Below you'll find a list of references I've kept notes on. (Some of the notes below are really just class notes about the particular article, others are more thorough summaries. You can also access class notes through my list of classes.)

I have a separate page with lots of reading notes (and essays) on emotion-related topics:

Very useful

Baayen, R. H. Forthcoming. Analyzing Linguistic Data. A Practical Introduction to Statistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Still typing up notes on this big, useful introduction to stats for linguistics.)

Bell, Allan. 1984. Language style as audience design. Language in Society 13: 145-204.

Bod, Rens. 2006. Exemplar-based syntax: How to get productivity from examples. Linguistic Review 23: 291-320.

Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press.

Blench, R. (2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.

Uriel Cohen Priva. 2008. Using Information Content to Predict Phone Deletion. Proceedings of the 27th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, pp 90--98.

Cowart, W. (1997) Experimental Syntax: Applying objective methods to sentence judgments. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (A few other notes here and here.)

Dalgaard, P. 2002. Introductory Statistics with R. New York: Springer.

Eckert, P. (2008). Variation and the indexical field.

Giddens, A. (1984). The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Goffman. E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Anchor Books. Pgs. 15-76.

Hay, J. and J. Bresnan. (2006). "." The Linguistic Review 26: 321-349.

Hayes, Bruce and Colin Wilson. To appear. A maximum entropy model of phonotactics and phonotactic learning. Draft of Aug 2007. To appear in Linguistic Inquiry.

Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Lohse, B., J. Hawkins, and T. Wasow (2004). "Processing Domains in English Verb-Particle Constructions." Language 80.2, pp. 238-261.

Manning, C. (2002). "Probabilistic Syntax." Draft from Jan 12, 2002. At that point, to appear in Bod, Hay, and Jannedy (Eds.), Probabilistic Linguistics. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Rittel, H., and Webber, M., “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”, Reprint 86, University of California at Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development.


Roland Baddeley and David Attewell. 2009. The Relationship Between Language and the Environment: Information Theory Shows Why We Have Only Three Lightness Terms. Psychological Science 20:10, 1100-1107.

Bard, E. G., D. Robertson, and A. Sorace: 1996, `Magnitude Estimation of Linguistic Acceptability'. Language 72(1), 32-68.

Alan Bell, Jason Brenier, Michelle Gregory, Cynthia Girand, and Dan Jurafsky. 2009. Predictability Effects on Durations of Content and Function Words in Conversational English. Journal of Memory and Language 60:1, 92-111.

Bod, R. and D. Cochran. 2007. Introduction to Exemplar-Based Models of Language Acquisition and Use. ESSLI Summer Workshop.

Bolinger, D. (1971). The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (My notes are spread out here, here, and here.)

Bortoni-Ricardo, S. 1985. The Urbanisation of Rural Dialect Speakers: A Sociolinguistic Study in Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brennan, S., and Clark, H. (1996). Conceptual pacts and lexical choice in conversation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 22, 1482-1493.

Joan Bresnan and John Mugane. 2006. "Agentive Nominalizations in Gĩkũyũ and the  Theory of Mixed Categories".  In Intelligent Linguistic Architectures: Variations on themes by Ronald M. Kaplan, Miriam Butt, Mary Dalrymple, and Tracy Holloway King (eds), CSLI Publications, Stanford, California, 2006, pp. 201-234.

Butler, J. (1999). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1999 Edition). New York, Routledge.

Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of "Sex". New York and London, Routledge.

Bybee, J. and J. McClelland. 2005. Alternatives to the combinatorial paradigm of linguistic theory based on domain general principles of human cognition. The Linguistic Review 22, pp. 381-410.

Thomas M. Cover and Roger C. King. 1978. A Convergent Gambling Estimate of the Entropy of English. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 24:4, 413-421.

Goldsmith, J. (2001). "Probability for linguistics." (I used an April 2001 manuscript.) 

Greenberg, J. (1948). "Linguistics and Ethnology," in D. Hymes (ed.) Language in Culture and Society. (1964). Harper and Row, New York: 27-35.

Fischer, John L. 1958. Social Influences on the Choice of a Linguistic Variant, reprinted in Language in Culture and Society, ed. By Dell Hymes. 483-489.

Hale, John. 2003. The Information Conveyed by Words in Sentences. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 32:2. 101-123.

Martin Haspelmath. 2006. Against markedness. Journal of Linguistics 42.1: 25-70

Hopper, P. (1998). "Emergent Grammar." In M. Tomasello (ed.), The New Psychology of Language. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Pp. 155-175.

Kehler, Andrew. "Coherence and the (Psycho-) Linguistics of Pronoun Interpretation." Stanford Semantics and Pragmatics Workshop: "The Construction of Meaning". Friday, October 12, 2007.

Jaeger, T. Florian. 2007. Categorical Data Analysis: Away from ANOVAs (transformation or not) and towards Logit Mixed Models. Draft, 2007.

T. Florian Jaeger. 2009 manuscript. Redundancy and Reduction: Speakers Manage Syntactic Information Density.

Labov, W. 2001. Principles of Linguistic Change, vol iii: Social Factors. Malden and Oxford: Blackwell. Conclusion (pg. 498-518).

Levin, B. and M. Rappaport (1986). “The Formation of Adjectival Passives”, Linguistic Inquiry 17, 623-661.

Milin, P., Kuperman, V., Kostic, A. & Baayen, R.H. Paradigms bit by bit: an information- theoretic approach to the processing of inflection and derivation. In press in Blevins, James P. and Juliette Blevins (eds.), Analogy in Grammar: Form and Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mithun, Marianne. 1984. The Evolution of Noun Incorporation. Language, Vol. 60, No. 4. pp. 847-894.

Modaressi-Tehrani, Yahya. 1978. A sociolinguistic analysis of modern Persian. University of Kansas, Ph.D.

Nunberg, G. (2007). "Having a Word for It." Presentation at the Stanford Linguistics Colloquium, 11 May.

Ortner, S. B. (1996). “Borderland Politics and Erotics” in Making Gender, Boston: Beacon Press (pp. 181-212).

Ortner, S. B. (2006). Anthropology and Social Theory: Culture, Power, and the Acting Subject. Durham: Duke University Press. Introduction (pg. 1-18) and Chapter 6 (pg. 129-153).

Payne, Thomas. (1997). Describing Morphosyntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 8, "Voice and valence adjusting operations".

Piantadosi, Tily, Gibson (2009). The communicative lexicon hypothesis. Proceedings of Cogsci 2009.

Prince, Ellen F. 1981b. Toward a taxonomy of given/new information. In Peter Cole, ed., Radical Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press. 223-54.

Ramscar, M., Matlock, T., & Dye, M. (in press) Running down the clock: the role of expectation in our understanding of time and motion. Language and Cognitive Processes.

Michael Ramscar, Daniel Yarlett, Melody Dye, Katie Denny, and Kirsten Thorpe. 2009 manuscript. The Effects of Feature-Label-Order And Their Implications For Symbolic Learning.

Resnik, P. (1996). "Selectional constraints: an information-theoretic model and its computational realization." Cognition 61, pp. 127-159.

Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. Yale University Press.

Suppes, Patrick. 1970. Probabilistic grammars for natural languages. Synthèse 22: 95-116.

Tily & Piantadosi (2009). Refer efficiently: Use less informative expressions for more predictable meanings. Proceedings of the Workshop on Production of Referring Expressions, Cogsci 2009.

Others (unrated)

Aylett, M. and Turk, A. (2004). The smooth signal redundancy hypothesis: A functional explanation for relationships between redundancy, prosodic prominence, and duration in spontaneous speech. Language and Speech, 47(1), 31-56.

Barss, A. and H. Lasnik (1986) “A Note on Anaphora and Double Objects”, Linguistic Inquiry 17, 347-354.

Bresnan, J.W. (2001) Lexical-Functional Syntax. Blackwell, Oxford. Chapter 3.

Bresnan, J. (1976). "On the Form and Functioning of Transformations." Linguistic Inquiry 7.1: 3--40.

Carrier, J. and J.H. Randall (1992) “The Argument Structure and Syntactic Structure of Resultatives”, Linguistic Inquiry 23, 173-234.

de Certeau, M. (1984). The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Chomsky, N. (1977). "On Wh-Movement." In P.  Culicover, T. Wasow, and A. Akmajian, (eds.), Formal Syntax. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 71-132. (excerpts).

Fodor, Jerry A. and Zenon W. Pylyshyn. 1988. Connectionism and Cognitive Architecture: A Critical Analysis. In S. Pinker and J. Mehler, eds., Connections and Symbols, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Genzel, D. and Charniak, E. (2002). Entropy rate constancy in text. In Proceedings of ACL-02.

Goldsmith, John. 2007. Towards a new empiricism: 1.6. MS, U. Chicago.

Goodman, J. E. (2003). “The Proverbial Bourdieu: Habitus and the Politics of Representation in the Ethnography of Kabylia.” American Anthropologist 105(4):782-793.

Haegeman, L. and J. Guéron (1999). English Grammar. Blackwell, Oxford. 199-286.

Hagoort, P., and Van Berkum, J. J. A. (2007). Beyond the sentence given. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Series B: Biological Sciences, 362, 801-811.

Harley, H. (2003) “Possession and the Double Object Construction”, in P. Pica and J. Rooryck, eds., Linguistic Variation Yearbook 2, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 31-70.

Harper, P. B. (1999). “The Subversive Edge”: Paris is Burning, Social Critique, and the Limits of Subjective Agency.” In Private Affairs: Critical Ventures in the Culture of Social Relationships. New York: NYU Press. Pg. 33-59.

Martin Haspelmath. 2008. Frequency vs. iconicity in explaining grammatical asymmetries. Cognitive Linguistics 19.1:1-33.

Huddleston, R., G. Pullum et al. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: CUP. Pp. 1079-1096.

Ilahiane, H. (2001). “The Social Mobility of the Haratine and the Re-Working of Bourdieu’s Habitus on the Saharan Frontier, Morocco.” American Anthropologist 103(2):380-394.

Inoue, M. (2002). "Gender, language, and modernity: Towards an effective history of Japanese women's language." American Ethnologist 29, 2: 392-422.

Jäger, Gerhard and Anette Rosenbach. 2004. The winner takes it all - almost. Cumulativity in grammatical variation. MS, University of Potsdam and University of DEseldorf.

Keller, F. (2004). The entropy rate principle as a predictor of processing effort: An evaluation against eye-tracking data. In In Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, Barcelona, pp. 317-324.

Lapata, Mirella. "Modeling local coherence: an entity-based approach." Stanford Semantics and Pragmatics Workshop: "The Construction of Meaning". Friday, November 9, 2007.

Levi, J. M. (1999). “Hidden Transcripts among the Rarámuri: Culture, Resistance, and Interethnic Relations in Northern Mexico.” American Ethnologist 26(1):90-113.

Levine, R., T. Hukari and M. Calcagno. (2001). "Parasitic Gaps in English: Some Overlooked Cases and Their Theoretical Consequences." In Culicover, Peter W. and Paul M. Postal (eds.) Parasitic Gaps, Current Studies in Linguistics 35. Cambridge. MA: MIT Press.

Morris, R. C. (1995). "All Made Up: Performance Theory and the New Anthropology of Sex and Gender." Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 567-592.

Muñoz, J. E. (1999). disidentification: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

Ochoa, M. (2008). “Perverse Citizenship: Divas, Marginality, and Participation in 'Loca-lization'”. Women’s Studies Quarterly 36(3&4):146-169.

Pluymaekers, M., Ernestus, M., & Baayen, R. (2005). Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118, 2561

Pred, A. (1990). Making Histories and Constructing Human Geographies: The Local Transformation of Practice, Power Relations, and Consciousness. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, Inc. Pretext and Introduction (pgs. 1-40).

Prince, Ellen F. 1992. The ZPG letter: Subjects, definiteness, and information-status. In S. Thompson and W. Mann, eds., Discourse Description: Diverse Analyses of a Fundraising Text. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 295-325.

Postal, P. (2004). Skeptical Linguistic Essays. "Chapter 7: Junk Syntax 1: A supposed Account of Strong Crossover Effects."

Power, C. and Watts I. (1997). “The Woman with the Zebra's Penis: Gender, Mutability and Performance.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 3(3): 537- 560.

Reed-Danahay, D. (1993). “Talking about Resistance: Ethnography and Theory in Rural France”. Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 4: 221-229.

Terry Regier, Paul Kay, and Naveen Khetarpala. 2007. Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space. PNAS 4:4, 1436-1441.

Philip Resnik. 1996. Selectional Constraints: An Information-Theoretic Model and its Computational Realization. Cognition 61:127-159.

Jason Riggle and John Goldsmith. 2007 ms. Information theoretic approaches to phonological structure: the case of Finnish vowel harmony. MS under review.

Roberts, I. (1997). Comparative Syntax. Edward Arnold, London.

Ross, J. (1967). Constraints on Variables in Syntax. Doctoral dissertation, MIT. [Published in 1986 as Infinite Syntax. Norwood, N.J.: ABLEX.] Excerpts.

Rubin, G. (1994). “Sexual Traffic: An Interview with Judith Butler.” differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 6(2+3): 62-99.

Shannon, C. Prediction and entropy of printed English. Bell System Technical Journal, 30, 50-64.

Wechsler, S. (1997). “Resultative Predicates and Control”, Texas Linguistic Forum 38: The Syntax and Semantics of Predication, Department of Linguistics, University of Texas, Austin, 307-321.

Valentine, D. (2003). "‘I went to bed with my own kind once’: the erasure of desire in the name of identity." Language & Communication 23 (2003) 123–138.

Van Son, R., & Pols, L. (2003). How efficient is speech? Proceedings of the Institute of Phonetic Sciences, 25, 171-184.

Not recommended

Annunzio, S. (2004). Contagious Success: Spreading high performance throughout your organization. New York: Portfolio.

Ariel, M. 2001. Accessibility theory: An overview. In T. Sanders, J. Schilperoord, & W. Spooren (Eds.), Text representation: Linguistic and psycholinguistic aspects (p. 29- 87). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Baayen, R.H., Davidson, D.J. and Bates, D.M. (submitted). Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. MS, 2007. (Baayen is one of my favorite researchers, but this particular work could really be much more accessible than it is.)

De Fina, A. (2007). "Code-switching and the construction of ethnic identity in a community of practice." Language in Society 36: 371-392.

Higgins, Christina. 2007. Shifting tactics of intersubjectivity to align indexicalities: A case of joking around in Swahinglish in Language in Society 36: 1-24.

Hudson, R. (1997). Inherent variability and linguistic theory. Cognitive Linguistics 8: 73-108.

Moerman, M. (1988). Talking Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Reinhart, T. and Siloni, T. (2005). The Lexicon-Syntax Parameter: Reflexivization and Other Arity Operations. Linguistic Inquiry 36: 3, pp. 389-436.

Linguistics links

Other fun stuff