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The Structure of Complex Predicates in Urdu cover

The Structure of Complex Predicates in Urdu

Miriam Butt

Complex predicates in a number of diverse languages present an interesting problem for formal linguistics as their overall semantics cannot be placed into a simple one-to-one correspondence with the syntactic or morphological pieces which form the complex predicate. A central issue in the investigation of complex predicates thus is the interaction between syntax and semantics.

This book takes a detailed look at two differing complex predicates in the South Asian language Urdu. The Urdu permissive in particular brings into focus the problem of the syntax-semantics mismatch. An examination of the syntactic properties of this complex predicate shows that it is formed by the combination of two semantic heads, but that this combination is not mirrored in the syntax in terms of any kind of syntactic or lexical incorporation.

Miriam Butt is Professor for General and Computational Linguistics at the Universität Konstanz.

Contents

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Background Issues
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Dialect Studied
    • 2.3 Case
      • 2.3.1 The Morphology
      • 2.3.2 The Ergative
      • 2.3.3 Dative and Accusitive ko
      • 2.3.4 Direct/Structural and Inherent Case
    • 2.4 Configurationality
    • 2.5 Theoretical Framework
      • 2.5.1 General
      • 2.5.2 C-structure and F-structure
      • 2.5.3 Argument Structure
      • 2.5.4 Summary

  • 3 The Permissive
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Evidence for a Complex Predicate Analysis
      • 3.2.1 General
      • 3.2.2 Agreement
      • 3.2.3 Control
      • 3.2.4 Anaphora
      • 3.2.5 Conclusion
    • 3.3 Phrase Structure Ambiguities
      • 3.3.1 Scrambling
        • 3.3.1.1 Instructive
        • 3.3.1.2 Permissive
      • 3.3.2 Negation
      • 3.3.3 Coordination
      • 3.3.4 Complex Predicate Analysis not affected by Scrambling
        • 3.3.4.1 Agreement
        • 3.3.4.2 Control
        • 3.3.4.2 Anaphora
      • 3.3.5 Summary
    • 3.4 The Structure of Infinitives
      • 3.4.1 Infinitive Clauses are NPs
        • 3.4.1.1 Morphology
        • 3.4.1.2 Case
        • 3.4.1.3 Finiteness and Case
        • 3.4.1.4 Correlatives
        • 3.4.1.5 Participles vs. Infinitives
        • 3.4.1.6 WH Questions
        • 3.4.1.7 Morphology: -valaa
      • 3.4.2 Verbal Nouns
      • 3.4.3 “Long Distance” Agreement
        • 3.4.3.1 Previous Analyses
        • 3.4.3.2 Blocking of Agreement by Case
        • 3.4.3.3 Matrix plus Embedded Agreement
        • 3.4.3.4 Genitive Arguments
        • 3.4.3.5 Optionality of Agreement
        • 3.4.3.6 Incorporating Infinitives
        • 3.4.3.7 Analysis
    • 3.5 Conclusion

  • 4 Aspectual Complex Predicates
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Types of Light Verbs
    • 4.3 Phrase Structure
      • 4.3.1 Agreement
      • 4.3.2 Anaphora
      • 4.3.3 Control
      • 4.3.4 Summary
    • 4.4 Phrase Structure
      • 4.4.1 Syntactic Composition
      • 4.4.2 Scrambling
      • 4.4.3 Modification
      • 4.4.4 Coordination
      • 4.4.5 Internal Structure of Aspectual Complex Predicates
        • 4.4.5.1 Auxiliaries
        • 4.4.5.2 N-V Complex Predicates
      • 4.4.6 Summary
    • 4.5 Argument Structure
      • 4.5.1 Conscious Choice and Ergativity
        • 4.5.1.1 The Basic Pattern
        • 4.5.1.2 Similar Light Verbs
        • 4.5.1.3 The Expanded Pattern
        • 4.5.1.4 Restrictions on Complex Predicate Formation
        • 4.5.1.5 Summary
      • 4.5.2 Unaccusativity
      • 4.5.3 Inception and Completion
        • 4.5.3.1 The Basic Pattern
        • 4.5.3.2 Background on Aspect and Argument Structure
        • 4.5.3.3 Evidence for Inception
        • 4.5.3.4 Point of Inception versus Beginning an Event
    • 4.6 Conclusion

  • 5 Complex Predicate Formation
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Representation of Argument Structure
      • 5.2.1 General
      • 5.2.2 Levels of Representation
      • 5.2.3 Adaptations
      • 5.2.4 Argument Structure Hierarchy
      • 5.2.5 The Aspect Tier
    • 5.3 Complex Predicate Formation
      • 5.3.1 Representation of Light Verbs
      • 5.3.2 Aspectual Complex Predicates
      • 5.3.3 Transparent Events and Fusion
      • 5.3.4 Aspectual Complex Predicates
        • 5.3.4.1 The paṛ ‘fall’ (inceptive type light verbs
        • 5.3.4.2 The le ‘take’ (completive type light verbs
        • 5.3.4.3 The light verb jaa ‘go’
      • 5.3.5 The Permissive
    • 5.4 Conclusion

  • 6 Linking
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Linking a-structure and f-structure
      • 6.2.1 Mapping Theory
      • 6.2.2 The Permissive
      • 6.2.3 The Instructive
      • 6.2.4 Aspectual complex predicates
    • 6.3 Linking to Phrase Structure
      • 6.3.1 Predicate Composition
      • 6.3.2 Determination of c-structure annotations
      • 6.3.3 Phrase Structure and Case Clitics
      • 6.3.4 The Permissive
      • 6.3.5 The Instructive
      • 6.3.6 Aspectual Complex Predicates
    • 6.4 Conclusion

  • 7 Extending the Approach
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Romance Complex Predicates
      • 7.2.1 Restructuring Verbs
      • 7.2.2 Romance Causatives
    • 7.3 Japanese ‘suru’
      • 7.3.1 Differing types of ‘suru’
      • 7.3.2 Argument of Transfer
        • 7.3.2.1 Grimshaw and Mester
        • 7.3.2.2 The Basic Pattern and Analysis
        • 7.3.2.3 Sells
      • 7.3.3 Elaborated Argument Structure
        • 7.3.3.1 Basic Approach
        • 7.3.3.2 Accounting for the Facts
      • 7.3.4 Summary
    • 7.4 Serial Verbs
      • 7.4.1 Looking beyond the Label
      • 7.4.2 Characterization of Serial Verbs
    • 7.5 Conclusion

  • 8 Conclusion

1/31/95

ISBN (Paperback): 1881526585 (9781881526582)
ISBN (Cloth): 1881526593 (9781881526599)
ISBN (Electronic): 157586990X (9781575869902)

Subject: Linguistics; Urdu Language--Verb

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