CSLI Publications logo
new books
catalog
series
knuth books
contact
for authors
order
search
CSLI Publications
Facebook
 
Word Structure in Ngalakgan cover

Word Structure in Ngalakgan

Brett Baker

Word Structure in Ngalakgan is the first major theoretical work on the phonology and morphology of an Australian language in 20 years. Ngalakgan is a non-configurational, polysynthetic, and agglutinative language of the Gunwinyguan family. The morphological structures of Ngalakgan require a two-level analysis: ROOT-level and WORD-level. Only the WORD-level shows regular phonologically conditioned alternations. The ROOT-level is entirely frozen. Baker demonstrates that Optimality Theory must take account of differences in the productivity of morphological relations in the input, in order to maintain the simplest analysis. Ngalakgan has a quantity-sensitive stress system which is hitherto undescribed and which contradicts the predictions of current Moraic Theory. Syllables closed by codas which share place with a following onset do not count as heavy even though heterorganic codas do. The same system is found in neighboring languages. This and other patterns suggest that syllabification in these languages is gesture-, rather than timing-, based.

Brett Baker is a Senior Lecturer in Linguistics at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia.

Contents

  • Maps, tables and figures
  • Abbreviations
  • Acknowledgements
  • 1 Introduction
    • 1.1 The Ngalakgan people and their language
      • 1.1.1 Linguistic situation
      • 1.1.2 Features of the language
      • 1.1.3 The speakers, their social environment, and the fieldwork
      • 1.1.4 Informants
      • 1.1.5 Fieldwork
      • 1.1.6 Data and methodology
    • 1.2 Preivious work on Ngalakgan
      • 1.2.1 Differences from previous work
      • 1.2.2 The book in the current Australian linguistic context
    • 1.3 Optimality Theory
      • 1.3.1 The basic apparatus
    • 1.4 Outline of the chapters

  • 2 Issues in the segmental inventory of Ngalakgan
    • 2.1 Segment inventory
      • 2.1.1 Place of articulation
      • 2.1.2 Manner
      • 2.1.3 Vowels
      • 2.1.4 The stop contrast and the glottal stop
    • 2.2 Syllabification and phonotactics
      • 2.2.1 Phonotactic positions
      • 2.2.2 Neutralisation of the apical contrast
      • 2.2.3 Analysis of place phonotactics
    • 2.3 The phonology of the stop contrast
      • 2.3.1 Phonetics of the Stop contrast
      • 2.3.2 Distribution of geminates in syllable structure
      • 2.3.3 Geminates as onsets
    • 2.4 The glottal stop
      • 2.4.1 The distribution of the glottal stop
      • 2.4.2 the morpho-phonology of the open class Future and Irrealis inflection
      • 2.4.3 The phonological representation of glottal stop
      • 2.4.4 The timing of laryngealisation
    • 2.5 The syllabification of glides
    • 2.6 Inter-morphemic clusters and assimilation
    • 2.7 Orthography

  • 3 Root and Word
    • 3.1 Simplex words
      • 3.1.1 Analysis of simplex forms
      • 3.1.2 Monosyllabic words
      • 3.1.3 Analysis of monosyllabic words
      • 3.1.4 Words with four or more syllables
    • 3.2 WORD-compounds
      • 3.2.1 Examples of WORD-compounds
      • 3.2.2 Compounding morphology
      • 3.2.3 Prosodic characteristics
      • 3.2.4 Summary
    • 3.3 ROOT-morphology and prosody
      • 3.3.1 ROOT-level morphology
      • 3.3.2 ROOT-compounds
      • 3.3.3 Prosodic characteristics of ROOT-morphology
      • 3.3.4 WORD-reduplication and ROOT-reduplication
    • 3.4 The Ngalakgan lexicon
      • 3.4.1 The elements of the lexicon
    • 3.5 Structure in complex words
    • 3.6 The analysis of ROOT-complex forms
    • 3.7 Phonological correlates of compounding: the distribution of apical distinctions in words
    • 3.8 Implications
      • 3.8.1 The two-level theory applied to OT

  • 4 Affixation and prosodic domains
    • 4.1 The morphology of affixes and bound stems
      • 4.1.1 Distinguishing bound stems and affixes
    • 4.2 Prosodic characteristics of affixes and bound stems
      • 4.2.1 General patterns: disyllabic suffixes and bound stems
      • 4.2.2 Monosyllabic suffixes and bound stems
    • 4.3 Morphemes as prosodic domains
      • 4.3.1 Analysis of metrical patterns
    • 4.4 Further applications of λ ≈ PrWd
      • 4.4.1 Warlpiri and Diyari stress
      • 4.4.2 Against ALIGN
    • 4.5 The pre-head string
      • 4.5.1 Prosody of right-binding stems
      • 4.5.2 Prosody of inflectional prefixes
      • 4.5.3 Analysis of prefix prosodic structure
      • 4.5.4 Analysis of right-binding stem
    • 4.6 Conclusion

  • 5 Weight
    • 5.1 The nature of weight in Ngalakgan
    • 5.2 Germinates in Moraic Theory
    • 5.3 Timing vs. gesture in metrical systems
    • 5.4 Syllabification
      • 5.4.1 The organisation of feet in Ngalakgan words
      • 5.4.2 Heavy syllables elsewhere in the word
      • 5.4.3 Word-final consonants
      • 5.4.4 NO CLASH
      • 5.4.5 Other indications of weight
      • 5.4.6 Monogestural clusters and weight in other languages
      • 5.4.7 Further implications: the representation of mongestural clusters and weight
    • 5.5 The interaction of glottal stop with weight
      • 5.5.1 Glottal stops are weightless
      • 5.5.2 Glottal stops as placeless segments
    • 5.6 Prominence-based stress in Ngalakgan
    • 5.7 Conclusion

  • 6 Germinates and other boundary signals
    • 6.1 Phonetic correlates of the stop contrast
      • 6.1.1 Duration
      • 6.1.2 Voicing
      • 6.1.3 The phonological representation of geminates
      • 6.1.4 Assignment of [spread glottis]
      • 6.1.5 Summary
    • 6.2 Gemination and laryngealisation at morpheme boundaries
      • 6.2.1 Reasons for boundary gemination and laryngealisation
    • 6.3 Geminate alternation
      • 6.3.1 Germinate alternation is prosodically-conditioned
      • 6.3.2 Analysis
      • 6.3.3 Faithfulness to laryngeal feature
      • 6.3.4 Faithfulness to Morphological Words
    • 6.4 CVʔ WORD-redplication
      • 6.4.1 Morphology of CVʔ-reduplication
      • 6.4.2 Prosodic characteristics of CVʔ-reduplication
    • 6.5 Prosodic effects on margins in other languages
      • 6.5.1 Glottal stop alternations in Yolngu
      • 6.5.2 Pre-tonic gemination in Ndjébbana
      • 6.5.3 Implications for other languages
    • 6.6 Geminates and morpheme structure constraints
    • 6.7 Conclusion

  • 7 Conclusion
    • 7.1 Word structure in Ngalakgan
    • 7.2 Syllable structure, onsets and prosody
    • 7.3 Further evidence for words as phrases: compound interpretation in Ngalakgan and Wubuy
    • 7.4 Morphology in Optimality Theory

  • References
  • Subject Index
  • Language Index
  • Name Index

May 2008

ISBN (Paperback): 9781575865621
ISBN (Electronic): 9781575868578

Add to Cart
View Cart

Check Out

Distributed by the
University of
Chicago Press

pubs @ csli.stanford.edu