Available Papers and Chapters



Nations, States and Violence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Identity in Formation: the Russian-speaking Populations in the Near Abroad (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998)

Language Repertoires and State Construction in Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

Hegemony and Culture: The Politics of Religious Change Among the Yoruba (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986). [Translated as Hegemonía y cultura: Política y cambioreligioso entre los Yoruba, and published by the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, Madrid, 2011)

Somalia: Nation in Search of a State (Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1987) (co-authored with Said Samatar).

Politics, Language and Thought: The Somali Experience (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977)

Articles and Review Essays

“Region of origin or religion? Understanding why immigrants from Muslim-majority countries are discriminated against in Western Europe” (with Claire L. Adida and Marie-Anne Valfort)

“Gender norms, Muslim immigrants, and Economic Integration in France” (in press) Economics and Politics (with Claire L. Adida and Marie-Anne Valfort) [table of recent editors]

 “Civil War Non-Onsets: The Case of Japan”Journal of Civilization Studies, the journal of the Center for Civilization Studies of Istanbul Medeniyet University, Turkey, forthcoming (in collaboration with James Fearon)

“Muslims in France: identifying a discriminatory equilibriumJournal of Population Economics (accepted for publication) (with Claire Adida and Marie-Anne Valfort)

“Immigration into Europe: Discrimination, Violence and Public Policy”Annual Review of Political Science (forthcoming) (with Rafaela Dancygier).

“The Uniting of Europe: A Memoir of Ernst B. Haas”, Baltic Journal of European Studies 3(1), June 2013.

“Fisheries Management”Political Analysis 21(1): Winter 2013

“Geographic axes and the persistence of cultural diversity”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (June 11, 2012) (with Joachim Moortgat and Amanda Robinson)

“Political Culture”, entry in the Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics, Oxford University Press, 2012 (Joel Krieger, editor) (in collaboration with Nan Zhang).

“Modeling the Evolution of Ethnic Demography”, Chapter 7, in Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Politics (with Maurits van der Veen) ed. Kanchan Chandra (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)

“Ethnicity and Pork: A Virtual Test of Causal Mechanisms”, Chapter 9, in Constructivist Theories of Ethnic Politics (with Maurits van der Veen) ed. Kanchan Chandra (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)

José Luis Martí and Philip Pettit (2011) A Political Philosophy in Public Life: Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press), review essay in Political Theory (June, 2012)

“Rational Islamophobia”. Archives Européennes de Sociologie (2011)

“Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2010) (with Claire Adida and Marie-Anne Valfort)

“Sons-of-the-soil, Migrants, and Civil War” (2011) World Development 39:2 (199-211) (with James Fearon).

“Debate on David Laitin’s Nations, States, and ViolenceNations and Nationalism 15(4), (October 2009).

“Kto-Kogo?: A Cross-Country Study of the Origins and Targets of Terrorism”. In Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness eds. Philip Keefer and Norman Loayza (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 148-73. (with Alan B. Krueger).

“The Political, Economic, and Organizational Sources of Terrorism”. In Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness eds. Philip Keefer and Norman Loayza (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 209-32.

“Religion, Terrorism and Public Goods: Testing the Club Model”. (2008) Journal of Public Economics [PUBEC_2790] (With Eli Berman).

“Immigrant Communities and Civil War” (2009) International Migration Review, 43:1 (35-59)

“Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods”(2008). In Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology, eds. Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier and David Collier (Oxford: Oxford University Press). (With James Fearon) [Republished in Oxford Handbook of Political Science, ed. Robert E. Goodin (Oxford University Press, 2009)]

“American Immigration Through Comparativists’ Eyes” (October, 2008) Comparative Politics 41(1).

“Religion, Terrorism and Public Goods: Testing the Club Model” (2008) (with Eli Berman), Journal of Public Economics [Earlier versions: (a) November 2005: “Hard Targets: Theory and Evidence on Suicide Attacks”, NBER Working Paper 11740; (b) 2007. “Religion, Terrorism and Public Goods: Testing the Club Model” NBER, Working Paper Series, 13725.]

“The Political, Economic and Organizational Sources Of Terrorism” In Philip Keefer and Norman Loayza, eds. (2007).  Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness  (New York: Cambridge University Press). Co-authored with Jacob Shapiro

“Kto-Kogo: A Cross-Country Study of the Origins and Targets of Terrorism” In Philip Keefer and Norman Loayza, eds. (2007).  Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness  (New York: Cambridge University Press). Co-authored with Alan B. Krueger.

“Mann’s Dark Side: linking democracy and genocide”. In John A. Hall and Ralph Schroeder The Anatomy of Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2006), pp. 328-339.

“The De-Cosmopolitanization of the Russian Diaspora: A View from Brooklyn in the ‘Far Abroad’” in Diaspora 13 (1) 2004: 5-35  Reprinted in ActaUniversitatisLatviensis (Riga, Latvia), 680: 13-33 (2005).

“Culture Shift in a Post communist State”, in Zoltan Barany and Robert G. Moser Ethnic Politics After Communism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005)

“Civil War Narratives” Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias Sociales, Working Paper 2005/218 (June 2005) (With James Fearon).

“Ethnic Unmixing and Civil War” (Summer 2004)  Security Studies 13 (4): 350-65. [Reprinted in Roy Licklider and Mia Bloom (2006) Living Together after Ethnic Killing (London: Routledge]

“’Misunderestimating’ Terrorism: The State Department’s Big Mistake” (with Alan Krueger) Foreign Affairs (September/October 2004)

“Las contribuciones de la ciencia política” (in a symposium with Giovanni Sartori and Josep M. Colomer) Política y gobierno (Mexico) XI, 2 (2004); reprinted and translated as “Whither Political Science? Reflections on Professor Sartori’s claim that ‘American-type political science…is going nowhere. It is an every growing giant with feet of clay” in PS (October 2004); reprinted in  RevistaEspañola de CienciaPolítica (Madrid) 12: 15-20, (April 2005)

“Language Policy and Civil War” (2004) in Philippe van Parijs, ed. Cultural Diversity versus Economic Solidarity: Proceedings of the Seventh Francqui Colloquium, Brussels, 28 February – 1 March 2003 (Brussels: de Boeck).

“A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change” (with Avner Greif), American Political Science Review  (November 2004)

“The Political Science Discipline” in Edward Mansfield and Richard Sisson, eds. The Evolution of Political Knowledge (Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2004)

“Language Policy and Civil War” in Philippe Van Parijs, ed. Cultural Diversity versus Economic Solidarity, Brussels: Deboeck Université, Francqui Scientific Library (September 2004)

“Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States” (with James Fearon) International Security (Spring 2004)

“The Perestroikan Challenge to Social Science” . Politics & Society 31, 1 (2003): 163-84  [Reprinted in Kristen Renwick Monroe (2005) Peerestroika!: The Raucous Rebellion in Political Science (New Haven: Yale University Press)] [Reprinted in Sanford F. Schram and Brian Caterino, eds., Making Political Science Matter (New York: NYU Press, 2006)]

“Three Models of Integration and the Estonian/Russian Reality” .Journal of Baltic Studies 34, 2, (2003): 197-223

“Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War” (with James Fearon) American Political Science Review 97, 1 (February 2003): 75-90

“La Modelisation formelle et la science politique americaine: les debats actuels” Sociologie et Societés, 34, 1 (Spring 2002): 67-78 [and “Réponse aux commentaires pour le numéro sur le choix rationnel” pp. 155-63]

“Comparative Politics: The State of the Subdiscipline” in Ira Katznelson and Helen V. Milner, eds. Political Science: The State of the Discipline (New York: Norton, 2002).

“Culture and National Identity: ‘The East’ and European IntegrationWest European Politics 25, 2 (April 2002): 56-80 [Reprinted in Peter Mair and Jan Zielonka, eds. The Enlarged European Union: Diversity and Adaptation. (London: Frank Cass, 2002)]

“Language Conflict and Violence” Archives Européennes de Sociologie 41/1 (2001) [Reprinted in Daniel Druckman and Paul Stern, eds. International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, Fall 2000)]

“Comment on Lowell Barrington” (2001) Post-Soviet Affairs 17: 2, pp. 159-63.

“Secessionist Rebellion in the Former Soviet Union” Comparative Political Studies 34, 8 (2001): 839-861

“The Theoretical Contribution of Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life” in Robert Hardgrave, Jr. “Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India” A Review Symposium, on the publication of a book by Ashutosh Varshney, Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 39.1 (March 2001) pp. 97-110

“Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identities” (with James Fearon) in International Organization (October, 2000)

“Post-Soviet Politics” in Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 3 (2000)

“Language Conflict and Violence”, in Paul C. Stern and Daniel Druckman, eds., International Conflict Resolution After the Cold War (National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington, D.C., 2000); reprinted in European Journal of Sociology (2000)

“What is a Language Community?” American Journal of Political Science 44(1), 2000, pp.142-55

“The Cultural Elements of Ethnically Mixed States” in State/Culture: State-Formation after the Cultural Turn, George Steinmetz, ed. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999)

“Somalia — Civil War and International Intervention” in Barbara F. Walter and Jack Snyder, eds. Civil War, Insecurity, and Intervention (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999)

“Toward a Political Science Discipline: Authority Patterns Revisited” Comparative Political Studies 31, 4 (August, 1998), 423-443

“The Cultural Identities of a European State” Politics & Society 25, 3 (1997). pp. 277-302 [Reprinted as “National Identities in the Emerging European State” in Michael Keating and John McGarry, eds.,  Minority Nationalism and the Changing International Order (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)]

“Explaining Interethnic Cooperation” American Political Science Review (with James D. Fearon) 90, 4, (December, 1996), pp. 715-35.

“Nationalism and Language: A Post-Soviet Perspective” in John A. Hall, ed. Ernest Gellner and the Theory of Nationalism (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 135-57.

“Language Planning in the Former Soviet Union: The Case of Estonia”, International Journal of the Sociology of Language Hans Dua, ed. (July, 1995), pp. 43-62.

“The Qualitative-Quantitative Disputation”, a symposium with James Caporaso, David Collier, Ronald Rogowski, Sidney Tarrow, Gary King, Robert Keohane, and Sidney Verba, in American Political Science Review 89, 2 (June, 1995), pp. 454-56.

“Political Culture at 30” American Political Science Review 89, 1 (March, 1995), pp. 168-73.

“National Revivals and Violence”. Archives Européennes de Sociologie (Spring 1995) [Translated into Spanish and published in Sistema 132/33, June, 1996] pp. 3-43.

“The Tower of Babel as a Coordination Game: Political Linguistics in Ghana” . American Political Science Review (September, 1994), pp. 622-34.

“Language and the Construction of States: The Case of Catalonia in SpainPolitics and Society (March, 1994) (with Stathis Kalyvas and Carlota Solé), pp. 5-30.

“The Game Theory of Language Régimes” International Political Science Review 14, 3, (1993), pp. 227-40.

“Language, Ideology and the Press in Catalonia” (with Guadalupe Rodríguez Gómez), American Anthropologist (March, 1992), pp. 9-30.

“Structure and Irony in Social Revolutions” Political Theory (20, 1, 1992) (with Carolyn Warner), pp. 147-51

“The National Uprisings in the Soviet Union” . World Politics (October, 1991) [Reprinted in Nancy Bermeo, ed., Liberalization and Democratization (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992)], pp. 139-77.

“Language Choice Among Ghanaians” Language Problems and Language Planning 15, 2 (Summer, 1991), pp. 139-61.

“The Economy”, in Somalia: A Country Study 1992 edition (Washington D.C., Library of Congress)

“Linguistic Conflict in Catalonia” in Modest Reixach, Sociologia de la Llengua, Area 2 of the SegonCongrésInternacional de la LlenguaCatalana (Girona, Spain: 1991), pp. 274-83

“Language Policy and Political Strategy in India” Policy Sciences 22, 4 (1989), pp. 415-36.

“Linguistic Revival: Politics and Culture in Catalonia” Comparative Studies in Society and History 31, 2 (April, 1989), pp. 297-317.

“Language Conflict: Transactions and Games in Kenya” Cultural Anthropology (February, 1989) (co-authored with Carol Eastman), pp. 51-72.

“Catalan Elites and Language Normalization” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 9, 4 (October, 1989) (with Carlota Solé), pp. 1-26.

“Language Games” Comparative Politics 20, 3 (April, 1988), pp. 289-302.

“Political Culture and Political Preferences” American Political Science Review 82, 2 (June, 1988), pp. 589-93.

“South Africa: Violence, Myths and Democratic Reform,” World Politics, (January, 1987), pp. 258-79.

“Aplicatión de la Teoría de los Juegos a las Actitudes y Política Lingüísticas. El Caso de Inmigrantes y Autóctonos en Cataluña,” Papers, Revista de Sociologia (Barcelona, Spain), (with Carlota Solé), (1986).

“The American — Somali Alliance: Whose Agenda?” in Transafrica Forum 2,4 (Summer, 1985)

“Hegemony and Religious Conflict,” in T. Skocpol et. al., eds., Bringing the State Back In (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985)

“Somalia and the World Economy,” Review of African Political Economy, No.30 (with Said Samatar) (September, 1984), pp. 58-72.

“Capitalism and Hegemony: Yorubaland and the International Economy,” International Organization, 36, 4 (Autumn, 1982), 687-714.

“The Sharia Debate and the Origins of Nigeria’s Second Republic,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 20, 3 (1982), pp. 411-430.

“Language Choice and National Development: A Typology for Africa,” International Interactions, 6, 3 (1979), pp. 291-321.

“The War in the Ogaden: The Implications for Siyaad’s Role in Somali History,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 17, 1 (1979), pp. 95-116.

“Bearing the Burden: A Model of Presidential Responsibility in Foreign Policy,” with Peter Cowhey, International Studies Quarterly 22, No. 2 (June, 1978), 267-96.

“Religion, Political Culture and the Weberian Tradition,” World Politics (July, 1978), pp. 563-92.

“Somali Territorial Claims in International Perspective,” Africa Today (April-June, 1976)

“The Political Economy of Military Rule in Somalia,” Journal of Modern African Studies (September, 1976), pp. 449-68.