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The Grammar of Negation cover

The Grammar of Negation

A Constraint-Based Approach

Jong-Bok Kim

This book addresses three fundamental questions in the study of negation: What are the main ways of expressing sentential negation? What are the distributional properties of lexically-encoded negative elements? And, what implications do the answers to these two questions have for the theory of grammar? In answering these questions, Jong-Bok Kim investigates various aspects of negation in Korean, English, French and Italian. Addressing both empirical and theoretical issues relating to negation in these languages, he develops a nonderivational, lexicalist analysis within the constraint-based framework of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. This work demonstrates that a constraint-based approach can capture the distributional possibilities of negative elements and explain related phenomena simply through their lexical properties and the interaction of the elementary morphosyntactic and valence properties of syntactic heads. The resulting constraint-based theory allows a conservative division of labor between morphology and syntax. In turn, this challenges derivational analyses that are built upon the interaction of movement operations and functional projections with an alternative that achieves broader coverage and a better level of explanation.

Jong-Bok Kim was an assistant professor at the Department of English Language and Literature, Kyung Hee University, in Seoul, Korea.

Contents

  • Preface
  • Abbreviations
  • 1 Introduction and Theoretical Foundations
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Derivational vs. Nonderivational Perspectives
    • 1.3 Organization
    • 1.4 Theoretical Foundations of HPSG
      • 1.4.1 Universal Grammar
      • 1.4.2 HPSG' X′-theory
      • 1.4.3 The Lexicon and Its Organization
    • 1.5 Motivations for the Lexical Integrity Principle
      • 1.5.1 Word Ordering
      • 1.5.2 Directionality in Headedness
      • 1.5.3 Opaqueness of Word Internal Structure to Syntactic Operations
      • 1.5.4 Why the Lexical Integrity Principle?

  • 2 Negation in Korean
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Ways to Express Negation in Korean
      • 2.2.1 Primitive Porperties of Kinds
        • 2.2.1.1 Preverbal Negation: Type I
        • 2.2.1.2 Postverbal Negation: Type II
      • 2.2.2 Basic Properties of The Two Types of Negation
        • 2.2.2.1 Similarities
        • 2.2.2.2 Differences
    • 2.3 The Structure of Type I and Type II Negation: A Nonderivational Analysis
      • 2.3.1 Type I Negation
      • 2.3.2 Type II Negation
        • 2.3.2.1 Arguments for the VP Structure
        • 2.3.2.2 Arguments for the Verb Complex Analysis
      • 2.3.3 Argument Composition in Type II Negation
        • 2.3.3.1 Aspect Selection
        • 2.3.3.2 NPI Liscensing
        • 2.3.3.3 Case Marking
      • 2.3.4 Further Implications
        • 2.3.4.1 More on Basic Properties
        • 2.3.4.2 Double Negation
        • 2.3.4.3 Distribution of Adverbs
    • 2.4 Review of Derivational Approaches and an Alternative Nonderivational Analysis
      • 2.4.1 Type I Negation
        • 2.4.1.1 Type I
        • 2.4.1.2 Type II
      • 2.4.2 Some Theoretical and Empirical Issues
        • 2.4.2.1 On the Head Movement Constraint
        • 2.4.2.2 Lexical Idiosyncrasies
        • 2.4.2.3 Issues Raised by Ha-support
        • 2.4.2.4 On the Inventory of FPs
        • 2.4.2.5 Summary
      • 2.4.3 Two More Arguments for the Existence of NegP
        • 2.4.3.1 NPI Licensing
        • 2.4.3.2 Scope of Negation and NPI Licensing in Coordination
      • 2.4.4 An Alternative, Non-Derivational Analysis
        • 2.4.4.1 An Adjunct Analysis for Untetensed Clause
        • 2.4.4.2 Further Justification for the Asymmetric Approach
    • 2.5 Conclusion

  • 3 Negation in English
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Basic Properties of English Not
      • 3.2.1 Adverbial Properties
      • 3.2.2 Properties Different from Negative Adverbs
      • 3.2.3 Summary
    • 3.3 A Non-Derivational Analysis
      • 3.3.1 Not as a Modifier
      • 3.3.2 Types of Adverbs
    • 3.4 Not as a Complement
      • 3.4.1 VP Ellipsis
      • 3.4.2 VP Fronting
      • 3.4.3 Scope
      • 3.4.4 Treatment of the Periphrasic Do
        • 3.4.4.1 A Base-Generation Approach
        • 3.4.4.2 Comparison with Do-support Approach
      • 3.4.5 Negation in Auxiliary Constructions
        • 3.4.5.1 Be Constructions:
        • 3.4.5.2 Perfective have:
      • 3.4.6 Furthing Discussion on the Justification of Not as a Complement
        • 3.4.6.1 Cross-linguistic Facts
        • 3.4.6.2 Facts in English
    • 3.5 Comparison with Derivational Analyses
      • 3.5.1 The Position of not
        • 3.5.1.1 In Infinitive Clauses
        • 3.5.1.2 In Coordination Structures
      • 3.5.2 VP Ellipsis and Two not's
      • 3.5.3 Adverb Placement
    • 3.6 Conclusion

  • 4 Negation in Romance Languages
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Negation in French
      • 4.2.1 Negation in Infinitival Clauses
      • 4.2.2 Negation in Finite Clauses
      • 4.2.3 Arguments for the Treatment of Pas as a Complement
      • 4.2.4 Comparison with Dervational Analyses
        • 4.2.4.1 Motivations for Verb Movement and the Theory of Pollock (1989)
        • 4.2.4.2 Differences between British and American English
        • 4.2.4.3 Variations in Infinitival Auxiliary COnstructions
        • 4.2.4.4 Variations in Auxiliary Constructions
        • 4.2.4.5 Adverb Positions
    • 4.3 Negation in Italian (with Reference to Spanish)
      • 4.3.1 Positions of non
      • 4.3.2 Properties of non
        • 4.3.2.1 Similarities with Pronominal Clitics
        • 4.3.2.2 Differences with Pronominal Clitics
      • 4.3.3 Analyses
        • 4.3.3.1 Analysis A
        • 4.3.3.2 Analysis B
        • 4.3.3.3 Analysis C
        • 4.3.3.4 Analysis D
      • 4.3.4 Predictions of Analysis D
        • 4.3.4.1 Positions of non
        • 4.3.4.2 Clitic Climbing
        • 4.3.4.1 AUX-to-COMP Constructions
      • 4.3.5 Comparison with Derivational Analyses
        • 4.3.5.1 Motivations for the Verb Movement and NegP (Belletti 1990, 1994)
        • 4.3.5.2 Positions of non
        • 4.3.5.3 Clitic Climbing
        • 4.3.5.4 AUX-to-COMP Constructions
        • 4.3.5.5 Belleti's (1990) Treatment of Adverb Positions
        • 4.3.5.6 An Alternative Analysis
        • 4.3.5.7 Comparative Remarks
    • 4.4 Conclusion
    • 4.6 Summary

  • 5 Concluding Remarks
    • 5.1 Review of the Objectives of the Study
    • 5.2 Modes of Expression
    • 5.3 Factors Determining the Distribution of Negation
      • 5.3.1 Morphological Negation
      • 5.3.2 Negative Auxiliary Verb
      • 5.3.3 Adverbial Negation
        • 5.3.3.1 Finiteness vs. Non-finiteness
        • 5.3.3.2 An Intrinsic Property of the Verb
      • 5.3.4 Clitic-like Negative Verb
    • 5.4 Consequences for the Theory of Grammar
    • 5.5 Conclusions

  • References
  • Index

1/1/2000

ISBN (Paperback): 1575862301 (9781575862309)
ISBN (Cloth): 1575862298 (9781575862293)
ISBN (Electronic): 1575869667 (9781575869667)

Subject: Linguistics; Grammar --Negatives; Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG)

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