4.1) What are Northumbrian pipes?
A) The Northumbrian small pipe (NSP) is a small, bellows-blown pipe featuring as many as four or five drones and a cylindrical-bored closed chanter. This differs from Highland and Uilleann pipes, which have conically-bored open chanters. The Northumbrian pipe takes its name from the county of Northumberland in the north of England, and is native to that area and the borders. The NSP produces a distinct sweetness of tone which, among other things, probably inspired this standard joke among Northumbrian pipers: "Q) What's the difference between the NSP and the GHB? A) The NSP is a musical instrument".
The NSP chanter usually has keys to provide semitones and to extend the range of the chanter. The most common has 7 keys with a range of about an octave and a half, although up to 18 keys may be found on some instruments. The traditional pitch is about one third of a semitone sharp of F although many pipes can be found in concert F, concert G and also some in concert D.
4.2) What is a Scottish Small Pipe?
A) The Scottish Small Pipe (SSP) is a bellows-blown instrument and a sort of "cousin" to the GHB. Scottish small pipes usually come with three drones, but in most cases there will be a bass, baritone, and tenor drone as opposed to the 1-bass 2-tenor GHB setup. SSP chanters come in a variety of keys, with A and D being most common. Chanter fingering is similar to the GHB.
4.3) What are "cauld wind" pipes?
A) The term "Cauld Wind Pipes" is generally used to refer to bellows-blown pipes native to Scotland. These include the Scottish Smallpipe, Pastoral pipe, and Border pipe.
4.4) What is a Gaita?
A) Most generally, the Gaita is a Spanish bagpipe. The most commonly referred to are those of the Celtic regions (Galicia and Asturias). They are similar in construction to a GHB but have from one to three drones. The chanters have their own fingering systems and can be played into the second octave.
4.5) What is a Zampogna?
A) A Zampogna is an Italian bagpipe.
4.5) What is a Cimpoi?
A) Cimpoi is the Romanian name for bagpipe. It has nearly disappeared from the folk tradition, but one was seen recently in Vrancea county in the eastern Carpathians. Most Romanian cimpois have a single drone pipe.
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