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German in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar cover

German in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar

edited by John Nerbonne, Klaus Netter, and Carl Pollard

These essays apply the syntactic theory of Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag—Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG)—to a formal study and analysis of German grammar. A wide variety of fundamental and well-known phenomena in German grammar are addressed, including the German passive and impersonal passive, various Mittelfeld and Vorfeld word-order phenomena (including auxiliary stacking and the distribution of adjuncts), and the structure of phrasal constituents. linguistic issues include the treatment of idioms, word-order variation and phrase structure constituency, subcategorization, complementation, argument structure, case assignment, lexical rules, and syntactic ambiguity.

The theoretical background for these essays can be found in Information-Based Syntax and Semantics and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, both by Pollard and Sag and available from the University of Chicago Press.

John Nerbonne is professor of computational linguistics and chair of humanities computing at the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Klaus Netter is a computational linguist at the German AI Center in Saarbrucken. Carl Pollard is associate professor in the Department of Linguistics at Ohio State University.

Contents

  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
    References
  • 1 Linearizing AUXs in German Verbal Complexes
    Erhard Hinrichs and Tsuneko Nakazawa
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Arguing for Constituents
    • 1.3 Auxiliary Flip without Movement
    • 1.4 Positions for FLipped Auxiliaries
    • 1.5 Accounting for Additional Data
    • 1.6 Conclusion

  • 2 Adjunts in the Mittlefeld
    Robert Kasper
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 What are the Alternatives?
      • 2.2.1 Adjuncts as Sisters to Complements
      • 2.2.2 Binary-branching Structures
      • 2.2.3 Discontinuous Constituents with Separate Word Order Domains
      • 2.2.4 Comparison
    • 2.3 Multiple Adverbial Modifiers
      • 2.3.1 Scope of Modification: Unchanged by Permutation
      • 2.3.2 Scope of Modification: affected by permutation
      • 2.3.3 Scope of Modification: ambiguous
    • 2.4 Extending an HPSG Analysis
      • 2.4.1 Basic Assumptions
        • 2.4.1.1 Restrictive Adverbials
        • 2.4.1.2 Operator Adverbials
      • 2.4.2 Multiple Adjuncts as Sisters of Complements
      • 2.4.3 Frame Adverbials
      • 2.4.4 Limitations
    • 2.5 Conclusions
    • References

  • 3 Obligatory Coherence: The Structure of German Modal Verb Constructions
    Tibor Kiss
  • 4 Partial Verb Phrases and Spurious Ambiguities
    John Nerbonne
    • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.1.1 Motivation
      • 4.1.2 Partial Verb Phrases
      • 4.1.3 Problems with PVPs in the Mittlefeld
      • 4.1.4 Arguments for Eliminating Traces
      • 4.1.5 Problems with Contoured VPs
      • 4.1.6 Non-arguments for Contoured VPs
        • 4.1.4.1 Transfer Adjuncts
        • 4.1.4.2 Transfer of a Non-Subject Argument
        • 4.1.4.3 Sensitivity to Thematic Hierarchy
    • 4.2 Analyisis
      • 4.2.1 Background and Sort Definitions
      • 4.2.2 Restricting PVPs to Vorfeld
      • 4.2.3 Set-Valued Subcategorization Specs
      • 4.2.4 Auxiliary Verbs
      • 4.2.5 A Simple Example
      • 4.2.6 Example Involving double infinitives
      • 4.2.7 “Splitting” Double Infinitives
      • 4.2.8 Accommodating a Verbal Complex
      • 4.2.9 Extraposition in the Vorfeld
    • 4.3 Conclusions
      • 4.3.1 Remaining Problems
      • 4.3.2 Highlights
      • 4.3.3 Ramifications

  • 5 Domain and Word Order Variation in German
    Mike Reape
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Formalizaion in HPSG
    • 5.3 An Example from German
    • 5.4 Domain Union and VP Extraposition
    • 5.5 Some assumptions about German verbs
    • 5.6 Extraposition
    • 5.7 Subjectless Constructions
    • 5.8 Pronominalization
    • 5.9 Scrambling
    • 5.10 Scope of Adjuncts and Negation
    • 5.11 Intraposition of VPs in the Mittelfeld
      • 5.11.1 The Empirical Facts
      • 5.11.2 A Domain Union Analysis
    • 5.12 Conclusion
    • Reference

  • 6 Argument Structure and Case Assignment in German
    Wolfgang Heinz and Johannes Matiasek
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Case in German
    • 6.3 Theoretical Background
      • 6.3.1 HPSG
      • 6.3.2 Approaches to Case Assignment
      • 6.3.3 Argument Structure
        • 6.3.3.1 Semantic Argument Structure
        • 6.3.3.2 Syntactic Argument Structure
        • 6.3.3.3 Linking Suntactic and Semantic Argument Structure
    • 6.4 A Theory of Case Assignments
      • 6.4.1 Case Values
      • 6.4.2 Locality
      • 6.4.3 The Case Principle
      • 6.4.4 Application of the Case Principle
      • 6.4.5 Prepositional Arguments
    • 6.5 The Designated Argument
      • 6.5.1 Designated Argument Reduction
    • 6.6 Auxiliaries
      • 6.6.1 Temporal Auxiliaries
      • 6.6.2 Auxiliary Selection
    • 6.7 Passives
      • 6.7.1 Agentive Passive
      • 6.7.2 Stative Passive
      • 6.7.3 Recipient Passive
    • 6.8 Raising and Control
      • 6.8.1 Raising
      • 6.8.2 Control
      • 6.8.3 Optional Raising
      • 6.8.4 Modification
    • 6.9 Conclusion
    • References

  • 7 Passives without Lexical Rules
    Andreas Kathol
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Clausal Passives
      • 7.2.1 Passive as a Lexical Rule
      • 7.2.2 Passive as “Object-to-Subject Raising”
      • 7.2.3 Impersonal Passives
      • 7.2.4 Double Application of Passive
    • 7.3 Adjectival Passives
      • 7.3.1 Attributive and Predicative Adjectives
      • 7.3.2 Adjectival Passives
      • 7.3.3 Clausal Passives revisited
    • 7.4 Conclusion
    • References

  • 8 Toward a Unified Account of Passive in German
    Carl Pollard
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Background
    • 8.3 The ERG Feature
    • 8.4 The Analyses of Personal and Impersonal Passive
    • 8.5 A Unified Analysis
    • 8.6 A Unified Analysis
    • References

  • 9 Towards a Theory of Functional Heads: German Nominal Phrases
    Klaus Netter
    • 9.1 Overview
    • 9.2 Heads of Nominal Phrases
      • 9.2.1 Head Features
      • 9.2.2 Derterminerless Constructions
      • 9.2.3 Declension
      • 9.2.4 Summary
    • 9.3 Categorial Distinctions
      • 9.3.1 Major and Minor Categories
        • 9.3.1.1 Major Categories
        • 9.3.1.2 Functional Categories
      • 9.3.2 Some Sample Categories
        • 9.3.2.1 Substantive Nominal Categories: Nouns and Adjectives
        • 9.3.2.2 Functional Nominal Categories: Determiners
      • 9.3.3 Summary
    • 9.4 Attributive Adjectives
    • 9.5 Declension
    • 9.6 Comparison with PS2
      • 9.6.1 Treatnebt of Specifiers in PS2
      • 9.6.2 Comparison
    • 9.7 Summary
    • References

  • 10 Complement Inheritance as Subcategorization Inheritance
    Dale Gerdemann
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 The Function Composition Approach to Compelement Inheritance
    • 10.3 Advantages of Function Composition
    • 10.4 Disadvantages of Function Composition
      • 10.4.1 Lexical Governance
      • 10.4.2 Inheritance of Word Order
      • 10.4.3 Inheritance of Case
      • 10.4.4 Multiple Complements
    • 10.5 The Subcategorization Inheritance Approach
    • 10.6 Comclusions and Further Problems
    • References

  • 11 Idioms and Support Verb Constructions
    Brigitte Krenn and Gregor Erbach
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Idioms
    • 11.3 Support-Verb Constructions
    • 11.4 Lexical Selection
    • 11.5 Semantics of Idioms
    • 11.6 Argument Structure, Syntax, and Semantics of Support Verb Constructions
    • 11.7 Conclusion
    • References

12/1/93

ISBN (Paperback): 1881526291 (9781881526292)
ISBN (Cloth): 1881526305 (9781881526308)
ISBN (Electronic): 1575868997 (9781575868998)

Subject: Linguistics; Germanic Languages--Grammar; Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG)

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