BACHMAN/BACHMANN/BAUGHMAN RESULTS

THE BACHMAN/BACHMANN/BAUGHMAN Y-CHROMOSOME STUDY

While visiting each other in 1998, J Ross Baughman and Dr. M. Ulrich "Ueli" Bachmann conceived the idea of possibly using genetics to study the relationship between their ancestral families. When y-chromosome testing became commercially available a few years later, the Bachmann/Bachman/Baughman y-chromosome project was organized with the goal of determining which of a number of descendants of Swiss and of early American Bachmann immigrants share common ancestors. Ross is descended from the immigrant Henry Bachmann/Baughman who was born in 1711 in the Old Castle area of Richterswil, Canton Zurich, Switzerland and who eventually settled in Virginia and produced a large family of descendants. Ross's research in the Swiss records had resulted in five books on Bachmann and Swiss history. He had found at least one other well-known immigrant, Hans Georg Bachman (b. 1686, settled in Saucon Township in Pennsylvania), had come from the same area of the same village. Ueli Bachmann is a Swiss resident of the same village as the American immigrants of nearly 300 years ago.

The first participant was invited to join in December of 2000, with the first results received in 2001. As of June 2013, nearly 80 descendants of American, German and Swiss Bachmanns have had their y-chromosomes tested. They began with the Oxford Ancestors lab, founded by Brian Sykes ("The Seven Daughters of Eve") and one of the earliest companies (May 2000) to offer y-chromosome testing to the public (http://www.oxfordancestors.com). The Bachman study was thus one of the first y-chromosome surname projects in this now rapidly growing field. Philip Ritter became involved a few years later. He holds a doctorate in anthropology from Stanford University and is a descendant of Johann Georg Bachmann (b. 1686) through his Baughman grandmother. He is also co-administrator of the Ritter and Hamman surname projects. About the same time, we begun using Family Tree DNA (FTDNA, http://www.familytreedna.com), which tests a larger number of markers at a more reasonable cost than Oxford Ancestors. A few other particpants have joined after being tested by other companies, such as Ancestry.com. The results for the participants (as of June 2013) show over forty group into five clusters representing five different Bachmann ancestors. There are two additional smaller clusters who likely share common ancestors plus about a dozen participants who so far remain unmatched. Hopefully future testing will find additional matches and help resolve the ancestral origins and relationships among the "orphan" lines.

THE RESULTS (Family Tree DNA Format)

ID

 

Known Bachman Ancestor

 

H
a
p
l
o
.

DYS#
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
|
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
|
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
4
e
4
6
4
f
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
a
Y
C
A
I
I
b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y

a
C
D
Y

b
4
4
2
4
3
8

O914

Heinrich Bachmann, 1711
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F20658

Heinrich Bachmann, 1711
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

15

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

15

16

17

17

18

11

10

19

23

16

14

17

16

36

38

13

12

O991

Heinrich Bachmann, 1711
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F92522

Heinrich Bachmann, 1711
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

15

16

17

17

18

11

10

19

23

16

14

17

16

36

39

13

12

A3

Heinrich Bachmann, 1711
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

 

 

11

11

25

 

19

29

 

 

16

17

17

18

11

10

19

23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

O236

Heinrich Bachmann, 1711
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F248993

Henry Bachmann, ca.1810
(Bavaria)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

 15

13

12

 12

13

13

28

17

9

 10

11

11

25

15

19

 29

15

15

16

17

17

18

11 

10

19

23

15

14

17

16

36

35

13

12

O452

Johannes Bachmann, 1800
(Alsace)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O847

Johann Georg Bachmann, 1686
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F36392

Johann Georg Bachmann, 1686
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A1

Johann Georg Bachmann, 1686
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

15

 

 

10

11

25

15

19

 

15

16

17

18

 

 

11

10

19

23

 

 

 

 

 

12

F297944

Johann Georg Bachmann, 1686
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

15

16

17

17

18

11

10

19

23

16

14

17

16

35

36

13

12

F353693

Thomas Bachman, ca. 1789
(PA, likely desc of Johann Georg)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

18

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

15

16

16

17

18

11

10

19

23

16

14

17

16

35

36

13

12

F21369

Jacob Bachman, 1761
(PA, lived Rensselaer Co., NY)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

16

16

17

17

18

                       

F61547

Jacob Bachman, 1761
(PA, lived Rensselaer Co., NY)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

16

17

17

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F58412

Valentine Bachman, 1820
(Easton, PA)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

15

16

17

17

17

11

10

19

23

16

14

17

16

36

39

13

12

O927

Johannes Bachmann, ca. 1757
(Schonenberg, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E6027

Rudolf Bachmann, late 1800's
(Lived in France and Vietnam)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

15

13

12

12

13

13

28

17

9

10

11

11

24

15

19

29

15

15

16

16

17

18

11

11

19

23

16

14

17

16

36

39

13

12

O686

Ignaz Bachmann, ca. 1788
(Berg Wolerau, Canton Schwyz)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O461

Peter Bachmann, ca. 1655
(Fintersee, Canton Zug)

R1b1

13

24

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

14

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O628

Alois Bachmann, 1711
(Hinwil, Canton Zurich)

R1b1

13

25

14

11

 

 

13

12

 

13

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O355

Johannes Bachmann, 1745
(Canton Thurgau?/Lancaster, PA)

R1b1

13

23

14

11

 

 

12

12

 

12

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O494

Unknown Swiss Bachmann, 1745
(Zofingen, Canton Aargau)

R1b1

13

23

14

11

 

 

12

12

 

12

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O750

Jacob Bachmann, 1696
(VA, KY)

R1b1

13

23

14

11

 

 

12

12

 

12

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O233

Jacob Bachmann, 1696
(VA, KY)

R1b1

13

23

14

11

 

 

12

12

 

12

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F21143

John Baughman, 1800
(Westmoreland Co., PA)

R1b1

13

23

14

11

11

14

12

12

14

12

13

28

18

9

10

11

11

25

15

20

28

15

15

17

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F113704

John Baughman , ca. 1809

(Pennsylvania )

R1b1

13

23

14

11

11

14

12

12

13

12

13

28

16

9

10

11

11

25

15

20

28

15

15

17

17

 

 

11 

11 

19 

23 

16 

15 

17 

19 

33 

39 

13 

12

F134115

Jacob Baughman, 1785

(South Carolina )

R1b1

13

23

14

11

11

14

12

12

13

12

13

28

18

9

10

11

11

25

15

20

28

15

15

17

17

 

 

11 

11 

19 

23 

16 

15 

17 

19 

32 

40 

12 

12

F362637

Conrad Baughman, 1801
(Barnwell District, SC)

R1b1

13

23

14

11

11

14

12

12

14

12

13

28

                         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A4

William Baughman, 1782

(Lexington, SC )

R1b1

13

23

14

11

11

14

12

12

14

12

13

28

18

   

11

11

25

20

28

15

15

17

17

 

 

11 

11 

19 

23 

              12

A2

Jacob Baughman, 1766 in PA

(lived Westmorland Co., PA )

R1b1

13

23

14

11

11

14

12

12

13

12

13

28

16

 

 

11

11

25

 

20

28

15

15

17

17

 

 

12 

11 

19 

23 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

O370

Rudolf Bachmann, 1759
(Bottenwil, Canton Aargau)

R1b1

13

23

14

11

 

 

12

12

 

13

13

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N3513

Unknown Bachmann
(?)

R1b1

13

23

14

12

11

14

12

12

13

12

13

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O892

Hans Heinrich Bachmann, ca. 1592
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

J2

12

23

14

10

 

 

11

15

 

13

11

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O484

Hans Heinrich Bachmann, ca. 1592
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

J2

12

23

14

10

 

 

11

15

 

13

11

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O441

Hans Heinrich Bachmann, ca. 1592
(Old Castle, Canton Zurich)

J2

12

23

14

10

 

 

11

15

 

13

11

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O194

Martin Bachmann, 1558
(Canton Bern)

R1b1

13

24

14

10

 

 

12

12

 

13

13

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F73573

Abraham Bachman, 1778


R1b1

13

24

14

10

11 

14 

12

12

12 

13

13

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F133142

Martin Bachmann, 1558
(Canton Bern)

R1b1

13

24

14

10

11 

14 

12

12

12 

13

13

29

17 

 9

 9

11 

11 

 25

 15

19 

30 

14 

15 

17 

17 

 

 

11 

11 

19 

23 

15 

15 

18 

17 

37 

38 

12 

 12

F286340

Martin Bachmann, 1558
(Canton Bern)

R1b1

13

24

14

10

11 

14 

12

12

12 

13

13

29

17 

 9

 9

11 

11 

 25

 15

19 

30 

14 

15 

17 

17 

 

 

11 

11 

19 

23 

15 

15 

18 

17 

37 

38 

12 

 12

F30619

Frederic Bachmann, 1790
(Canton Bern)

R1b1

13

23

14

10

11

15

12

12

13

13

13

29

16

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

28

15

15

16

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O515

Johann Christian Bachmann, 1710
(Canton Bern, York Co., PA)

R1b1

13

24

13

11

 

 

12

12

 

13

13

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O747

Stephen Baughman, ca. 1852
(Kentucky?)

R1b1

13

24

15

11

 

 

12

12

 

13

13

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O954

Hans Heinrich Bachmann, 1700
(Himwil, Canton Zurich)

G2

15

21

15

10

 

 

10

12

 

12

11

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F53164

Valentine Bachmann, 1820
(Easton, PA)

G2

14

22

15

10

14

16

11

12

9

12

11

29

16

9

9

11

11

24

16

22

31

12

13

14

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O321

Michael Baughman, ca. 1690
(Lancaster Co., PA)

I1

13

22

14

10

 

 

11

14

 

13

11

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F41085

Jacob Baughman, ca. 1789
(PA, lived Clinton Co., IN)

I1

13

22

14

10

13

15

11

14

12

13

11

29

16

8

9

8

11

23

16

20

30

12

14

15

17

 

 

10

10

19

21

14

14

17

19

36

37

12

10

F107515

Christian Baughman, ca. 1777
(lived Huntington Co., PA)

I1

13

22

14

10

13

15

11

14

12

13

11

29

17

8

9

8

11

23

16

20

31

12

14

15

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F307885

George Baughman, 1804
(Blair Co., PA)

I1

13

22

14

10

13

15

11

14

12

13

11

29

17

8

9

8

11

22

16

20

31

12

14

15

17

 

 

10 

10 

19 

21 

14 

14 

17 

19 

35 

37 

12 

10

F166999

Conrad Bachmann
(lived Baden, Germany 1700's)

I1

13

22

14

10

13

15

11

14

12

13

11

29

16

8

9

8

11

23

16

20

31

12

14

15

17

 

 

10 

11 

19 

21

14

14 

17 

19 

36

37

12

10

F113340

information not
obtained yet

I1

13

22

14

10

13

16

11

14

12

13

11

29

17

8

9

8

11

23

16

20

31

12

14

15

17

 

 

10

10

19

21

14

14

18

19

36

37

12

10

Sor

Jacob Bachman, 1820
(Lebanon Co., PA)

I1

 

22

14

10

13

15

11

14

12

13

11

29

 

8

9

 

11

23

16

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

10

19

21

14

 

 

 

 

 

12

10

F233188

Stephen Bachmann, 1816
(Franconia, Bavaria, Germany)

I1

13

22

14

10

14

14

11

14

11

12

11

28

15

8

9

8

11

24

16

20

29

12

15

15

16

 

 

11 

10 

19 

21

14

14 

15 

19 

38

38

13

10

O329

Henry Baughman, 1759
(Northampton Co., PA)

I2b

15

23

15

10

 

 

11

13

 

13

12

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F43333

Henry Baughman, 1759
(Northampton Co., PA)

I2b

15

23

15

10

15

16

11

13

12

13

12

29

15

9

9

11

11

24

14

20

27

13

14

15

15

 

 

10 

 10

19 

 21

 14

 15

17 

 20

33 

34 

12 

10 

F48365

Henry Baughman, 1759
(Northampton Co., PA)

I2b

15

23

15

10

15

16

11

13

12

13

12

29

15

9

9

11

11

24

14

19

27

13

14

14

15

 

 

10 

 10

19 

 21

 14

16

17 

20

33 

34 

12 

10 

F270928

Henry Baughman, 1759
(Northampton Co., PA)

I2b

15

23

15

10

15

16

11

13

12

13

12

29

15

9

9

11

11

24

14

20

27

13

14

14

15

 

 

10 

 10

19 

21

 14

14

17 

20

33 

34 

12 

10 

F20653

Christian Baughman, 1760's
(PA, lived Tuscarawas Co., OH)

L

11

23

15

10

13

17

11

12

12

13

13

31

15

9

9

10

11

23

16

19

31

14

15

15

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F213223

Christian Baughman, 1760's
(PA, lived Tuscarawas Co., OH)

L

11

23

15

10

13

17

11

12

12

13

13

31

15

9

9

10

11

23

16

19

31

14

15

15

16

 

 

10 

10

17

21

15

14

18

16

30

31

11

10

O792

Hans Rudolf Bachmann, 1634
(Osli, Breiten, Canton Zurich)

R?

13

24

16

11

 

 

12

12

 

14

13

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

O657

John Baughman, 1889
(African-American, KY)

E3a

13

21

16

10

 

 

11

12

 

13

11

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F291345

Johan Annas Backman, 1852
(Finland)

N

14

23

14

10

11

 13

11

12

10

13

14

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F97657

Johan Hilduinen,1620
(Kemilä,Kuusamo,Finland)

N

14

24

15

11

11

 13

11

12

10

14

14

31

17

9

9

11

12

26

14

19

30

13

13

15

15 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N23686

Valentine Bachmann, ca. 1820
(Bayern, Germany)

J2

12

25

15

10

13

15

11

15

12

13

11

29

16

9

9

11

11

24

16

20

27

13

14

15

16

 

 

11

10

19

23

16

14

14

17

34

36

11

10

Sor

Albert Bachmann 1872
(Prussia to Canada)

R1b1

13

24

14

10

12

14

12

12

12

13

13

29

17

9

9

11

11

25

15

19

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

11

19

23

16

 

 

 

 

 

12

12

Sor

Karl Bachmann 1883
(Orferode Germany)

I1

12

24

14

10

13

17

12

15

12

12

11

28

16

8

9

11

11

28

16

19

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

10

19

20

13

 

 

 

 

 

12

9

ID

 

 

Known Bachman Ancestor

 

 

H
a
p
l
o
.

3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
|
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
|
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
4
e
4
6
4
f
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
a
Y
C
A
I
I
b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y

a
C
D
Y

b
4
4
2
4
3
8
DYS#

R1b1

Most common values for
haplogroup R1b

R1b1

13

24

14

11

11

14

12

12

12

13

13

29

17

9

10

11

11

25

15

19

29

15

15

17

17

 

 

11

11

19

23

16

15

18

17

36

38

12

12

 

NOTES


ID's. The ID’s of participants tested by Oxford Ancestors are prefixed with an “O” and were assigned randomly. Participants tested by FamilyTreeDNA (FTDNA) were given an ID which has been prefixed with “F” or an "E" in the table above. FTDNA participants who joined as part of the National Geographic Society Genographic Study have been assigned a prefix of N. Those who were tested by Ancestry.com (formerly Relative Genetics) are prefixed with "A." A few anonymous Bachman/Baughman contributers to the Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Project have also been added to this page. They are not given an ID number but have "Sor" in the ID field, and are not actually participants in our project.

 

Lineages. In order to view the lineage of each participant, click on the name of the ancestor in the first column. For descendants of 18th century American immigrants, the name of the ancestor is the immigrant ancestor. For Swiss nationals and more recent immigrant lines, the earliest known ancestor is shown. Lineages have been compiled from various sources and may not be complete or entirely accurate.

 

Result Values. The names of the markers tested are shown across the top row (e.g. "DSY390"). The values for those markers (number of repeats) are shown in the row for each participant (e.g. "24" for DYS390 for most of the participants in the first--yellow--cluster; "23" for all the participants in the second--blue--cluster). The markers DYS464e and DYS464f are unusual extra copies of the DYS464 marker, which usually has four copies. This multi-copy marker is difficult to read, so the reported differences among the Richterswil Bachmann descendants for those markers may not be real. We are beginning to do more refined tests to be more certain about the values and numbers of DSY464 markers. For more information on markers and a general introduction to y-chromosome studies using DNA for family history see (now slightly outdated) The y-chromosome and genetic genealogy.

 

Clusters. Participants believed or known to share a common ancestor have been grouped together and colored similarly. Gray shading, instead of colored, indicates where there is a different value from others in the group at that marker. It implies that one line has had a mutation that the others have not had, although in some cases (e.g. O515 and O747) it is unknown which line may have had a mutation. If two different values appear equally likely, the earlier tested in colored and the later tested is gray, although the later tested may turn out to be the ancestral value. Where a common ancestor is suspected but not certain, a slightly different shade of coloring is used (as in the two participants just mentioned). In those cases, further markers would need to be tested to be more certain. The markers DYS464e and DYS464f are not colored except for the first group of Bachmann (the Richterswil group), are not usually present. Members of the Richterswil group (in yellow) have two additional copies of DYS464, although in early Family Tree DNA participants this was not always read correctly.

 

Haplogroups. The majority of the Bachmann descendants so far tested belong to the R1b haplogroup. Haplogroups are large sets of people who all descendant from a common ancestor thousands or tens of thousands of years ago—sometimes referred to as the “sons of Adam” in a figurative sense. Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in Europe and is especially common along the Atlantic coast (reaching more than 80% of males in Ireland and parts of Spain). We have included the most common (modal) values of R1b in the last row for comparison purposes, which is shaded gray where it differs from the first (yellow) group of Bachmann participants. The R1b haplogroup was once claimed to have been the haplogroup of the Aurignacians who were the first modern human to enter Europe at a time that the Neandertals were still common, as much as 30,000 years ago. Alternately the R1b descendants may have been survivors of later modern humans who took refuge in Spain during the last glacial maximum and then repopulated the western part of Europe after the Ice Ages ended, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The third groups of participants (colored pink) have values that are likely haplogroup J2, which is associated with agricultural people of the Fertile Crescent, who entered Europe at a much later time. It is also found among current Middle Eastern populations. Participant O657 has values that are typical of haplogroup E3a, which is a common African haplogroup. Participant O657 is African American and his results indicate that his patrilineal ancestor indeed was African rather than European. Participants in the cream-colored group (e.g. O321 and F41085) almost certainly belongs to haplogroup I (and most likely I1a), which is the second most common haplogroup in Europe and is especially common in central and northern Europe. Some believe that Halogroup I is associated with the Gravettian culture and members of that halogroup are believed to have helped repopulate Europe eight to ten thousand years ago from an ice-age refuge in the Balkans, while others have argued that the I haplogroup might have been common among the early modern human settlers of Europe. Participants in the dark pink group (e.g. O329 and F43333) are most likely haplogroup I1c. Participant 20653 and his relative 213223 have a very unusual set of values. Participant 20653 subsequently had his haplogroup tested. He turned out to be L, a rather uncommon haplotype in Europe that is found mainly in India and Pakistan but also in some Middle Eastern populations (such as Turkey) from where it could have spread to Central Europe in pre- or early-historic times. Some others have less clear haplotypes, and would require further testing to be certain. A more detailed explanation of haplogroups can be found at The y-chromosome and genetic genealogy. Because of more detailed testing resulting in numerous sub-haplogroups and excessively long and continually shifting names, modern usuage is to name the major haplogroup followed by the terminal (known) marker, e.g. I1-P109. Since most groups have not been tested at this level (requiring addtional different kinds of test), we continue to use the major haplogroup name on this page.

 

Participate? If you are a male with the Bachman/Baughman surname who descends directly though Bachmann/Bachman/Baughman males and are interested in joining the study (and willing to consider paying for the test), please contact J. Ross Baughman at j_ross_baughman@hotmail.com or Phil Ritter at philr@stanford.edu. Unfortunately females do not have the y-chromosome, and cannot participate directly, but may want to sponsor a father, brother, husband or other relative with the Bachman/Baughman surname.

 

Last Updated: October 2014; Philip Ritter