REFERENCES

1. “The Disease and Its Epidemiology.” World Health Organization. 2007. http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/disease_epidemiology/en/print.html.

2. “Magnitude of the Problem.” World Health Organization. 2007. http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/burden/magnitude/burden_magnitude/en/print.html.

3. “Disease Watch: Focus-Leishmaniasis.” Nature Reviews: Microbiology. Sept 2004:

692-693.

4. Crum, Nancy, et al. History of US Military Contributions to the Study of Parasitic Diseases. Military Medicine 2005;170:17-29

5. LTC Glenn Wortmann. Chief of Infectious Disease, Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Phone Interview. May 23, 2007.

6. “Fact Sheet: Leishmania Infection.” Center for Disease Control. 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/leishmania/factsht_leishmania.htm#Top.

7. Repaci, Paul. "Information Paper: Leishmaniasis and Other Parasitic

Diseases among OIF/OEF Soldiers." Deployment Health Clinical Center.

29 Mar 2006. www.pdhealth.mil/downloads/Leish10Dec03.pdf. Accessed 13 May 2007.

8. “Iraq: Health Officials Fear Leishmaniasis Epidemic.” IRIN 5 Apr 2005. http://www.health-now.org/site/printfriendly.php?articleld=434&menuld=14.

9. Desjexu, P. “The Increase in Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis Worldwide.” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 95. (2001): 239-243.

10. USACHPPM. Just the Facts…Leishmaniasis. March 2007. http://usachppm.apgea.army.mil/Documents/FACT/18-008-0307_Leishmaniasis.pdf Accessed on 13 May 2007.

11. “Strategic Direction for Research: Leishmaniasis” Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Feb 2002. http://www.who.int/tdr.

12. Aronson, Naomi, et al. In Harm’s Way: Infections in Deployed American Military Forces. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2006; 43:1045-51

13. Weina, Peter, et al. Old World Leishmaniasis: An Emerging Infection among Deployed US Military and Civilian Workers. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004;39:1674-80

14. Deployment Health Clinical Center. Leishmaniasis Information for Clinicians Fact Sheet. 21 June 04. http://www.pdhealth.mil/downloads/Leishmaniasis_Clinicians_06212004_Uploaded_05112005.pdf. Accessed 18 May 2007.

15. Robb, Douglas. CENTCOM Policy on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Diagnosis and Treatment. 15 November 2004. http://www.pdhealth.mil/downloads/CENTCOM_Leish_Policy_15Nov04.pdf. Accessed on 13 May 2007.

16. “Urbanization: An Increasing Risk Factor for Leishmaniasis.” Weekly Epidemiological Record. Nov 2002: 365-372.

17. Birsel, Robert. “Disfiguring Skin Disease Plagues Afghanistan.” Reuters. 7 May 2007. http://search.us.reuters.com/rsearch/rcomSearch.do?blob=disfiguring%20skin%20disease%20plagues%20afghanistan&WTmodLoc=ussrch-top-quote.

18. Reithinger, Richard, Mohammad Mohsen, Khoksar Aadil, Majeed Sidiqi, Panna

Erasmus, and Paul G. Coleman. “Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Kabul Afghanistan.” Emerging Infectious Diseases. June 2003: 727-729.

19. Burkle, Frederick M. “Integrating International Responses to Complex Emergencies,

Unconventional War, and Terrorism.” Critical Care Medicine. 33.1. (2005): S7-S12.

20. “Evaluation of UNICEF Emergency Preparedness and Early Response in Iraq (Septmeber 2001-June 2003).” United Nations Children’s Fund. Oct 2004.

21. “World Health Organization: Iraq: Progress Report June 9th 2003.” World Health Organization. 9 Jun 2003.

22. “Support for Iraqi Health Care.” Department for International Development. Great Britain. 17 Apr 2007. http://www.dfid.gov.uk/countries/asia/Iraq-healthcare.asp.

23. Iraq. Ministry of Health and WHO Iraq. Integrated Control of Communicable Diseases in Iraq. (2005).

24. Iraq. Ministry of Health. “Priority Project #3: National Disease Surveillance Infrastructure.”

25. Coleman, Russell, et al. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. Background, Military Situation, and Development of a “Leishmaniasis Control Program”. Journal of Medical Entomology 2006;43(4):647-662.

FIGURE CITATIONS

Figure 1. World Health Organization. Distribution of Old World and New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Essential Leishmaniasis Maps. http://www.who.int/leishmaniasis/leishmaniasis_maps/en/index.html

Figure 2. Center for Disease Control. Leishmaniasis Life Cycle. Parasites and Health

Public Information Fact Sheet: Leishmaniasis Life Cycle http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Leishmaniasis.htm

Figure 3. World Health Organization. This is a female Phlebotomus sp. sandfly, a vector of the parasite responsible for Leishmaniasis. GIDEON Informatics, Inc.

Figure 4. Colemn, Russell, et al. “Typical sand fly bites acquired during a single night”. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on US Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. Background, Military Situation, and Development of a “Leishmaniasis Control Program”. Journal of Medical Entomology 2006;43(4):651.

Figure 5. Bates, Paul. “Shabby Dog Story.” Research Intelligence. Nov 2003: 7. http://www.liv.ac.uk/researchintelligence/issue18/pdf/ri18p7.pdf

Figure 6. Martin, D.S. Skin Ulcer Due to Leishmaniasis, Hand of Central American Adult. GIDEON Informatics, Inc.

Figure 7. Keystone, Dr. Jay. Leishmaniasis-mucocutaneous. GIDEON Informatics, Inc.


Figure 8. Ulrich, Nina. Visceral leishmaniasis. “Antimony.” Chemical & Engineering News. (2003). http://pubs.acs.org/cen/80th/antimony.html

Figure 9. USACHPPM Pocket Card – Defend Yourself Against Sand Flies Card. http://chppm-www.apgea.army.mil/news/Leishmaniasis_files/DefendYourselfAgainstSandFliesCard.pdf

Figure 10. Afghanistan Embassy, Washington. Afghanistan Photos- Kabul. http://www.theodora.com/wfb/photos/afghanistan/afghanistan_photos_10.html

Figure 11. “Baghdad: Suicide car bomb kills 30 outside Iraqi hospital as US troops distribute gifts.” News From Russia. 24 Nov 2005. http://newsfromrussia.com/accidents/2005/11/24/68444.html

Figure 12. Iraq. Ministry of Health and WHO Iraq. Integrated Control of Communicable Diseases in Iraq. (2005).

 


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