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A Grammar Writer's Cookbookcover

A Grammar Writer's Cookbook

Miriam Butt, Tracy Holloway King, María-Eugenia Niño, and Frédérique Segond

A Grammar Writer's Cookbook is an introduction to the issues involved in the writing and design of computational grammars, reporting on experiences and analyses within the ParGram parallel grammar development project. Using the Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) framework, this project implemented grammars for German, French, and English to cover parallel corpora.

The issue of parallelism brings into focus the need to implement analyses which are crosslinguistically valid and which therefore maximize portability of the grammars' analyses to other languages. Parallelism also highlights the need for a grammar design that allows grammars to be transparent to one another across different languages. For example, the French grammar writer should be able to understand the logic underlying the implementation of the German grammar.

This cookbook includes a discussion of the standard range of constructions that need to be implemented in a wide-coverage grammar, and provides sample analyses for each of the three languages. In addition, it examines the theoretical and practical issues which arose in the course of grammar development and presents the implementation of new theoretical developments in LFG.

Miriam Butt is a research scientist at the University of Konstanz. Tracy Holloway King is a research associate at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. Maria-Eugenia Niño is a doctoral student in the Department of Linguistics at Stanford University. Frédéroque Segond is a researcher at Xerox Research Centre for Europe within the Multilingual Theory and Technology (MLTT) team.

Contents

  • Abbreviations
  • 1 Introduction
    • 1.1 Parallel Grammars
    • 1.2 Overview of LFG
    • 1.3 Levels of Representation
    • 1.4 Implementation and Environment

    Part I The Grammars: General Analyses

  • 2 The Clause
    • 2.1 Root Clauses
      • 2.1.1 Declaratives
      • 2.1.2 Interrogatives
      • 2.1.3 Imperatives
    • 2.2 Embedded Clauses
      • 2.2.1 Subcategorized Declaratives
      • 2.2.2 Subcategorized Interrogatives
    • 2.3 Clausal Adjuncts
      • 2.3.1 Infinitival Adjuncts
      • 2.3.2 Participial
      • 2.3.3 Finite
    • 2.4 What about X' Theory

  • 3 Verbal Elements
    • 3.1 Subcategorization
    • 3.2 Non Verbal Subcategorization
    • 3.3 Types of Grammatical Functions
      • 3.3.1 Subjects
      • 3.3.2 Objects
      • 3.3.3 Secondary Objects (OBJ2)
      • 3.3.4 Obliques
      • 3.3.5 XCOMP and COMP
      • 3.3.6 Adjuncts
    • 3.4 Altering Subcategorization Frames
    • 3.5 Auxiliaries
      • 3.5.1 Brief Introduction to the Auxiliary System
      • 3.5.2 Previous Analyses
      • 3.5.3 Flat F-structure Analysis
      • 3.5.4 Morphosyntactic Structure
      • 3.5.5 The Treatment of Tense/Aspect
      • 3.3.6 Adjuncts
    • 3.6 Modals
    • 3.7 Particle Verbs
    • 3.8 Predicates
      • 3.8.1 Controlled Subject Analysis
      • 3.8.2 Predlink Analysis
    • 3.9 Bridge Verbs
    • 3.10 Verb Complexes
      • 3.10.1 German Coherent Verbs
      • 3.10.2 French Causitives
      • 3.10.3 Noun-Verb Constructions

  • 4 Nominal Elements
    • 4.1 Pronouns
      • 4.1.1 Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns
      • 4.1.2 Interrogative and Relative Pronouns
      • 4.1.3 Expletive Pronouns
      • 4.1.4 Reflexives
      • 4.1.5 Clitics
    • 4.2 Full Noun Phrases
      • 4.2.1 English
      • 4.2.2 German
      • 4.2.3 French
      • 4.2.4 F-Structure
    • 4.3 Compounds and N-N Structure
    • 4.4 Relative Clauses
      • 4.4.1 Bound Relatives
      • 4.4.2 Free Relatives
    • 4.5 NPs without a Head Noun
      • 4.5.1 Nominalized Adjectives
      • 4.5.2 Headless NPs
    • 4.6 The NP Squish
      • 4.6.1 Gerunds
      • 4.6.2 Sequential Subjects

  • 5 Determiners and Adjectives
    • 5.1 Determiners
      • 5.1.1 Types of the Specifiers
      • 5.1.2 Morphosyntactic Considerations
    • 5.2 Adjectives
      • 5.2.1 Prenominal Adjectives
      • 5.2.2 Postnominal Adjectives
      • 5.2.3 Predicative Adjectives
      • 5.2.4 Arguments of Adjectives
      • 5.2.5 Degrees of Comparison

  • 6 Prepositional Phrases
    • 6.1 Semantic Prepositions
    • 6.2 Nonsemantic Preposition
    • 6.3 Interrogatives and Relatives
    • 6.4 Clause-Taking Prepositions
    • 6.5 Multiple Prepositions

  • 7 Adverbial Elements
    • 7.1 Adverbs
    • 7.2 PPs as Adverbials
    • 7.3 NPs as Adverbials
    • 7.4 Negation
      • 7.4.1 Clausal Negation
      • 7.4.2 Constituent
      • 7.4.3 Pleonastic Negation

  • 8 Coordination
    • 8.1 Basic Approach
    • 8.2 Same Category Coordination
      • 8.2.1 General Schema
      • 8.2.2 Special Rules for Clauses
    • 8.3 NP Coordination
      • 8.3.1 Basic Structure
      • 8.3.2 Agreement
    • 8.4 Problems

  • 9 Special Construction
    • 9.1 Parentheticals
    • 9.2 Headers
    • 9.3 Tag Questions

    Part II Grammar Engineering

  • 10 Overview
  • 11 Architecture and User Interface
    • 11.1 The User Interface
    • 11.2 The XLE Output
    • 11.3 The Architecture
      • 11.3.1 The Tokenizer
      • 11.3.2 The Morphological Analyzer
    • 11.4 Lexical Lookup
      • 11.4.1 The Types of Lexicons
      • 11.4.2 Structure of a Lexical Entry
      • 11.4.3 Interaction between Lexical Entries
    • 11.5 The Chart Parser
    • 11.6 Generation and Machine Translation

  • 12 Finite-State Technology
    • 12.1 Preprocessing
    • 12.2 Multiword Expressions
      • 12.2.1 Technical Terms
      • 12.2.2 Idiomatic Expressions
    • 12.3 Time Expressions
    • 12.4 Guessers and Normalizers
    • 12.5 Part of Speech Preprocessing

  • 13 Modularity, Maintainability and Transparency
    • 13.1 One Grammar, Many Cooks
    • 13.2 Encoding Generalizations
      • 13.2.1 Templates
      • 13.2.2 Complex Categories
      • 13.2.3 Lexical Rules

  • 14 Performance
    • 14.1 Robustness
      • 14.1.1 Extraction of Subcategorization Frames
      • 14.1.2 Statistical Methods and Chunk Parsing
      • 14.1.3 Optimality Theory
    • 14.2 Testing
      • 14.2.1 Types of Testsuites
      • 14.2.2 Further Tools and Databases
    • 14.3 Measuring Performance
      • 14.3.1 Rule Interactions
      • 14.3.2 Grammar Internal Performance
      • 14.3.3 Cross-grammar Performance

  • A Appendix: Feature Standardization
    • A.1 General Guidelines
    • A.2 Sample Features
    • A.3 Grammatical Functions

  • References
  • Subject Index
  • Name Index

4/15/99

ISBN (Paperback): 1575861704 (9781575861708)
ISBN (Cloth): 1575861712 (9781575861715)
ISBN (Electronic): 1575868423 (9781575868424)

Subject: Linguistics; Grammar—Data Processing; Computational Linguistics

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