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Figure References

Figure 1. Linguatula serrata.

Figure 2. An early sketch of Linguatula serrata showing its distinctive characteristics: (a) anterior extremity; (b) posterior extremity; (i) intestine; (v) utero-vagina (Sambon, 1922).

Figure 3. Linguatula serrata nymph spines. The arrow designates the ring measurement; the arrowhead designates the spine measurement. Bar = 60.2 microns (adapted from Lazo et al., 1999).

Figure 4. Schematic drawing of the mouth and four hooks on the anterior extremity of nymphal Linguatula serrata (Ma et al., 2002).

Figure 5. "Life cycle of Linguatula serrata (1) Adults live in the nose of dogs (and rarely of man). (2) Embryonated eggs are set free via nasal mucus and/or feces. The thin outer is left out in drawings, since it disappears soon. (3) If intermediate hosts swallow eggs, the four-legged primary larva hatches and migrates via blood vessels to the inner organs. Humans may also become accidental intermediate hosts. (4-11) Larval stages 211 are included in a capsule of host origin and grow after molts. When final hosts ingest raw (or uncooked) meat of intermediate hosts, the adult stages develop inside the nasal tract. Infected humans suffer from the AN, annuli; B, EX, extremity with a claw; MK, mouth hooks; IN, intestine; LA, primary larva; M, mouth; SH, inner eggshell; TH, thorns" (Mehlhorn, 2004).

Figure 6. Photograph of ocular linguatulosis. The arrow shows the Linguatula serrata larva (Lazo et al., 1999).

Figure 7. Schematic drawings of various linguatulid hooks (adapted from Sambon, 1922).

Scott Ritter © 2006