Benjamin, Walter
  Bismarck, Otto v.
  Brecht, Bertolt
  Celan, Paul
  Döblin, Alfred
  Fontane, Theodor
  Grosz, George
  Grünbein, Durs
  Heartfield, John
  Honigmann, Barbara
  Isherwood, Christopher
  Johnson, Uwe
  Kleist, Heinrich v.
  Kollwitz, Käthe
  Kracauer, Siegfried
  Lang, Fritz
  Lasker-Schüler, Else
  Liebermann, Max
  Liebknecht, Karl
  Luxemburg, Rosa
  Marc, Franz
  Ossietzky, Carl v.
  Riefenstahl, Leni
  Ruttmann, Walther
  Schinkel, Karl Friedrich
  Speer, Albert
  Tieck, Ludwig
  Tucholsky, Kurt
  Ury, Lesser
  Varnhagen, Rahel
  Wenders, Wim


Liebermann, Max

b. July 20, 1847, Berlin
d. Feb. 8, 1935, Berlin

painter and etcher known for his objective studies of the life and labour of the poor and as the leader of the German Impressionist school.

After studying under Steffeck (1866-68), Liebermann attended the Weimar Kunstschule (1868-72). The straightforward realism and direct simplicity of his first exhibited picture, "Women Plucking Geese" (1872; Nationalgalerie, Berlin), presented a striking contrast to the romantically idealized art then in vogue. This picture earned him the epithet "disciple of the ugly." A summer spent at Barbizon in 1873, where he became acquainted with Jean-Francois Millet and studied the works of Corot, Constant Troyon, and Charles-Francois Daubigny, resulted in the brightening of his palette.

"The Flax Spinners" (click on the image to enlarge)

Liebermann returned to Munich in 1878 and finally settled in Berlin in 1884. During this period he found his subjects in the orphanages and asylums for the old in Amsterdam and among the peasants and urban labourers of Germany and The Netherlands (e.g., "The Flax Spinners," 1887). In these works Liebermann did for German art what Millet had done for French painting.

After 1890 Liebermann's style was influenced by French Impressionism--initially by the works of Manet and later by Degas. He became a member (1898) and later president of the Berlin Academy, despite his role as the founder and leader of the Berliner Sezession (1899), a group of artists who supported the academically unpopular styles of Impressionism and Art Nouveau.


"Liebermann, Max" Encyclopædia Britannica Online.