Paper title: A flexible organic reflectance oximeter array
Abstract: Transmission-mode pulse oximetry, the optical method for determining oxygen saturation in blood, is limited to only tissues that can be transilluminated, such as the earlobes and the fingers. The existing sensor configuration provides only single point measurements, lacking two-dimensional (2D) oxygenation mapping capability. Here, we demonstrate a novel flexible and printed sensor array composed of organic light-emitting diodes and organic photodiodes, which senses reflected light from tissue to determine the oxygen saturation. We use the reflectance oximeter array beyond the conventional sensing locations using a novel sensor configuration. The sensor is implemented to measure oxygen saturation on the forehead with 1.1% mean error and to create 2D oxygenation maps of adult forearms under pressure cuff-induced ischemia. In addition, we present mathematical models to determine oxygenation in the presence and absence of a pulsatile arterial blood signal. The mechanical flexibility, 2D oxygenation mapping capability, and the ability to place the sensor in various locations make the reflectance oximeter array promising for novel medical sensing applications such as monitoring of real-time chronic medical conditions as well as post-surgery recovery management of tissues, organs, and wounds.
A flexible organic reflectance oximeter array Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018 115, 47.