy Building


Dobbins, Beginner’s Guide, chapter 8, “Democratization,” pp. 189-221, and chapter 4, “Rule of Law,” pp. 73-107.


Chesterman, You: The People, pp. 204-210, 218-235.


Terrence Lyons, “The Role of Postsettlement Elections,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 215-237.


Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory, ch’s 5, 7, 9, pp. 103-139, 179-210, 246-278.


Larry Diamond, March 24, 2004 CPA memo and March 25, 2004 Draft Memo on Political Parties Law


Democracy education for Iraq: Nine brief themes (draft civic education plan):

http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/DemocracyEducation0204.htm

& Larry Diamond, “What is Democracy?” Lecture to Hilla University for Higher Humanistic Studies, January 21, 2004 http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/WhaIsDemocracy012004.htm.


Larry Diamond, “How A Vote Could Derail Democracy,” New York Times, January 9, 2005.


Larry Diamond, memos on Iraqi political parties and a draft political parties law


Krishna Kumar and Jeroen de Zeeuw, “Democracy Assistance to Postconflict Societies,” pp. 1-15, and

Jeroen de Zeeuw and Luc van de Goor, “Findings and Recommendatiions, pp. 275-290,

in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006).


Roland Paris, At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 5-8 [151-165, 168-175, 179-199]


[Thomas Carothers, “The Rise of Election Monitoring: The Observers Observed,” Journal of Democracy 8, no. 3 (July 1997): 17-31]


[Jorgen Elklit and Palle Sevensson, “What Makes Elections Free and Fair?” Journal of Democracy 8, no. 3 (July 1997): 32-46]


[Krishna Kumar, “Postconflict Elections and International Assistance,” in Kumar, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner), pp. 5-14, and in the same volume:

Krishna Kumar “After the Elections: Consequences for Democratization,” 215-226.

Kumar and Marina Ottaway. “General Conclusions and Priorities for Policy Research.” Pp. 229-237.]


[Call, Charles T., and Susan E. Cook. “On Democratization and Peacebuilding.” Global Governance 9 (2003): 233-246.]



May 21 Rule of Law and Human Rights, & Country Team Presentations (1-2)


Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building, ch. 4, 73-107.


Laurel Miller and Robert Perito, “Establishing the Rule of Law in Afghanistan,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 117, March 2004, (Executive Summary, at least) http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr117.html.


Judy Barsalou, “Trauma and Transitional Justice in Divided Societies,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report No. 135, April 2005, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr135.html.


[Tonya L. Putnam, “Human Rights and Sustainable Peace,” in Stedman et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp.237-271]


[Michele Flournoy and Michael Pan, “Dealing with Demons: Justice and Reconciliation,” The Washington Quarterly 25 (Autumn 2002): 111-123.]


[Charles T. Call, “”Democratisation, War, and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador,” Journal of Latin American Studies 35 (November 2003), pp. 12-27 of online version).]



May 23 Special Event: Iraq War Documentary “No End in Sight” to be followed by panel discussion, Kresge Auditorium, (probably 7 p.m.)



May 29 Country Team Presentations (2-3)

(Special Tuesday evening session. May 28 is a holiday)


Afghanistan


Marvin G. Weinbaum, “Rebuilding Afghanistan: Impediments, Lessons and Prospects,”

Larry P. Goodson, “Lessons of Nation-Building in Afghanistan”

Ch’s 6 and 7 in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 125-169.


Dobbins, America’s Role in Nation-Building, ch. 8, 129-148.


Zalmay Khalilzad, “How to Nation-Build: Ten Lessons from Afghanistan,” The National Interest (Summer 2005): 19-27.


Pamela Constable, “A Wake-Up Call in Afghanistan,” Journal of Democracy 18 (April 2007): 84-98.

June 4 Country Team Presentations (1-2), and Policy Directions


Lessons, Conclusions, and Policy Directions


James Dobbins, “Learning the Lessons of Iraq,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp 227-229.


Michele Flournoy, “Lessons Learned and Unlearned,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 94-96 (recommendations)


Francis Fukuyama, “Guidelines for Nation-Builders,” in Fukuyama, Nation-Building, pp. 231-244.


Larry Diamond, “Promoting Democracy after Conflict,” Taiwan Journal of Democracy 2 (December 2006): 93-116.


Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Iraq Reconstruction: Lessons In Program and Project Management, March 2007, pp. 14-19, “Recommendations.” http://www.sigir.mil/reports/pdf/Lessons_Learned_March21.pdf.


Stephen Stedman, “Policy Implications,” in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars, pp. 663-671.


“A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility,” Report of the UN High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change, Part 3, Collective Security and the Use of Force, 2004, pp. 59-75. http://www.un.org/secureworld/.


Gerald Knaus and Marcus Cox, “Building Democracy after Conflict: The ‘Helsinki Moment’ in Southeastern Europe,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 39-53.

Stephen D. Krasner, “Building Democracy after Conflict: The Case for Shared Sovereignty,” Journal of Democracy 16 (January 2005): 69-83.


Robert Perito, Building Civilian Capacity for U.S. Stability Operations: The Rule of Law Component,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 118, April 2004, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr118.html.



­Case Study Readings


(Search for additional reports at http://www.usip.org/pubs/reports.html, http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?.


See the case studies in Krishna Kumar, ed., Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1998).


(See also the case studies in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006).


Iraq


Anthony Cordesman, “Reconstruction in Iraq: The Uncertain Way Ahead,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2, 2007, http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070202_reconstruction_iraq.pdf.


The Iraq Study Group Report, James A. Baker and Lee H. Hamilton, co-chairs (New York: Vintage, 2006), http://www.usip.org/isg/iraq_study_group_report/report/1206/index.html.


Iraq Revenue Watch, http://www.iraqrevenuewatch.org/.


Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 10.


George Packer, The Assassin’s Gate: America in Iraq (Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 2005)


Other books cited in Toby Dodge Review essay (see week of April 9).


Afghanistan


Frederick Barton, Bathsheba Crocker, and Morgan L. Courtney, et al., In the Balance: Measuring Progress in Afghanistan (Center for Strategic and International Studies, December 2005, 133 pages) http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/afghanistanbarton_smallsize.pdf.


Seema Patel and Steven Ross, Breaking Point: Measuring Progress in Afghanistan (Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2007, 118 pages) http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070223_breakingpoint.pdf.


Anthony Cordesman, “Winning in Afghanistan: The Challenges and the Response,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 15, 2007, http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070215_afghanbrief.pdf.


Laurel Miller and Robert Perito, “Establishing the Rule of Law in Afghanistan,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 117, March 2004, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr117.html.


Robert M. Perito, “The U.S. Experience with Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan: Lessons Identified,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report 152, October 2005. http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr152.html.


Richard J. Ponzio, “Transforming Political Authority: UN Democratic Peacebuilding in Afghanistan,” Global Governance 13 (April 2007): 255-276.


Andrew Reynolds, “The Curious Case of Afghanistan,” Journal of Democracy 17 (April 2006): 104-117.


Bosnia and Herzegovina


Dobbins, America’s Role in Nation-Building, ch. 6.


Gerald Knaus and Felix Martin, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina: Travails of the European Raj,”Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 60-74.


Carrie Manning and Miljenko Antić, “Lessons from Bosnia and Herzogovina: The Limits of Electoral Engineering,” Journal of Democracy 14 (July 2003): 45-59.


Caplan, Richard. “International Authority and State Building: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina.” Global Governance 10 (2005): 53-65.


Bose, Sumantra. “The Bosnian State a Decade after Dayton.” International Peacekeeping 12, No. 3 (Autumn 2005): 322-335.


Elizabeth Cousens in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars, chapter 18


Roland Paris, At War’s End, 97-107


Kosovo


Dobbins, America’s Role in Nation-Building, ch. 7.


Daniel Serwer, Yll Bajraktari, and Christina Parajon, “Kosovo: What Can Go Wrong?” USIPeace Briefing, March 2007, http://www.usip.org/pubs/usipeace_briefings/2007/0308_kosovo.html.


Other USIP reports on Kosovo and Bosnia at:

http://www.usip.org/balkans/reports.html


El Salvador


Charles T. Call, chapter 14 in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars.


Terry Lynn Karl, “El Salvador’s Negotiated Revolution,” Foreign Affairs 71 (Spring 1992).


Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp.122-128.

Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 4.


Nicaragua


Caroline Hartzell, chapter 13 in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars.


Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 114-122.


Cambodia


Sorpong Peu, “Implementing Cambodia’s Peace Agreement,” in Stedman, et al., Ending Civil Wars, pp. 499-530.


Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 79-90.


Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 5


Duncan McCargo, “Cambodia: Getting Away with Authoritarianism,” Journal of Democracy 16 (October 2005): 98-112.


Trevor Findlay, Cambodia: The Legacy and Lessons of UNTAC (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).


Willemijn Verkoren, chapter 16 in Gerd Junne and Willemijn Verkoren, eds., Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005).


East Timor


Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 9.


Ian Martin and Alexander Mayer-Rieckh. “The United Nations and East Timor: From Self-Determination to State-Building.” International Peacekeeping 12 (Spring 2005): 125-145.


Anthony L Smith, “East Timor: Elections in the World’s Newest Nation,” Journal of Democracy 15 (April 2004): 145-159.


Michael G. Smith, and Moreen Dee. Peacekeeping in East Timor, The Path to Independence. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003. Chapters 3 & 4


Jonathan Steele, “Nation Building in East Timor,” World Policy Journal 19 (Summer 2002): 76-87.


Liberia


Adekeye Adebajo, “Liberia: A Warlord’s Peace,” in Stedman, Ending Civil War’s, ch.20.


Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 90-96.


Mozambique


Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 6.


Alden, Chris. Mozambique and the Construction of the New African State: From Negotiations to Nation Building. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Chapter 3


Marc de Tollenaere, “Fostering Multiparty Politics in Mozambique,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 75-98.


Paris, At War’s End, pp. 141-148.


Joseph O’Hanlon, chapter 15 in Gerd Junne and Willemijn Verkoren, eds., Postconflict Development: Meeting New Challenges (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2005).


Namibia


Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 3.


Paris, At War’s End, pp. 135-141.


Sierra Leone


Dobbins, The UN’s Role, chapter 8.

Rosalind Shaw, “Rethinking Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Lessons from Sierra Leone,” U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report no. 130, February 2005, http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr130.html.


Marieke Wierda, “Transitional Justice in Sierra Leone,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 183-207.


Mohamed Gibril Sesay and Charlie Hughes, “Human Rights Assistance to Sierra Leone,” in Jeroen de Zeeuw and Krishna Kumar, eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2006), pp. 151-182.


Rwanda


Gilber Khadiagala, chapter 16 in Stedman, Ending Civil Wars.


Roland Paris, At War’s End, pp. 69-78l