Assignment 2 File System

Due: Tuesday March 6, 2018 11:59AM


Overview

In this assignment, you will enable the use of Rust’s collections module (Vec, String, HashMap, and friends) by writing a memory allocator, implement the FAT32 file system, implement a Rust interface for a driver for the Raspberry Pi’s EMMC (SD card controller), and extend your shell with cd, ls, pwd, and cat, commands.


Phase 0: Getting Started

As with previous assignments, ensure that you are using a compatible machine:

  • Runs a modern Unix natively: Linux, BSD, or macOS
  • Runs a 64-bit variant of the OS
  • Has a USB-A port or USB-C to USB-A adapter

And has the following software installed: git, wget, tar, screen, make, and the software from previous assignments.

Getting the Skeleton Code

Clone the assignment 2 skeleton git repository to your cs140e working directory:

git clone https://web.stanford.edu/class/cs140e/assignments/2-fs/skeleton.git 2-fs

After cloning, your cs140e directory tree should look as follows:

cs140e
├── 0-blinky
├── 1-shell
├── 2-fs
└── os

Inside of the os repository, checkout the 2-fs git branch and merge your changes from assignment 1:

cd os
git fetch
git checkout 2-fs
git merge master

You may need to resolve conflicts before continuing. For example, if you see a message that looks like:

Auto-merging kernel/src/kmain.rs
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in kernel/src/kmain.rs
Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.

You will need to manually modify the kmain.rs file to resolve the conflict. Ensure you keep all of your changes from assignment 1. Once all conflicts are resolved, add the resolved files with git add and commit. For more information on resolving merge conflicts, see this tutorial on githowto.com.

Firmware Update

Download the new firmware files by running make fetch inside of the 2-fs repository. The command will download and extract files to the files/ subdirectory. Copy firmware/bootcode.bin, firmware/config.txt, firmware/fixup.dat, and firmware/start.elf to the root of your MicroSD card. If kernel8.img is your bootloader from assignment 1, add the following line to config.txt:

kernel_address=0x4000000

Installing ttywrite

The kernel Makefile now includes a new target, install, that builds the kernel binary and calls ttywrite to send it to the Raspberry Pi for the bootloader to load. As a result, assuming the bootloader is installed as kernel8.img, you will be able to test new binaries simply by resetting your Raspberry Pi and running make install.

The target calls ttywrite directly. This means that the ttywrite utility needs to be present on your system. To install your utility, run cargo install in the 1-shell/ttywrite directory. Ensure that the utility was properly installed by running ttywrite --help.

The make install target is configured to write to /dev/tty.SLAB_USBtoUART by default. If your TTY device differs, modify the PI_TTY declaration on line 6 of kernel/Makefile appropriately.

The ALLOCATOR.initialize() call panics!

Your shell should continue to function as before. If you test the make install target now, however, you’ll likely find that you shell appears to no longer work. The likely culprit is an ALLOCATOR.initialize() call preceding your shell() call. Because there is no memory allocator yet, the call will lead to a panic!(), halting your system without warning. We’ll fix this soon. Feel free to comment out the line temporarily to ensure everything is working as expected.


Phase 1: Memory Lane

In this phase you will implement two memory allocators: a simple bump allocator and a more fully-featured bin allocator. These will immediately enable the use of heap allocating structures such as Vec, Box, and String. To determine the available memory on the system for allocation, you will read ARM tags (ATAGS). You will also implement the panic_fmt language item to properly handle panic! calls.


Subphase A: Panic!

In this subphase you will implement the panic_fmt language item. You will be working in kernel/src/lang_items.rs.

Language Items

When the Rust compiler is instructed to compile a Rust program for a target without operating system support, such as we do for our Raspberry Pi, the compiler requires the manual implementation of several language items. These items are functions that the compiler inserts calls to under certain conditions. We can register our functions of choice for a given language item by annotating the function with the #[lang_item] attribute.

At present, Rust requires two such language items:

  • panic_fmt: (fmt: ::std::fmt::Arguments, file: &str, line: u32, col: u32) -> !

    Called when a panic! occurs. The arguments in the panic! call are passed in as fmt while the file name, line number, and column where the panic! occurred are passed in as file, line, and col.

  • eh_personality: OS/ABI dependent

    Called when unwinding, or stack cleanup after an abort, is needed. This usually occurs when a panic! or thread exit occurs. We won’t be implementing this.

We’ve provided simple implementations of both of these functions in kernel/src/lang_items.rs. You will extend the panic_fmt implementation so that it logs useful information to the console.

Implement panic_fmt

Implement the panic_fmt function now. Your implementation should print the passed in information to the console and then allow the loop already in place to run. Note that the fmt::Arguments type implements Display, so you can print its value with kprint!("{}", fmt). You’re free to implement the function as you like. As an example, our implementation takes inspiration from Linux kernel oops messages:

            (
       (      )     )
         )   (    (
        (          `
    .-""^"""^""^"""^""-.
  (//\\//\\//\\//\\//\\//)
   ~\^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^/~
     `================`

    The pi is overdone.

---------- PANIC ----------

FILE: src/kmain.rs
LINE: 40
COL: 5

index out of bounds: the len is 3 but the index is 4

Test your new panic_fmt implementation by having your kernel panic. Recall that you can use the new make install target to compile and send the kernel to your Raspberry Pi. Note that the ALLOCATOR.initialize() call already panic!s, so you shouldn’t need to make any changes. Ensure this function is called before your shell().

Then, try making your kernel panic in other ways: a rogue unwrap(), an explicit panic!(), or an unreachable!(): ensure they all work as expected. When you’re satisfied with your implementation, continue to next the subphase.


Subphase B: ATAGS

In this subphase, you will implement an iterator over the ARM tags (ATAGS) loaded by the Raspberry Pi’s firmware. You will use your iterator to find the ATAG that specifies how much memory is available on the system. You will be working in the pi/src/atags directory and kernel/src/allocator/mod.rs.

ARM Tags

ATAGS, or ARM tags, are a mechanism used by ARM bootloaders and firmware to pass information about the system to the kernel. Linux, for example, can use ATAGS when configured for the ARM architecture.

The Raspberry Pi places an array of ATAG structures at address 0x100. Each ATAG begins with an 8 byte header:

struct AtagHeader {
    dwords: u32,
    tag: u32,
}

The dwords field specifies the size of the complete ATAG in double words (32-bit words) and includes the header. Thus the minimum size is 2. The tag field specifies the type of the ATAG. There are 10 different types of specified tags, all documented in the ATAGS reference. The Raspberry Pi only makes use of four. These are documented below:

Name Type (tag) Size Description
CORE 0x54410001 5 or 2 if empty First tag used to start list
NONE 0x00000000 2 Empty tag used to end list
MEM 0x54410002 4 Describes a physical area of memory
CMDLINE 0x54410009 variable Command line to pass to kernel

The type of tag determines how the data after the header should be interpreted. Clicking on the name of the tag in the table above directs you to the reference for that particular tag which includes the layout of the tag’s data. The MEM tag data, for instance, is structured as below:

struct Mem {
    size: u32,
    start: u32
}

Tags are laid out sequentially in memory with zero padding between each tag. The first tag is specified to be a CORE tag while the final tag is indicated by the NONE tag. Other tags can appear in any order. The dwords field is used to determine the address of the adjacent ATAG. The diagram below depicts the general layout.

ATAGS array layout
Unions & Safety

The raw ATAG data structures are declared in pi/src/atags/raw.rs. The main declaration, copied below, makes use of a Rust union. Rust’s unions are identical to C unions: they define a structure where all fields share common storage.

pub struct Atag {
    dwords: u32,
    tag: u32,
    kind: Kind
}

pub union Kind {
    core: Core,
    mem: Mem,
    cmd: Cmd
}

In effect, unions allow memory to be cast into arbitrary structures without regard for whether the cast is correct. As a result, accessing union fields in Rust is unsafe.

We’ve already handled most of the unsafe in the atags module for you, so you don’t need to worry about handling unions yourself. Nonetheless, exposing unions to end-users of our pi library is a bad idea. Because of this, we’ve declared a second Atag structure in pi/src/atags/atag.rs. This structure is entirely safe to use and access. This is the structure that the pi library will expose. When you finish the implementation of the atag module later in this subphase, you’ll write conversions from the raw structures to the safe structures.

enduser-unsafe

Why is it a bad idea to expose unions to end-users?

We’re going through a lot of effort to expose a safe interface to unsafe data structures. You’ll see this over and over again in Rust, with the standard library as a prime example. What benefit is there to exposing safe interfaces to unsafe structures or operations in Rust? Could we yield the same benefits in a language like C?

Command Line Arguments

The CMDLINE tag deserve special attention. Its declaration is:

struct Cmd {
    /// The first byte of the command line string.
    cmd: u8
}

As indicated by the comment, the cmd field holds the first byte of the command line string. In other words, &cmd is a pointer to a null-terminated, C-like string. The safe version of the Cmd tag is Cmd(&'static str). When you write the conversion from the raw to safe version of the Cmd tag, you’ll need to determine the size of the C-like string by searching for the null terminator in the string. You’ll then need to cast the address and size into a slice using slice::from_raw_parts() and finally cast the slice into a string using str::from_utf8() or str::from_utf8_unchecked(). You used both of these functions before in assignment 1.

Implement atags

You’re ready to implement the atags module in pi/src/atags. Start by implementing the raw::Atag::next() method in atags/raw.rs. The method determines the address of the ATAG following self and returns a reference to it. You’ll need to use unsafe in your implementation. Then implement the helper methods and conversion traits from raw structures to safe structures in atags/atag.rs. You should only need to use unsafe when implementing From<&'a raw::Cmd> for Atag. Finally, finish the implementation of the Iterator trait for Atags in atags/mod.rs. This requires no unsafe.

Hint: You can (and should try to!) implement the Atags::next() iterator method in just three lines.

Hint: You can convert from x: &T to *const u32 using x as *const T as *const u32.

Hint: You can convert from x: *const T to &T using &*x.

Hint: You can perform pointer arithmetic with add(), sub(), or offset().

Testing atags

Test your ATAGS implementation by iterating over all of the ATAGS and debug printing them to your console in kernel/src/kmain.rs. You should see at least one of each of the three non-NONE tags. Verify that the value of each ATAG matches your expectations. Once your implementation performs as expected, proceed to the next subphase.

Hint: The {:#?} format specifier prettifies the debug output of a structure.

atag-cmdline

What does the CMDLINE ATAG contain?

What is the value of the command line string in the CMDLINE ATAG found on your Raspberry Pi? What do you think the parameters control?

atag-mem

How much memory is reported by the MEM tag?

What is the exact start address and size of the available memory reported by the MEM ATAG? How close is this to the Raspberry Pi’s purported 1GB or RAM?


Subphase C: Warming Up

In this subphase, we’ll set the stage to write our two memory allocators in the next subphases. You’ll implement two utility functions, align_up and align_down, that align addresses to a power of two. You’ll also implement the memory_map function that returns the start and end address of the available memory on the system. Your memory_map function will be used by both memory allocators to determine the available memory for allocation.

Alignment

A memory address is n-byte aligned if it is a multiple of n. Said another way, a memory address k is n-byte aligned if k % n == 0. We don’t usually need to be concerned about the alignment of our memory addresses, but as budding system’s programmers, we do! This is because hardware, protocols, and other external forces enjoin alignment properties. For example, the ARM 32-bit architecture requires the stack pointer to be 8-byte aligned. The AArch64 architecture, our operating system’s architecture of choice, requires the stack pointer to be 16-byte aligned; x86-64 requires the same alignment. Page addresses used for virtual memory typically need to be 4k-byte aligned. And there are many more examples, but it suffices to say that alignment of memory addresses is important.

In C, the alignment of a memory address returned from a libC allocator is guaranteed to be 8-byte aligned on 32-bit systems and 16-byte aligned on 64-bit systems. Beyond this, the caller has no control over the alignment of the returned memory address and must fend for themselves (POSIX functions like posix_memalign later corrected for this).

libc-align

Why did C choose these alignments?

The choice to guarantee 8 or 16-byte alignment from libC’s malloc is not without reason. Why did libC choose these particular alignment guarantees?

Recall the signatures for malloc() and free() in C:

void *malloc(size_t size);

void free(void *pointer);

In contrast, Rust’s low-level, unsafe, never-used-by-users alloc and dealloc have the following signature:

// `layout.size()` is the requested size, `layout.align()` the requested alignment
unsafe fn alloc(&mut self, layout: Layout) -> Result<*mut u8, AllocErr>;

// `layout` should be the same as was used for the call that returned `ptr`
unsafe fn dealloc(&mut self, ptr: *mut u8, layout: Layout);

Note that the caller can specify the alignment. As a result, the onus is on the allocator, not the caller, to return a properly aligned memory address. When you implement memory allocators in the next phase, you’ll need to ensure that the address you return is properly aligned.

The second thing to note is that the dealloc function, analogous to C’s free, requires the caller to pass in the Layout used for the original call to alloc. As a result, the onus is on the caller, not the allocator, to remember the requested size and alignment of an allocation.

onus

Why do you think Rust split responsibilities in this way?

In C, the allocator has fewer restrictions on the alignment of memory addresses it returns but must record the size of an allocation for later use. The inverse is true in Rust. Why do you think Rust chose the opposite path here? What advantages does it have for the allocator and for the caller?

Utilities: align_up and align_down

When you implement your allocators in the next subphases, you’ll find it useful to, given a memory address u, be able to determine the first address >= or <= u that is aligned to a power of two. The (unimplemented) align_up and align_down functions in kernel/src/allocator/util.rs do exactly this:

/// Align `addr` downwards to the nearest multiple of `align`.
/// Panics if `align` is not a power of 2.
fn align_down(addr: usize, align: usize) -> usize;

/// Align `addr` upwards to the nearest multiple of `align`.
/// Panics if `align` is not a power of 2.
fn align_up(addr: usize, align: usize) -> usize;

Implement these functions now. You can unit test your implementations by calling make test or cargo test in the kernel directory. This will run the tests in kernel/src/allocator/tests.rs. All of the align_util unit tests should pass.

During testing, calls to kprint{ln}! become calls to print{ln}!.

Hint: You can implement each function in 1 or 2 simple lines.

Hint: Implement align_up in terms of align_down.

Thread Safety

Memory allocators like libC’s malloc() and the two you will soon implement are global: they can be called by any thread at any point in time. As such, the allocator needs to be thread safe. Rust takes thread safety very seriously, and so it is difficult to implement an allocator that isn’t thread-safe even if our system doesn’t have any concurrency mechanisms like threads just yet.

The topic of thread-safe memory allocators is extensive, and many research papers have been published on exactly this topic. To avoid a deep tangent, we’ll ignore the topic altogether and wrap our allocator in a Mutex ensuring that it is thread-safe by virtue of exclusion. We’ve provided the code that will wrap your allocators in kernel/src/allocator/mod.rs. Read through the code now. Notice how it implements Rust’s Alloc trait; this is how Rust knows that it is a valid allocator. An implementation of this trait is required to register an instance of the struct as a #[global_allocator], which we’ve done for you in kmain.rs. Once an instance is registered via the #[global_allocator] annotation, we can use structures like Vec, String, and Box and Rust will forward the alloc() and dealloc() calls to our registered instance.

Switching Implementations

The Alloc implementation for Allocator in kernel/src/allocator/mod.rs simply forwards calls to an internal imp::Allocator after taking a lock. The imp module is virtual: it isn’t backed by any file in the file system. Instead, we use the #[path = "bump.rs"] annotation to tell Rust where to find the file for that module. This lets us switch the actual allocator implementation we’re using by modifying the file in the #[path]. We’ll start with the bump allocator in bump.rs and later switch to the bin allocator in bin.rs.

Utility: memory_map

The final item in the kernel/src/allocator/mod.rs file is the memory_map function. This function is called by the Allocator::initialize() method which in-turn is called in kmain(). The initialize() method constructs an instance of the internal imp::Allocator structure for use in later allocations and deallocations.

The memory_map function is responsible for returning the start and end address of all of the free memory on the system. Note that the amount of free memory is unlikely to be equal to the total amount of memory on the system, the latter of which is identified by ATAGS. This is because memory is already being used by data like the kernel’s binary. memory_map should take care not to mark used memory as free. To assist you with this, we’ve declared the binary_end variable which holds the first address after the kernel’s binary.

Implement the memory_map function now by using your Atags implementation from Subphase B and the binary_end variable. Ensure that the function returns the expected values. Then add a call to String::from("Hi!") (or any other allocating call) and ensure that a panic!() occurs because of an unimplemented bump allocator. If memory_map() returns what you expect and a call to imp::Allocator::new() panics because the bump allocator hasn’t been implemented yet, proceed to the next subphase.


Subphase D: Bump Allocator

In this subphase, you will implement the simplest of allocators: the bump allocator. You will be working in kernel/src/allocator/bump.rs.

A bump allocator works like this: on alloc, the allocator returns a current pointer, modified as necessary to guarantee the requested alignment, and bumps the current pointer up by the size of the requested allocation plus whatever was necessary to fulfill the alignment request. If the allocator runs out of memory, it returns an error. On dealloc, the allocator does nothing.

The diagram below depicts what happens to the current pointer after a 1k byte allocation and a subsequent 512 byte allocation. Note that alignment concerns are absent in the diagram.

Bump Allocator Diagram

Your task is to implement a bump allocator in kernel/src/allocator/bump.rs. In particular, implement the new(), alloc(), and dealloc() methods of bump::Allocator. Use your align_up and align_down utility functions as necessary to guarantee the proper alignment of the returned addresses. We’ve provided unit tests that check the basic correctness of your implementation. You can run them with make test or cargo test in the kernel directory. You should pass all of the allocator::bump_ unit tests.

Ensure that you don’t perform any potentially overflowing operations!

Use the saturating_add and saturating_sub methods as necessary to prevent arithmetic overflow.

Once all of the unit tests pass, try alloacting memory in kmain() to “see” your allocator in action. Here’s a simple test:

let mut v = vec![];
for i in 0..1000 {
    v.push(i);
    kprintln!("{:?}", v);
}

Once your implementation works as expected, proceed to the next subphase.

bump-chain

What does the alloc call chain look like?

If you paused execution when bump::Allocator::alloc() gets called, what would the backtrace look like? Asked another way: explain in detail how a call like v.push(i) leads to a call to your bump::Allocator::alloc() method.


Subphase E: Bin Allocator

In this subphase, you will implement a more complete allocator: the bin allocator. You will be working in kernel/src/allocator/bin.rs.

A bin allocator segments memory allocations into size classes, or bins. The specific size classes are decided arbitrarily by the allocator. Each bin holds a linked-list of pointers to memory of the bin’s size class. Allocations are rounded up to the nearest bin: if there is an item in the bin’s linked list, it is popped and returned. If there is no free memory in that bin, new memory is allocated from the global pool and returned. Deallocation pushes an item to the linked list in the corresponding bin.

One popular approach is to divide bins into powers of two. For example, an allocator might choose to divide memory allocations into k - 2 bins with sizes 2^n for n from 3 to k (2^3, 2^4, …, 2^k). Any allocation or deallocation request for less than or equal to 2^3 bytes would be handled by the 2^3 bin, requests between 2^3 and 2^4 bytes from the 2^4 bin, and so on:

  • bin 0 (2^3 bytes): handles allocations in (0, 2^3]
  • bin 1 (2^4 bytes): handles allocations in (2^3, 2^4]
  • bin k (2^k bytes): handles allocations in (2^(k - 1), 2^k]
Linked List

We’ve provided an implementation of an intrusive linked list of memory addresses in kernel/src/allocator/linked_list.rs. We’ve also imported the LinkedList struct in kernel/src/allocator/bin.rs.

What’s an instrusive linked list?

In an intrusive linked list, next and previous pointers, if any, are stored in the pushed items themselves. An intrusive linked list requires no additional memory, beyond the item, to manage an item. On the other hand, the user must provide valid storage in the item for these pointers.

A new, empty list is created using LinkedList::new(). A new address can be prepended to the list using push(). The first address in the list, if any, can be removed and returned using pop() or returned (but not removed) using peek():

let mut list = LinkedList::new();
unsafe {
    list.push(address_1);
    list.push(address_2);
}

assert_eq!(list.peek(), Some(address_2));
assert_eq!(list.pop(), Some(address_2));
assert_eq!(list.pop(), Some(address_1));
assert_eq!(list.pop(), None);

LinkedList exposes two iterators. The first, obtained via iter(), iterates over all of the addresses in the list. The second, returned from iter_mut(), returns Nodes that refer to each address in the list. The value() and pop() methods of Node can be used to read the value or pop the value from the list, respectively.

let mut list = LinkedList::new();
unsafe {
    list.push(address_1);
    list.push(address_2);
    list.push(address_3);
}

for node in list.iter_mut() {
    if node.value() == address_2 {
        node.pop();
    }
}

assert_eq!(list.pop(), Some(address_3));
assert_eq!(list.pop(), Some(address_1));
assert_eq!(list.pop(), None);

Read through the code for LinkedList now. Pay special attention to the safety properties required to call push() safely. You’ll likely want to use LinkedList to manage the bins in your memory allocator.

ll-alloc

Why is it convenient to use an intrusive linked list?

Using an intrusive linked list for our memory allocators turns out to be a very convenient decision. What issues would arise if we had instead decided to use a regular, allocate-additional-memory-on-push, linked list?

Fragmentation

The concept of fragmentation refers to memory that is unused but unallocatable. An allocator incurs or creates high fragmentation if it creates a lot of unusable memory throughout the course of handling allocations. An ideal allocator has zero fragmentation: it never uses more memory than necessary to handle a request and it can always use available memory to handle new requests. In practice, this is neither desired nor achievable given other design constraints. But striving for low fragmentation is a key quality of good memory allocators.

We typically define two kinds of fragmentation:

  • internal fragmentation

    The amount of memory wasted by an allocator to due to rounding up allocations. For a bin allocator, this is the difference between a request’s allocation size and the size class of the bin it is handled from.

  • external fragmentation

    The amount of memory wasted by an allocator due to being unable to use free memory for new allocations. For a bin allocator, this is equivalent to the amount of free space in every bin that can’t be used to handle an allocation for a larger request even though the sum of all of the free space meets or exceeds the requested size.

Your allocator should try to keep fragmentation down within reason.

Implementation

Implement a bin allocator in kernel/src/allocator/bin.rs. Besides being a bin-like allocator, the design of the allocator is entirely up to you. The allocator must be able to reuse freed memory. The allocator must also not incur excessive internal or external fragmentation. Our unit tests, which you can run with make test or cargo test check these properties. Remember to change bump.rs to bin.rs in the #[path] annotation in kernel/src/allocator/mod.rs so that your bin allocator is used for global allocations.

Once your allocator passes all tests and is set as the global allocator, proceed to the next phase.

bin-about

What does your allocator look like?

Briefly explain the design of your allocator. In particular answer the following questions:

  • Which size classes did you choose and why?
  • How does your allocator handle alignment?
  • What are the bounds on internal and external fragmentation for your design choices?

bin-frag

How could you decrease your allocator’s fragmentation?

Your allocator probably creates more fragmentation that it needs to, and that’s okay! How could you do better? Sketch (only in writing) two brief design ideas for improving your allocator’s fragmentation.


Phase 2: 32-bit Lipids

In this phase, you will implement a read-only FAT32 file system. You will be working primarily in the 2-fs/fat32 directory.


Disks and File Systems

Data on a disk is managed by one or more file systems. Much like a memory allocator, a file system is responsible for managing, allocating, and deallocating free disk space. Unlike the memory managed by an allocator, the disk is persistent: barring disk failure, a write to allocated disk space is visible at any point in the future, including after machine reboots. Common file systems include EXT4 on Linux, HFS+ and APFS on macOS, and NTFS on Windows. FAT32 is another file system that is implemented by most operating systems, including Linux, macOS, and Windows, and was used in older versions of Windows and later versions of DOS. Its main advantage is its ubiquity: no other file system sees such cross-platform support.

To allow more than one file system to reside on a physical disk, a disk can be partitioned. Each partition can formatted for a different file system. To partition the disk, a table is written out to a known location on the disk that indicates where each partition begins and ends and the type of file system the partition uses. One commonly used partitioning scheme uses a master boot record, or MBR, that contains a table of four partition entries, each potentially unused, marking the start and size of a partition. GPT is a more modern partitioning scheme that, among other things, allows for more than four partitions.

In this assignment you will be writing the code to interpret an MBR partitioned disk that includes a FAT32 partition. This is the combination used by the Raspberry Pi: the SD card uses the MBR scheme with one partition formatted to FAT32.


Disk Layout

The following diagram shows the physical layout of an MBR-partitioned disk with a FAT32 file system:

Disk Layout

The FAT structures PDF contains the specific details about all of these structures including their sizes, field locations, and field descriptions. You will be referring to this document when you implement your file system. You may also find the FAT32 design Wikipedia entry useful while implementing your file system.

Master Boot Record

The MBR is always located on sector 0 of the disk. The MBR contains four partition entries, each indicating the partition type (the file system on the partition), the offset in sectors of the partition from the start of the disk, and a boot/active indicator that dictates whether the partition is being used by a bootable system. Note that the CHS (cylinder, header, sector) fields are typically ignored by modern implementations; your should ignore these fields as well. FAT32 partitions have a partition type of 0xB or 0xC.

Extended Bios Parameter Block

The first sector of a FAT32 partition contains the extended BIOS parameter block, or EBPB. The EBPB itself starts with a BIOS parameter block, or BPB. Together, these structures define the layout of the FAT file system.

One particularly important field in the EBPB indicates the “number of reserved sectors”. This is an offset from the start of the FAT32 partition, in sectors, where the FATs (described next) can be found. Immediately after the last FAT is the data region which holds the data for clusters. FATs, the data region, and clusters are explained next.

Clusters

All data stored in a FAT file system in separated into clusters. The size of a cluster is determined by the “number of sectors per cluster” field of the EBPB. Clusters are numbered starting at 2. As seen in the diagram, the data for cluster 2 is located at the start of the data region, the data for cluster 3 is located immediately after cluster 2, and so on.

File Allocation Table

FAT stands for “file allocation table”. As the name implies, a FAT is a table (an array) of FAT entries. In FAT32, each entry is 32-bits wide; this is where the name comes from. The size of a complete FAT is determined by the “sectors per FAT” and “bytes per sectors” fields of the EBPB. For redundancy, there can be more than one FAT in a FAT32 file system. The number of FATs is determined by a field of the same name in the EBPB.

Besides entries 0 and 1, each entry in the FAT determines the status of a cluster. Entry 2 determines the status of cluster 2, entry 3 the status of cluster 3, and so on. Every cluster has an associated FAT entry in the FAT.

FAT entries 0 and 1 are special:

  • Entry 0: 0xFFFFFFFN, an ID.
  • Entry 1: The end of chain marker.

Aside from these two entries, all other entries correspond to a cluster whose data is in the data region. While FAT entries are physically 32-bits wide, only 28-bits are actually used; the upper 4 bits are ignored. The value is one of:

  • 0x?0000000: A free, unused cluster.
  • 0x?0000001: Reserved.
  • 0x?0000002-0x?FFFFFEF: A data cluster; value points to next cluster in chain.
  • 0x?FFFFFF0-0x?FFFFFF6: Reserved.
  • 0x?FFFFFF7: Bad sector in cluster or reserved cluster.
  • 0x?FFFFFF8-0x?FFFFFFF: Last cluster in chain. Should be, but may not be, the EOC marker.
Cluster Chains

Clusters form chains, or linked lists of clusters. If a cluster is being used for data, its corresponding FAT entry value either points to the next cluster in the chain or is the EOC marker indicating it is the final cluster in the chain.

As an example, consider the diagram below which depicts a FAT with 8 entries.

FAT Chains

The clusters are color coded to indicate which chain they belong to. The first two entries are the ID and EOC marker, respectively. Entry 2 indicates that cluster 2 is a data cluster; its chain is 1 cluster long. Entry 3 indicates that cluster 3 is a data cluster; the next cluster in the chain is cluster 5 followed by the final cluster in the chain, cluster 6. Similarly, clusters 7 and 5 form a chain. Cluster 8 is free and unused.

Directories and Entries

A chain of clusters makes up the data for a file or directory. Directories are special files that map file names and associated metadata to the starting cluster for a file’s date. Specifically, a directory is an array of directory entries. Each entry indicates, among other things, the name of the entry, whether the entry is a file or directory, and its starting cluster.

The root directory is the only file or directory that is not linked to via a directory entry. The starting cluster for the root directory is instead recorded in the EBPB. From there, the location of all other files can be determined.

For historical reasons, every physical directory entry can be interpreted in two different ways. The attributes field of an entry is overloaded to indicate which way an entry should be interpreted. An entry is either:

  • A regular directory entry.
  • A long file name entry.

Long file name (LFN) entries were added to FAT32 to allow for filenames greater than 11 characters in length. If an entry has a name greater than 11 characters in length, then its regular directory entry is preceded by as many LFN entries as needed to store the bytes for the entry’s name. LFN entries are not ordered physically. Instead, they contain a field that indicates their sequence. As such, you cannot rely on the physical order of LFN entries to determine how the individual components are joined together.

Wrap Up

Before continuing, cross-reference your understanding with the FAT structures PDF. Then, answer the following questions:

mbr-magic

How do you determine if the first sector is an MBR?

The first sector of a disk may not necessarily contain an MBR. How would you determine if the first sector contains a valid MBR?

max-clusters

What is the maximum number of FAT32 clusters?

The FAT32 design enjoins several file limitations. What is the maximum number of clusters that a FAT32 file system can contain, and what dictates this limitation? Would you expect this limitation to be the same or different in a file system named FAT16?

max-file-size

What is the maximum size of one file?

Is there a limit to the size of a file? If so, what is the maximum size, in bytes, of a file, and what determines it?

Hint: Take a close look at the structure of a directory entry.

lfn-identity

How do you determine if an entry is an LFN?

Given the bytes for a directory entry, how, precisely, do you determine whether the entry is an LFN entry or a regular directory entry? Be specific about which bytes you read and what their values should be.

manual-lookup

How would you lookup /a/b/c.txt?

Given an EBPB, describe the series of steps you would take to find the starting cluster for the file /a/b/c.txt.


Code Structure

Writing a file system of any kind is a serious undertaking, and a read-only FAT32 file system is no exception. The code that we’ve provided for you in the 2-fs/fat32 Cargo project provides a basic structure for implementation, but many of the design decisions and the majority of the implementation are up to you.

We’ll describe this structure now. You should read the relevant code in the fat32/src directory as we describe the various components and how they fit together.

File System Traits

The traits module, rooted at traits/mod.rs, provides 7 trait declarations and 1 struct declaration. Your file system implementation will largely be centered on implementing these seven traits.

The single struct, Dummy, is a type that provides a dummy implementation of five of the seven traits. The type is useful as a place-holder. You’ll see that we’ve used this type already in several places in the code. You may find this type useful while you work on the assignment as well.

You should read the code in the traits/ directory in the following order:

  • Read the BlockDevice trait documentation in traits/block_device.rs.

    The file system will be written generic to the physical or virtual backing storage. In other words, the file system will work on any device as long as the device implements the BlockDevice trait. When we test your file system, the BlockDevice will generally be backed by a file on your local file system. When your run the file system on the Raspberry Pi, the BlockDevice will be backed by a physical SD card and EMMC controller.

  • Read the File, Dir, and Entry traits in traits/fs.rs.

    These traits define what it (minimally) means to be a file, directory, or directory entry in the file system. You’ll notice that the associated types of the trait depend on each other. For example, the Entry trait requires its associated type File to implement the File trait.

  • Read the FileSystem traits in traits/fs.rs.

    This trait defines what it means to be a file system and unifies the rest of the traits through its associated types. In particular, it requires a File that implements the File trait, a Dir that implements the Dir trait whose Entry associated type is the same as the associated type of file system’s Entry associated type, and finally an Entry associated type that implements Entry with the same File and Dir associated types as the file system. These constraints together ensure that there is only one concrete File, Dir, and Entry type.

  • Read the Metadata and Timestamp traits in traits/metadata.rs.

    Every Entry must be associated with Metadata which allows access to details about a file or directory. The Timestamp trait defines the operations requires by a type that specifies a point in time.

Cached Device

Because accessing a disk directly is very expensive, all disk accesses will be performed on cached sectors. The CachedDevice struct in vfat/cache.rs provides both transparent and explicit access to a sector cache. It wraps any BlockDevice and caches sectors in a HashMap keyed by the sector number. Once you implement it, it can be used transparently as a caching BlockDevice. Alternatively, the get() and get_mut() methods allow for a sector to be referenced from the cache directly.

The CachedDevice structure should also take care to map logical sectors, as specified by the EBPB, to physical sectors, as specified by the disk. We have provided an implementation of a method that does exactly this: virtual_to_physical(). You should use this method when determining which and how many physical sectors to read from the disk.

Utilities

The util.rs file contains two declarations and implementations of extension traits for slices (&[T]) and vectors (Vec<T>). These traits can be used to cast a vector or slice of one type into a vector or slice of another type as long as certain conditions hold on the two types. For instance, to cast from an &[u32] to an &[u8], you might write:

use util::SliceExt;

let x: &[u32] = &[1, 2, 3, 4];
assert_eq!(x.len(), 4);

let y: &[u8] = unsafe { x.cast() };
assert_eq!(y.len(), 16);
MBR and EBPB

The MasterBootRecord structure in mbr.rs is responsible for reading and parsing an MBR from a BlockDevice. Similarly, the BiosParameterBlock structure in vfat/ebpb.rs is responsible for reading and parsing the BPB and EBPB of a FAT32 partition.

Shared

The Shared<T> struct in vfat/shared.rs can be used to safely share mutable access to a value of type T. When implementing your file system, you’ll likely need to share mutably access to the file system itself among your file and directory structures. You’ll use this type to do so. Ensure you understand how to use a value of type Shared<T> before continuing.

File System

The vfat/vfat.rs file contains the VFat structure, the file system itself. You’ll note that the structure contains a CachedDevice: your implementation must wrap the provided BlockDevice in a CachedDevice.

What is VFAT?

VFAT is another file system from Microsoft that is a precursor to FAT32. The name has unfortunately become synonymous with FAT32, and we continue this poor tradition here.

We’ve started an implementation of the FileSystem trait for &Shared<VFat> already. You’ll also note that the from() method of FileSystem returns a Shared<VFat>. Your main task will be to complete the implementation of the from() method and of the FileSystem trait for &Shared<VFat>. This will require you to implement structures that implement the remainder of the file system traits.

We’ve provided the following code in vfat/ to assist you with this:

  • error.rs

    Contains an Error enum indicating the possible FAT32 initialization errors.

  • file.rs

    Contains an incomplete File struct with an incomplete traits::File implementation.

  • dir.rs

    Contains an incomplete Dir struct which you will implement trait::Dir for. Also contains incomplete definitions for raw, on-disk directory entry structures.

  • entry.rs

    Contains an incomplete Entry struct which you will implement traits::Entry for.

  • metadata.rs

    Contains structures (Date, Time, Attributes) that map to raw, on-disk entry metadata as well as incomplete structures (Timestamp, Metadata) which you should implement the appropriate file system traits for.

  • fat.rs

    Contains the FatEntry structure which wraps a value for a FAT entry and which can be used to easily read the status of the cluster corresponding to the FAT entry.

  • cluster.rs

    Contains the Cluster structure which wraps a raw cluster number and can be used to read the logical cluster number.

When you implement your file system, you should complete and use each of these structures and types. Don’t be afraid to add extra helper methods to any of these structure. Do not, however, change any of the trait definitions or existing method signatures that we have provided for you.

Read through all of the code now, starting with vfat.rs, and ensure you understand how everything fits together.


Implementation

You’re now ready to implement a read-only FAT32 file system. You may approach the implementation in any order you see fit.

Ensure your skeletons are up-to-date!

Ensure your skeletons are up-to-date by committing or discarding any changes and pulling the latest 2-fs and os skeletons with git pull.

We have provided a somewhat rigorous set of tests to check your implementation. Prior to running the tests, run make clean && make fetch in the 2-fs directory. This will download and extract test resources to 2-fs/files/resources/ which are used by the unit tests. In this directory you will find several real MBR, EBPB, and FAT32 file system images as well as hash values for file system traversals as run against our reference implementation. You may find it useful to analyze and check your understanding again the raw binaries by using a hex editor such as Bless on Linux and Hex Fiend on Mac.

You can run the tests with cargo test. While debugging, you may wish to run the tests with cargo test -- --nocapture to prevent Cargo from capturing output to stdout or stderr. You may also find it useful to add new tests as you progress. To prevent future merge conflicts, you should add new tests in a file different from tests.rs.

Your implementation should adhere to the following guidelines:

  • Use meaningful types where you can.

    For instance, instead of using a u16 to represent a raw time field, use the Time struct.

  • Avoid unsafe code as much as possible.

    Our implementation uses a total of four non-union lines of unsafe. Additionally, our implementation uses three lines of unsafe related to accessing unions. Your implementation should use no more than these.

  • Avoid duplication by using helpers methods as necessary.

    It’s often useful to abstract common behavior into helper methods. You should do so when it makes sense.

  • Ensure your implementation is cluster size and sector size agnostic.

    Do not hard-code or assume any particular values for sector sizes or cluster sizes. Your implementation must function with any cluster and sector sizes that are integer multiples of 512 as recorded in the EBPB.

  • Don’t double buffer unnecessarily.

    Ensure that you don’t read a sector into memory that is already held in the sector cache to conserve memory.

Our recommended implementation approach is as follows:

  1. Implement MBR parsing in mbr.rs.

    Your implementation will likely require the use of an unsafe method, but no more than one line. Possible candidates are slice::from_raw_parts_mut() or mem::transmute(). mem::transmute() is an incredibly powerful method. You should avoid it if you can. Otherwise, you should understand its implications thoroughly before using it.

    When you implement Debug, use the debug_struct() method on Formatter. You can use the Debug implementation we have provided for CachedDevice as a reference.

  2. Implement EBPB parsing in vfat/ebpb.rs.

    As with the MBR, your implementation will likely require the use of an unsafe method, but no more than one line.

  3. Test your MBR and EBPB implementation.

    Mock-up MBRs and EBPBs and ensure that you parse the values successfully. Note that we have provided an implementation of BlockDevice for Cursor<&mut [u8]>. Remember that you can pretty-print a structure using:

     println!("{:#?}", x);
  4. Implement CachedDevice in vfat/cached.rs.

  5. Implement VFat::from() in vfat/vfat.rs.

    Use your MasterBootRecord, BiosParameterBlock, and CachedDevice implementations to implement VFat::from(). Test your implementation as you did your MBR and EBPB implementations.

  6. Implement FatEntry in vfat/fat.rs.

  7. Implement VFat::fat_entry, VFat::read_cluster(), and VFat::read_chain().

    These helpers methods abstract reading from a Cluster or a chain starting from a Cluster into a buffer. You’ll likely need other helper methods, like one to calculate the disk sector from a cluster number, to implement these methods. You may wish to add helper methods to the Cluster type. You should use the VFat::fat_entry() method when implementing read_cluster() and read_chain().

  8. Complete the vfat/metadata.rs file.

    The Date, Time, and Attributes types should map directly to fields in the on-disk directory entry. Refer to the FAT structures PDF when implementing them. The Timestamp and Metadata types do not have an analogous on-disk structure, but they serve as nicer abstractions over the raw, on-disk structures and will be useful when implementing the Entry, File, and Dir traits.

  9. Implement Dir in vfat/dir.rs and Entry in vfat/entry.rs.

    Start by adding fields that store the directory’s first Cluster and a Shared<VFat> to Dir. Then implement the trait::Dir trait for Dir. You may wish to provide dummy trait implementations for the File type in vfat/file.rs while implementing Dir. You’ll want to create a secondary struct that implements Iterator<Item = Entry> and return this struct from your entries() method. You will likely need to use at-most one line of unsafe when implementing entries(); you may find the VecExt and SliceExt trait implementations we have provided particularly useful here. Note that you will frequently need to refer to the FAT structures PDF while implementing Dir.

    Parsing an Entry

    Because the on-disk entry may be either an LFN entry or a regular entry, you must use a union to represent an on-disk entry. We have provided such a union for you: VFatDirEntry. You can read about unions in Rust in the Rust reference and about unions in general in the union type Wikipedia entry.

    You should first interpret a directory entry as an unknown entry, use that structure to determine whether there is an entry, and if so, the true kind of entry, and finally interpret the entry as that structure. Working with unions will require using unsafe. Do so sparingly. Our implementation uses one line of unsafe three times, one to access each variant.

    When parsing a directory entry’s name, you must manually add a . to the non-LFN based directory entries to demarcate the file’s extension. You should only add a . if the file’s extension is non-empty.

    Finally, you’ll need to decode UTF-16 characters when parsing LFN entries. Use the decode_utf16() function to do so. You will find it useful to store UTF-16 characters in one or more Vec<u16> while parsing a long filename.

    Dir::find()

    You should implement Dir::find() after you implement the traits::Dir trait for Dir. Note that Dir::find() must be case-insensitive. Your implementation should be relatively short. You can use the eq_ignore_ascii_case() method to perform case-insensitive comparisons.

  10. Implement File in vfat/file.rs.

    Start by adding a fields that store the file’s first Cluster and a Shared<VFat> to Dir. Then implement the trait::File trait and any required supertraits. Modify the iterator you return from entries() as necessary.

  11. Implement VFat::open() in vfat/vfat.rs.

    Finally, implement the VFat::open() method. Use the components() method to iterate over a Path’s components. Note that the Path implementation we have provided for you in the std library does not contain any of the methods that require a file system. These include read_dir(), is_file(), is_dir(), and others.

    Use your Dir::find() method in your implementation. Your VFat::open() implementation should be short: ours is a total of 17 lines. You may find it useful to add a helper method to Dir.

Once your implementation passes all of the unit tests and works as you expect, you may once again revel; you have implemented a real file system! After sufficient reveling, proceed to the next phase.


Phase 3: Saddle Up

In this phase, you will interface with an existing SD card controller driver for the Raspberry Pi 3 using Rust’s foreign function interface, or FFI. You can read more about Rust’s FFI in TRPL. You will also create a global handle the file system for your operating system to use. You will be working primarily in os/kernel/src/fs.


Subphase A: SD Driver FFI

Rust’s foreign function interface allows Rust code to interact with software written in other programming languages and vice-versa. Foreign items are declared in an extern block:

extern {
    static outside_global: u32;
    fn outside_function(param: i16) -> i32;
}

This declares an external outside_function as well as an outside_global. The function and global be used as follows:

unsafe {
    let y = outside_function(10);
    let global = outside_global;
}

Note the required use of unsafe. Rust requires the use of unsafe because it cannot ensure that the signatures you have specified are correct. The Rust compiler will blindly emit function calls and variable reads as requested. In other words, as with every other use of unsafe, the compiler assumes that what you’ve done is correct. At link-time, symbols named outside_function and outside_global must exist for the program to successfully link.

For a Rust function to be called from a foreign program, the function’s location (its memory address) must be exported with a known symbol. Typically, Rust mangles function symbols for versioning and namespacing reasons in an unspecified manner. As such, by default, it is not possible to know the symbol that Rust will generate for a given function and thus not possible to call that function from an external program. To prevent Rust from mangling symbols, you can use the #[no_mangle] attribute:

#[no_mangle]
fn call_me_maybe(ptr: *mut u8) { .. }

A C program would then be able to call this function as follows:

void call_me_maybe(unsigned char *);

call_me_maybe(...);
foreign-safety

Why can’t Rust ensure that using foreign code is safe?

Explain why Rust cannot ensure that using foreign code is safe. In particular, explain why Rust can ensure that other Rust code is safe, even when it lives outside of the current crate, but it cannot do the same for non-Rust code.

mangling

Why does Rust mangle symbols?

C does not mangle symbols. C++ and Rust, on the other hand, do. What’s different about these languages that necessitates name mangling? Provide a concrete example of what would go wrong if Rust didn’t name mangle.

SD Driver

We have provided a precompiled SD card driver library in os/kernel/ext/libsd.a. We’ve also modified the build process so that the library is linked into the kernel. We’ve provided the definitions for the items exported from the library in an extern block in os/kernel/src/sd.rs.

The library depends on a wait_micros function which it expects to find in your kernel. The function should sleep for the number of microseconds passed in. You will need to create and export this function for your kernel to successfully link. The C signature for the function is:

/*
 * Sleep for `us` microseconds.
 */
void wait_micros(unsigned int us);

Your task is to wrap the unsafe external API in a safe, Rusty API. Implement an Sd struct that initializes the SD card controller in its new() method. Then, implement the BlockDevice trait for Sd. You will need to use unsafe to interact with the foreign items. Test your implementation by manually reading the card’s MBR in kmain. Ensure that the bytes read match what you expect. When everything works as expected, proceed to the next subphase.

Hint: On 64-bit ARM, an unsigned int in C is a u32 in Rust.

foreign-sync

Is your implementation thread-safe?

The precompiled SD driver we’ve provided you uses a global variable (sd_err) to keep track of error states without any kind of synchronization. As such, it has no hope of being thread-safe. How does this affect the correctness of your bindings? Recall that you must uphold Rust’s data race guarantees in any unsafe code. Are your binding thread-safe as required? Why or why not?

Hint: They probably are! (If not, they should be.) What makes them so?


Subphase B: File System

In this subphase you will expose and initialize a global file system for use by your kernel. You will be working primarily in kernel/src/fs/mod.rs.

Like the memory allocator, the file system is a global resource: we want it to always be available so that we can access the data on the disk at any point. To enable this, we’ve created a global static FILE_SYSTEM: FileSystem in kernel/src/kmain.rs; it will serve as the global handle to your file system. Like the allocator, the file system begins uninitialized.

Tying the Knot

You’ve now implemented both a disk driver and a file system: it’s time to tie them together. Finish the implementation of the FileSystem struct in kernel/src/fs/mod.rs by using your FAT32 file-system and your Rusty bindings to the foreign SD card driver. You should initialize your file-system using the Sd BlockDevice in the initialize() function. Then, implement the FileSystem trait for the structure, deferring all calls to the internal VFat. Finally, ensure that you initialize the file system in kmain, just after the allocator.

Test your implementation by printing the files at the root ("/") of your SD card in kmain. Once everything works as your expect, proceed to the next phase.


Phase 4: Mo’sh

In this phase, you will implement the cd, ls, pwd, and cat shell commands. You will be working primarily in os/kernel/src/shell.rs.

'Finished' Product
'Finished' Product

Working Directory

You’re likely familiar with the notion of a working directory already. The current working directory (or cwd) is the directory under which relative file accesses are rooted under. For example, if the cwd is /a, then accessing hello will result in accessing the file /a/hello. If the cwd is switched to /a/b/c, accessing hello will access /a/b/c/hello, and so on. The / character can be prepended to any path to make it absolute so that it is not relative to the current working directory. As such, /hello will always refer to the file named hello in the root directory regardless of the current working directory.

In a shell, the current working directory can be changed to dir with the cd <dir> command. For example, running cd /hello/there will change the cwd to /hello/there. Running cd you after this will result in the cwd being /hello/there/you.

Most operating systems provide a system call that changes a process’s working directory. Because our operating system has neither processes nor system calls yet, you’ll be keeping track of the cwd directly in the shell.

Commands

You will implement four commands that expose expose the file system through your operating system’s primary interface: the shell. These are cd, ls, pwd, and cat. For the purposes of this assignment, they are specified as follows:

  • pwd - print the working directory

    Prints the full path of the current working directory.

  • cd <directory> - change (working) directory

    Changes the current working directory to directory. The directory argument is required.

  • ls [-a] [directory] - list the files in a directory

    Lists the entries of a directory. Both -a and directory are optional arguments. If -a is passed in, hidden files are displayed. Otherwise, hidden files are not displayed. If directory is not passed in, the entries in the current working directory are displayed. Otherwise, the entries in directory are displayed. The arguments may be used together, but -a must be provided before directory.

    Invalid arguments results in an error. It is also an error if directory does not correspond to a valid, existing directory.

  • cat <path..> - concatenate files

    Prints the contents of the files at the provided paths, one after the other. At least one path argument is required.

    It is an error if a path does not point to a valid, existing file. It is an error if an otherwise valid file contains invalid UTF-8.

All non-absolute paths must be must be treated as relative to the current working directory if they are not absolute. For an example of these commands in action, see the GIF above. When you implement these commands yourself, you are free to display directory entries and errors in any way that you’d like as long as all of the information is present.

Implementation

Extend your shell in os/kernel/src/shell.rs with these four commands. Use a mutable PathBuf to keep track of the current working directory; this PathBuf should be modified by the cd command. You will find it useful to create functions with a common signature for each of your commands. For an extra level of type-safety, you can abstract the concept of an executable command into a trait that is implemented for each of your commands.

Once you have implemented, tested, and verified your four commands against the specifications above, you’re ready to submit your assignment. Congratulations!

Ensure you’re using your bin allocator!

Your file system is likely very memory intensive. To avoid running out of memory, ensure you’re using your bin allocator.

Hint: Use the existing methods of PathBuf and Path to your advantage.

Hint: You’ll need to handle .. and . specially in cd.


Submission

Once you’ve completed the tasks above, you’re done and ready to submit! Congratulations!

Before submitting, check that you are using the latest skeletons by committing or discarding any changes and pulling the latest 2-fs and os skeletons with git pull. We have added unit tests as new material was released. Your code should pass these unit tests as well.

From inside of the 2-fs assignment 2 skeleton directory, you can call make check to check if you’ve answered every question and make test to run the unit tests for code in 2-fs and os. Note that there are no unit tests for some tasks in os. You’re responsible for ensuring that they work as expected.

When you’re ready, commit your changes. Any uncommitted changes will not be submitted with your assignment. Then, run make submission from the 2-fs directory and proceed to the submission page to upload your submission.