picture of Timothy Lenoir Timothy Lenoir

Work in Progress


Making Biology an Information Science. Development of heterogeneous book-web publication on the introduction of computing into biomedicine, 1960s-present, with a special focus on the development of computational chemistry, molecular graphics, bioinformatics, and applications of virtual reality in medicine. Three papers have been published from this project ("Virtual Reality Comes of Age," "Shaping Biomedicine as an Information Science," "The Virtual Surgeon").

Inventing the Entrepreneurial Region: Stanford and the Co-Evolution of Silicon Valley. Collaborative book project with Nathan Rosenberg, Henry Rowen, Christoph Lecuyer, Jeannette Colyvas, and Brent Goldfarb. Manuscript to be sent to press in August 2004.

Selected Publications since 1997

Edited Volume:

Makeover: Writing the Body into the Posthuman Technoscape, Two-Part Special Issue of Configurations, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003-2004.Part 1: Configurations, Vol. 10, Number 2, Spring 2002; Part 2: Configurations, Vol 10, Number 3, Fall 2002.


1. "Makeover: Writing the Body into the Posthuman Technoscape. Part One: Embracing the Posthuman," in Timothy Lenoir, ed., Makeover: Writing the Body into the Posthuman Technoscape, Two-Part Special Issue of Configurations, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003-2004, Part I, Configurations, Vol 10, Number 2, Spring 2002, pp. 203-220.

2. "Makeover: Writing the Body into the Posthuman Technoscape. Part Two: Corporeal Axiomatics," in Timothy Lenoir, ed., Makeover: Writing the Body into the Posthuman Technoscape, Two-Part Special Issue of Configurations, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003-2004, Part 2, Configurations, Vol 10, Number 3, Fall 2002, pp. 373-385.

3. "Haptic Vision: Computation, Media, and Embodiment in Mark Hansen's New Phenomenology," Foreward to Mark Hansen, New Philosophy for New Media, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004, pp. xiii-xviii.

4. "Flow, Process, Fold: Intersections in Bioinformatics and Contemporary Architecture," in Antoine Picon and Alessandra Ponte, eds., Science, Metaphor, and Architecture, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003, pp. 314-353.

5. "Programming Theaters of War: Gamemakers as Soldiers," in Robert Latham, ed., Bombs and Bandwidth: The Emerging Relationship between IT and Security, New York: New Press, 2003, pp. 175-198.

6. "Fashioning the Military Entertainment Complex," Correspondence: An International Review of Culture and Society, Vol. 10, Winter/Spring, 2002-2003, pp. 14-16.

7. "Authorship and Surgery: The Shifting Ontology of the Virtual Surgeon," in Linda Henderson and Bruce Clarke, From Energy to Information: Representation in Science, Art, and Literature, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002, pp. 283-308.

8. "Science and the Academy in the 21st Century: Does Their Past Have a Future in an Era of Computer-Mediated Networks?" in Wilhelm Vokamp, ed., Ideale Akademie: Vergangene Zukunft oder konkrete Utopie? Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2002, pp. 113-129.

9. "Quantitative Foundations for the Sociology of Science: On Linking Blockmodeling with Co-Citation Analysis," in John Scott, ed., Social Networks: Critical Concepts in Sociology, New York: Routledge, 2002.

10. "The Virtual Surgeon", in Phillip Thurtle, ed., Semiotic Flesh: Information and the Human Body, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2002, pp. 28-51.

11. "Science und Sensibility: Physiologische Aesthetik und die Normalisierung von Geschmack," in Stefan Andriopolous, Gabriele Schabacher, Eckhard Schumacher, eds., Die Addresse des Mediums, Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag, 2001, pp. 212-235.

12. "The Manhattan Project for Biomedicine," in Phillip R. Sloan, ed., Controlling Our Destinies, South Bend, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000, pp. 19-46.

13. "All But War Is Simulation: The Military Entertainment Complex," Configurations, Vol 8 (2000), pp. 238-335.

14. "Reading Darwin Between the Lines," in Jane Kelly Rodeheffer, David Sokolowski, and J. Scott Lee, eds., Core Texts in Conversation, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 2000, pp. 1-12.

15. "Les nouveaux chirurgiens," Les Cahiers de Science & Vie, Vol. No. 53, October 1999, pp. 51-59.

16. "Shaping Biomedicine as an Information Science," Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems, edited by Mary Ellen Bowden, Trudi Bellardo Hahn, and Robert V. Williams. ASIS Monograph Series. (Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc., 1999), pp. 27-45.

17. "Revolution from Above: The Role of the State in Creating the German Research System, 1810-1910," in American Economics Association Papers and Proceedings, Volume 88, No. 2, May 1998, pp. 22-27.

18. Virtual Reality Comes of Age, in Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1999, pp. 226-249.

19. Was That Last Turn A Right Turn? The Semiotic Turn in Science Studies, in Mario Biagioli, ed., The Science Studies Reader, New York: Routledge, 1999, pp. 290-301.

20. Inscription Practices and Materialities of Communication, in Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and the Materialities of Communication, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998, pp. 1-19.

21. Introduction to Instituting Science: The Cultural Production of Scientific Disciplines, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997, pp. 1-21.

Articles in press

1. "The Shape of Things to Come: Surgery in the Age of Medialization," in Lester Friedman, ed., Cultural Sutures: Medicine, Morals and Media, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004 (in press).

2. "Operationalizing Kant: Manifolds, Models, and Mathematics in Helmholtz's Theories of Perception," to appear in Michael Friedman, ed. Kant and the Sciences, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004 (in press)

Selections from earlier monographs and articles:

1. "Kant, Blumenbach, and Vital Materialism in German Biology", Isis, Vol. 71 (No. 256), 1980: pp. 77-108.

2. "The Goettingen School and the Development of Transcendental Naturphilosophie in the Romantic Era," Studies in the History of Biology, Vol. 5, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981: 111-205.

3. "Models and Instruments in the Development of Electrophysiology, 1945-1912," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 17, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987: 1-54.

4. "Eternal Laws of Form: Morphotypes and the Conditions of Existence in Goethe's Biological Thought," Journal of Social and Biological Structures, Vol. 7 (1984): 317-324.

5. "The Eye as Mathematician: Clinical Practice, Instrumentation, and Helmholtz's Construction of an Empiricist Theory of Vision," in David Cahan, ed., Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993: 109-153.

6. "Helmholtz and the Materialities of Communication," in Thomas P. Hankins and Albert van Helden, eds., Instruments and the Production of Scientific Knowledge, special volume of Osiris, Vol. 9 (1994): 184-207.

7. "The Naturalized History Museum," with Cheryl Ross, in Peter Galison and David Stump, eds., The Disunity of Science: Boundaries Context and Power, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996, pp. 370-397.


Exhibitions and Installations

Transgenic Light
Transgenic Light was a collaborative experiment among Tim Lenoir, Nancy Anderson, Ben Dean (Stanford University Digital Art CenteróSUDAC), Casey Alt, and Zach Pogue exploring the aesthetics of images produced using Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). GFP is a bioluminescent molecule naturally produced by the glowing Pacific Northwest jellyfish Aequorea victoria. In the early 1990s scientists began using the protein produced by the GFP gene as a fluorescent reporter molecule for the visualization of intracellular processes in nearly every laboratory organism, including yeast, bacteria, fruit flies, frogs, zebrafish and more. In order to view GFP-tagged protein molecules in organisms, researchers employ a diverse range of technologies, including confocal microscopes coupled with sophisticated digital imaging and modeling systems. In doing so, scientists have engineered these new transgenic organisms as digital media objects right down to the molecular level. Transgenic Light sought to map this rapidly advancing zone of mediation opened up by GFP - a realm that connects several converging strata, including the discursive and the phenomenal, the semiotic and the material, the digital and the organismal, the natural and the artificial, and the scientific and the aesthetic. The installation was on display from 12 June-25 August 2002 at Stanford University's Cantor Center for the Visual Arts

Bang the Machine: Computer Gaming Art and Artifacts
An exhibition designed in collaboration with Henry Lowood from the Stanford Humanities Laboratory How They Got Game project, and Yerba Buena Center for the Arts Visual Arts Curator, Rene DeGuzman, at the San Francisco Yerba Buena Center for the Arts from January 17 through April 4, 2004. The exhibition explored the history and influence of computer game culture and the relationship between interactive computer games and a wide variety of subject areas, from the relationship between computer games and military simulations to contemporary features and cross-fertilization with artistic endeavors. The primary exhibition, entitled Game Scenes, featured an installation on the Institute for Defense Analyses simulation, the Battle of 73 Easting, and the US Army's computer game, America's Army, developed by the MOVES Institute of the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. The exhibition was produced in partnership with the How They Got Game Project of the Stanford Humanities Laboratory, which concurrently presented the exhibit, Fictional Worlds, Virtual Experiences: Storytelling and Computer Games, at the Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University.

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