### Bulletin Archive

This archived information is dated to the 2008-09 academic year only and may no longer be current.

**For currently applicable policies and information, see the current Stanford Bulletin.**

This archived information is dated to the 2008-09 academic year only and may no longer be current.

**For currently applicable policies and information, see the current Stanford Bulletin.**

Primarily for graduate students; undergraduates may enroll with consent of instructor.

PHYSICS 152B. Introduction to Particle Physics II

(Same as PHYSICS 252B.) Discoveries and observations in experimental particle physics and relation to theoretical developments. Asymptotic freedom. Charged and neutral weak interactions. Electroweak unification. Weak isospin. Gauge theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism. Quark and lepton mixing. CP violation. Neutrino oscillations. Prerequisites: 152 or 152A, 130, 131.

3 units, Spr (Dixon, L)

PHYSICS 210. Advanced Particle Mechanics

The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics of particles. Beyond small oscillations. Phase portraits, Hamilton-Jacoby theory, action-angle variables, adiabatic invariance. Nonlinear dynamical systems, continuous and discrete. Behavior near the fixed points, stability of solutions, attractors, chaotic motion. Transition to continuum mechanics. Prerequisite: 110 or equivalent.

3 units, Aut (Kahn, S)

PHYSICS 211. Continuum Mechanics

Elasticity, fluids, turbulence, waves, gas dynamics, shocks, and MHD plasmas. Examples from everyday phenomena, geophysics, and astrophysics.

3 units, Win (Peskin, M)

PHYSICS 212. Statistical Mechanics

Principles, ensembles, statistical equilibrium. Thermodynamic functions, ideal and near-ideal gases. Fluctuations. Mean-field description of phase-transitions and associated critical exponents. One-dimensional Ising model and other exact solutions. Renormalization and scaling relations. Prerequisites: 130, 131, 171, or equivalents.

3 units, Spr (Susskind, L)

PHYSICS 216. Back of the Envelope Physics

Techniques such as scaling and dimensional analysis, useful to make order-of-magnitude estimates of physical effects in different settings. Goals is to promote a synthesis of physics through solving problems, some not included in a standard curriculum. Applications include properties of materials, fluid mechanics, geophysics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Prerequisites: undergraduate mechanics, statistical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and quantum mechanics.

3 units, Aut (Madejski, G)

PHYSICS 220. Classical Electrodynamics

Electrostatics and magnetostatics: conductors and dielectrics, magnetic media, electric and magnetic forces, and energy. Maxwell's equations: electromagnetic waves, Poynting's theorem, electromagnetic properties of matter, dispersion relations, wave guides and cavities, magnetohydrodynamics. Special relativity: Lorentz transformations, covariant, equations of electrodynamics and mechanics, Lagrangian formulation, Noether's theorem and conservation laws. Radiation: dipole and quadrupole radiation, electromagnetic scattering and diffraction, the optical theorem, Liénard-Wiechert potentials, relativistic Larmor's formula, frequency and angular distribution of radiation, synchrotron radiation. Energy losses in matter: Bohr's formula, Cherenkov radiation, bremsstrahlung and screening effects, transition radiation. Prerequisites: 121, 210, or equivalents; MATH 106 and 132.

3 units, Win (Tantawi, S)

PHYSICS 221. Classical Electrodynamics

Electrostatics and magnetostatics: conductors and dielectrics, magnetic media, electric and magnetic forces, and energy. Maxwell's equations: electromagnetic waves, Poynting's theorem, electromagnetic properties of matter, dispersion relations, wave guides and cavities, magnetohydrodynamics. Special relativity: Lorentz transformations, covariant, equations of electrodynamics and mechanics, Lagrangian formulation, Noether's theorem and conservation laws. Radiation: dipole and quadrupole radiation, electromagnetic scattering and diffraction, the optical theorem, Liénard-Wiechert potentials, relativistic Larmor's formula, frequency and angular distribution of radiation, synchrotron radiation. Energy losses in matter: Bohr's formula, Cherenkov radiation, bremsstrahlung and screening effects, transition radiation. Prerequisites: 121 or equivalent; MATH 106 and 132, or PHYSICS 210 .

3 units, Spr (Tantawi, S)

PHYSICS 230. Quantum Mechanics

Fundamental concepts. Introduction to Hilbert spaces and Dirac's notation. Postulates applied to simple systems, including those with periodic structure. Symmetry operations and gauge transformation. The path integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics. Problems related to measurement theory. The quantum theory of angular momenta and central potential problems. Prerequisite: 131 or equivalent.

3 units, Aut (Shenker, S)

PHYSICS 231. Quantum Mechanics

Basis for higher level courses on atomic solid state and particle physics. Wigner-Eckart theorem and addition of angular momenta. Approximation methods for time-independent and time-dependent perturbations. Semiclassical and quantum theory of radiation, second quantization of radiation and matter fields. Systems of identical particles and many electron atoms and molecules. Prerequisite: 230.

3 units, Win (Shenker, S)

PHYSICS 232. Quantum Mechanics

Special topics. Elementary excitations in solids (the free electron gas, electronic band structure, phonons). Elementary scattering theory (Born approximation, partial wave analyses, resonance scattering). Relativistic single-particle equations. Dirac equation applied to central potentials, relativistic corrections, and nonrelativistic limits.

3 units, Spr (Dimopoulos, S)

PHYSICS 252A. Introduction to Particle Physics I

(Same as PHYSICS 152A.) Elementary particles and the fundamental forces. Quarks and leptons. The mediators of the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. Interaction of particles with matter, particle acceleration, and detection techniques. Symmetries and conservation laws. Bound states. Decay rates. Cross sections. Feynman diagrams. Introduction to Feynman integrals. The Dirac equation. Feynman rules for quantum electrodynamics and for chromodynamics. Prerequisite: 130. Pre- or corequisite: 131.

4 units, Win (Dixon, L)

PHYSICS 252B. Introduction to Particle Physics II

(Same as PHYSICS 152B.) Discoveries and observations in experimental particle physics and relation to theoretical developments. Asymptotic freedom. Charged and neutral weak interactions. Electroweak unification. Weak isospin. Gauge theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism. Quark and lepton mixing. CP violation. Neutrino oscillations. Prerequisites: 152 or 152A, 130, 131.

3 units, Spr (Dixon, L)

PHYSICS 260. Introduction to Astrophysics and Cosmology

The observed properties and theoretical models of stars, galaxies, and the universe. Physical processes for production of radiation from cosmic sources. Observations of cosmic microwave background radiation. Newtonian and general relativistic models of the universe. Physics of the early universe, nucleosynthesis, baryogenesis, nature of dark matter and dark energy and inflation. Prerequisites: 110, 121, and 171, or equivalents.

3 units, Aut (Petrosian, V)

PHYSICS 262. Introduction to Gravitation

Introduction to general relativity. Curvature, energy-momentum tensor, Einstein field equations. Weak field limit of general relativity. Black holes, relativistic stars, gravitational waves, cosmology. Prerequisite: 121 or equivalent including special relativity.

3 units, Spr (Michelson, P)

PHYSICS 275. Electrons in Nanostructures

The behavior of electrons in metals or semiconductors at length scales below 1 micron, smaller than familiar macroscopic objects but larger than atoms. Ballistic transport, Coulomb blockade, localization, quantum mechanical interference, and persistent currents. Topics may include quantum Hall systems, graphen, spin transport, spin-orbit coupling in nanostructures, magnetic tunnel junctions, Kondo systems, and 1-dimensional systems. Readings focus on the experimental research literature, and recent texts and reviews. Prerequisite: undergraduate quantum mechanics and solid state physics.

3 units, alternate years, not given this year

PHYSICS 290. Research Activities at Stanford

Required of first-year Physics graduate students; suggested for junior or senior Physics majors for 1 unit. Review of research activities in the department and elsewhere at Stanford at a level suitable for entering graduate students.

1-3 units, Aut (Michelson, P)

PHYSICS 291. Practical Training

Opportunity for practical training in industrial labs. Arranged by student with the research adviser's approval. A brief summary of activities is required, approved by the research adviser.

3 units, Aut (Staff), Win (Staff), Spr (Staff), Sum (Staff)

PHYSICS 293. Literature of Physics

Study of the literature of any special topic. Preparation, presentation of reports. If taken under the supervision of a faculty member outside the department, approval of the Physics chair required. Prerequisites: 25 units of college physics, consent of instructor.

1-15 units, Aut (Staff), Win (Staff), Spr (Staff), Sum (Staff)

PHYSICS 294. Teaching of Physics Seminar

Required of teaching assistants in Physics in the year in which they first teach. Techniques of teaching physics by means of weekly seminars, simulated teaching situations, observation of other teachers, and evaluation of in-class teaching performance.

1 unit, Aut (Pam, R)

PHYSICS 301. Astrophysics Laboratory

Seminar/lab. Astronomical observational techniques and physical models of astronomical objects. Observational component uses the 24-inch telescope at the Stanford Observatory and ancillary photometric and spectroscopic instrumentation. Emphasis is on spectroscopic and photometric observation of main sequence, post-main sequence, and variable stars. Term project developing observational equipment or software. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

3 units, Spr (Church, S)

PHYSICS 312. Basic Plasma Physics

For the nonspecialist who needs a working knowledge of plasma physics for space science, astrophysics, fusion, or laser applications. Topics: orbit theory, the Boltzmann equation, fluid equations, MHD waves and instabilities, EM waves, the Vlasov theory of ES waves and instabilities including Landau damping and quasilinear theory, the Fokker-Planck equation, and relaxation processes. Advanced topics in resistive instabilities and particle acceleration. Prerequisite: 210 and 220, or consent of instructor.

3 units, Win (Kosovichev, A)

PHYSICS 321. Laser Spectroscopy

Theoretical concepts and experimental techniques. Absorption, dispersion, Kramers-Kronig relations, line-shapes. Classical and laser linear spectroscopy. Semiclassical theory of laser atom interaction: time-dependent perturbation theory, density matrix, optical Bloch equations, coherent pulse propagation, multiphoton transitions. High-resolution nonlinear laser spectroscopy: saturation spectroscopy, polarization spectroscopy, two-photon and multiphoton spectroscopy, optical Ramsey spectroscopy. Phase conjugation. Four-wave mixing, harmonic generation. Coherent Raman spectroscopy, quantum beats, ultra-sensitive detection. Prerequisite: 230. Recommended: 231.

3 units, Spr (Kasevich, M)

PHYSICS 323. Laser Cooling and Trapping

Principles of laser cooling and atom trapping. Optical forces on atoms, forms of laser cooling, atom optics and atom interferometry, ultra-cold collisions, and introduction to Bose condensation of dilute gases. Emphasis is on the development of the general formalisms that treat these topics. Applications of the cooling and trapping techniques: atomic clocks, internal sensors, measurements that address high-energy physics questions, many-body effects, polymer science, and biology. Prerequisite: 231 or equivalent.

3 units, not given this year

PHYSICS 330. Quantum Field Theory

Quantization of scalar and Dirac fields. Introduction to supersymmetry. Feynman diagrams. Quantum electrodynamics. Elementary electrodynamic processes: Compton scattering; e+e- annihilation. Loop diagrams and electron (g-2). Prerequisites: 130, 131, or equivalents.

3 units, Aut (Kallosh, R)

PHYSICS 331. Quantum Field Theory

Functional integral methods. Local gauge invariance and Yang-Mills fields. Asymptotic freedom. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism. Unified models of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Prerequisite: 330.

3 units, Win (Kallosh, R)

PHYSICS 332. Quantum Field Theory

Theory of renormalization. The renormalization group and applications to the theory of phase transitions. Renormalization of Yang-Mills theories. Applications of the renormalization group of quantum chromodynamics. Perturbation theory anomalies. Applications to particle phenomenology.

3 units, Spr (Wacker, J)

PHYSICS 351. Standard Model of Particle Physics and Beyond

Group theory, symmetries, the standard model of particle physics, gauge hierarchy and the cosmological constant problem as motivations for beyond the standard model, introduction to supersymmetry, technicolor, extra dimension, split SUSY. Corequisite: 230.

3 units, Aut (Dimopoulos, S)

PHYSICS 352. Neutrino Physics

Neutrino masses and mixing. Kinematics tests for neutrino masses. Neutrino interactions, the number of light neutrino species. Solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. Artificial neutrino sources: reactors and particle accelerators. Majorana and Dirac neutrinos. Double-beta decay. Neutrinos in supernovae. Relic neutrinos. Neutrino telescopes. (Vogel)

3 units, not given this year

PHYSICS 360. Physics of Astrophysics

Theoretical concepts and tools for modern astrophysics. Radiation transfer equations; emission, scattering, and absorption mechanisms: Compton, synchrotron and bremsstrahlung processes; photoionization and line emission. Equations of state of ideal, interacting, and degenerate gasses. Application to astrophysical sources such as HII regions, supernova remnants, cluster of galaxies, and compact sources such as accretion disks, X-ray, gamma-ray, and radio sources. Prerequisites: 121, 171 or equivalent.

3 units, Win (Romani, R)

PHYSICS 361. Stellar and Galactic Astrophysics

Astronomical data on stars, star clusters, interstellar medium, and the Milky Way galaxy. Theory of stellar structure; hydrostatic equilibrium, radiation balance, and energy production. Stellar formation, Jean's mass, and protostars. Evolution of stars to the main sequence and beyond to red giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. Supernovae and compact sources. Structure of the Milky Way: disk and spiral arms; dark matter and the halo mass; central bulge or bar; and black hole. Prerequisite: 221 or equivalent. Recommended: 260, 360.

3 units, Spr (Romani, R)

PHYSICS 362. Advanced Extragalactic Astrophysics and Cosmology

Observational data on the content and activities of galaxies, the content of the Universe, cosmic microwave background radiation, gravitational lensing, and dark matter. Models of the origin, structure, and evolution of the Universe based on the theory of general relativity. Test of the models and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Physics of the early Universe, inflation, baryosynthesis, nucleosynthesis, and galaxy formation. Prerequisites: 210, 211, 260 or 360.

3 units, not given this year

PHYSICS 363. Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

Structure, mechanisms, and properties of the Sun's interior and atmosphere. Tools for solar observations; magnetic fields and polarimetry. Solar oscillations and helioseismology. Differential rotation and turbulent convection. Solar MHD, Alfven and magneto-acoustic waves. Solar cycle and dynamo. Magnetic energy release, reconnection, particle acceleration. Solar activity, sunspots, flares, coronal mass ejections; UV, X-ray, and high-energy particle emissions. The interaction of the solar wind with Earth's magnetosphere and its terrestrial effects; space weather. Prerequisite: 221 or equivalent.

3 units, not given this year

PHYSICS 364. Advanced Gravitation

Early universe cosmology. Topics at the interface between cosmology and gravity, particle theory, and speculative theories of physics at the Planck scale such as string theory. Inflationary cosmology and generation of density pertubations, models of baryogenesis, big bang nucleosynthesis, and speculations about the Universe at the Planck scale. Experiments in the near future that may extend or revise current notions.

3 units, Win (Silverstein, E)

PHYSICS 370. Theory of Many-Particle Systems

Application of quantum field theory to the nonrelativistic, many-body problem, including methods of temperature-dependent Green's functions and canonical transformations. Theory of finite-temperature, interacting Bose and Fermi systems with applications to superfluidity, superconductivity, and electron gas. Prerequisite: 232.

3 units, Aut (Zhang, S)

PHYSICS 372. Condensed Matter Theory I

Fermi liquid theory, many-body perturbation theory, response function, functional integrals, interaction of electrons with impurities. Prerequisite: APPPHYS 273.

3 units, alternate years, not given this year

PHYSICS 373. Condensed Matter Theory II

Superfluidity and superconductivity. Quantum magnetism. Prerequisite: 372.

3 units, not given this year

PHYSICS 376. Superfluidity and Superconductivity

Introduction to superfluid He: two-fluid model, phonons, and rotons, Feynman description, vortices, Bogoliubov theory. Phenomenology of superconductors: London description, Ginzburg-Landau model, type-I vs. type-II materials, Josephson effects, thin films, Kosterlitz-Thouless behavior, electron-phonon coupling. BCS theory: bulk systems, tunneling, strong-coupling materials, dirty and gapless superconductivity, fluctuation effects, Ginzburg criterion. Recommended: APPPHYS 272, 273, or equivalents. (Kivelson)

3 units, Win (Laughlin, R)

PHYSICS 450. PARTICLE PHYSICS

General properties of proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV. Capabilities of the LHC experiments. QCD predictions for hard-scattering reactions: parton distributions, radiative corrections, jets, parton shower. Methods for computing multijet cross sections. Properties of W, Z, top quarks, and Higgs bosons at the LHC. Methods for discovering new heavy particles. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: 262, 330, 331, and 332.

3 units, Aut (Peskin, M)

PHYSICS 451. Physics Beyond the Standard Model

Naturalness and the hierarchy problem. Technicolor and extended technicolor. The supersymmetric standard model, supersymmetric unification, and dark matter candidates. Large extra dimensions and TeV scale gravity. The cosmological constant problem, Weinberg's solution, and the landscape. Split supersymetry. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: 330.

3 units, Win (Dimopoulos, S)

PHYSICS 452. Supersymmetry, Supergravity, and Cosmology

Issues in supersymmetry and supergravity related to cosmology. The current status of dark energy in supersymmetric theories. Available cosmological data on the early universe and possible supergravity or string theory models explaining the data. A tension between the light gravitino and known mechanisms of moduli stabilization in string cosmology. Future data in cosmology and from the LHC as tests of fundamental physics. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: 262, 330, 331, and 332.

3 units, Spr (Kallosh, R)

PHYSICS 463. Special Topics in Astrophysics: Theoretical Cosmology

Content varies depending on participant interest. This year, topics include: large-scale structure formation, the formation and structure of dark matter halos, and N-body simulations; alternative dark matter models; galaxy clustering, the halo model, and halo occupation statistics; galaxy formation models and galaxy evolution; and constraints on cosmological parameters and galaxy formation from large surveys.

3 units, alternate years, not given this year

PHYSICS 475. Advanced Topics in Condensed Matter Physics

Current literature and advanced topics. Journal club format. Content varies depending on interests of participants. May be repeated for credit. Recommended: APPPHYS 272, 273, or equivalents.

1-3 units, not given this year

PHYSICS 490. Research

Open only to Physics graduate students, with consent of instructor. Work is in experimental or theoretical problems in research, as distinguished from independent study of a non-research character in 190 and 293.

1-15 units, Aut (Staff), Win (Staff), Spr (Staff), Sum (Staff)

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