Glossary


Campesino - Spanish word for "farmer." In Nicaragua most farmers are very poor and must work for a landowner, much like African American slaves used to work for their master.

Chamorro, Joaquín - an editor of the anti-Somoza newspaper La Prensa. He was assassinated in 1978 and most people blamed Somoza for his death.

Chamorro, Violeta – Joaquín Chamorro’s wife and the first president of Nicaragua to gain the presidency in Nicaragua through free elections.

Compañeros – Spanish word for intimate friend or fellow political party member.

Dictatorship – Unlimited rule, totalitarian government, fascist government.

Elder – Older person. In many cultures the elders are seen as chiefs or heads of the community. In Nicaragua, older people are treated with respect and honor. They are admired.

Guerrilla – Rebellious forces usually armed.

Incisive – Astute, cutting, smart and insightful.

Interpretations – Definitions, translations, explanations and/or points of view that are expressed verbally or in written word.

Land reform – The process by which land is taken by rich land owners and given to the people who work the fields or they may become property of the nation so it can benefit all equally.

Literacy – Knowing how to read and how to write. Understanding books. There are greater and lower degrees of literacy. There are also many types of literacies. Literate in general terms means educated.

Mercenaries – Soldiers for hire.

Mystical – Spiritual and imaginative.

National Guard – The brutal strong-arm, the terrorist army, of the Somoza dictatorship.

Proletariat - Lower class in a pyramid, where the upper class is at the top. Common people, working class.

Protestant – A group within the Christian faith that holds more liberal ideas than the traditional Roman Catholic Church.

Privatizing – The selling off of national services and resources to industry. For example public school are no longer public in Nicaragua. They have been privatized and the price for school has increased.

Sandino, Augusto César (1895 - 1934) – Sandino was the son of a poor native woman and a rich landowner, who didn't recognize him as his son. Sandino was a popular leader, who saw the injustice between the rich and the poor. He also successfully fought for Nicaragua’s independence after five hundred battles against US marines. Sandino successfully expelled US armed forces from Nicaragua in 1934.

Revolution – Overthrow of the government by the people, such as the American Revolution, where the people overthrew the English control in the country.

Robber baron – One of the American industrial or financial magnates of the latter 19th century who became wealthy by unethical means, such as questionable stock-market operations and exploitation of labor.

Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) – a political party that is interested in social and political reform. The movement that ended the Somoza dictatorship that lasted 43 years. The opposing army in the Sandinista/Contra War.

Solentiname – An Island that can be found in the southern part of Nicaragua. Ernesto Cardenal helped create a community of painters there.

Somoza – The family name of three violent and cruel dictators. Anastasio Somoza was the first of the Somoza’s in the Somoza dictatorship that lasted 46 years. Luis Somoza Debayle, his son, followed him and he was followed by his brother.

Theological - Relating to someone who studies religion.

Theologian - A religious scholar, someone who studies religion.

Theorist – Dreamer, someone who thinks of ideas and develops them into bigger ideas that are interconnected.

Union – Oneness with other(s) and support.

Unions – A coalition of workers that gather together to fight for their human rights and for fair treatment by industry.

William Walker — A United States of America adventurer who takes the Nicaraguan presidency in 1856 and seeks US annexation. He is the first president of Nicaragua. As president, his first ruling is to approve slavery in Nicaragua.