An Introduction to Folio

September 1993 (rev. 5/9/96)

Comments to

Folio is a computer system at Stanford that provides access to a variety of information resources for Stanford students, faculty, and staff. Folio is a cooperative effort between ITSS, Stanford University Libraries, and other campus offices.

New information sources are added to Folio periodically. Watch for announcements on the Folio Welcome screen and in campus newspapers. You can always see the current list of files in Folio by typing SELECT. Type HELP followed by a file name for a brief description of the file.

If you have a Stanford University ID, click here to connect to Folio.

This guide covers the following topics:
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Folio Files as of Winter 1995

Library Catalogs & Guide to Stanford Libraries
  Socrates                           MELVYL (UC)
  Technical Reports                  GLADIS (UC Berkeley)
  Reserves in Meyer                  Internet Access
  Reserves in Branches               RLIN Catalog
  JACKSON (Jackson Business Library) World Catalog
  LOIS (Lane Medical Library)
  Guide to SU Libraries

Reference Shelf
                                     LC MARC Books
  Biography Index                    Marquis Who's Who
  BIP (Books in Print)               Merck Index
  Book Review Index                  OED
  Bowker Biographies                 Quotations
  Britannica Online                  Research Centers
  Cendata                            RTECS
  Consumer Reports                   SciTech
  Electronic Conferences             Statistical Abstract
  Encyclopedia of Assoc.             Thomas Register
  Eventline                          TSCA Chemicals
  Federal Register                   Ulrich's Periodicals
  Kirk-Othmer                        UN Stats

General or Interdisciplinary Sources
  MAGS                               NEWS
  Dissertation Abstracts             Statistical Masterfile
  English Short Title Catalogue      UnCover
  Lexis-Nexis                        Washington Alert

Humanities Sources
  American History                   MLA Bibliography
  Art Index                          MLK Bibliography
  Avery Index to Arch Per            Periodical Contents Index
  Historical Abstracts               Philosopher's Index
  History of Science

Science & Engineering Sources
  Agricola                           EI/Compendex
  BIOSIS                             Enviro/EnergyLine
  Biotechnology Abstracts            GeoRef
  CAS Online                         History of Science
  CAS Training                       INSPEC
  Chemical Safety                    MathSci
  Computer Articles                  MEDLINE
  Computer Select                    Water Resources

Social Sciences Sources
  ABI/Inform                         Historical Abstracts
  American History                   Latin American Studies
  Anthropological Lit.               MLK Bibliography
  ECONLIT                            PAIS
  Enviro/EnergyLine                  Periodical Contents Index
  ERIC                               PsycINFO
  Foreign Legal Periodicals          Sociological Abstracts
  Harvard Business Review            UnCover
  Hispanic American Periodicals      World Affairs Report
  Hispanic Legislation

Student Information/Stanford Academic Life
  Axess                              Odyssey
  Awards                             Student Activities
  Faculty Interests                  Student Employment

University Policies and Procedures
  AC Announcements
  Chemical Safety
  Research Policies

General Information for the Stanford Community
  Community Info                     Press Releases
  Credit Union                       Public Events
  CUONLINE                           Software at Stanford
  JOBS                               Stanford Bookstore
  LAIR Publications                  Stanford Directory
  Long Distance Rates                Weather Forecasts
  Off-Campus Housing

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Connecting to Folio


At several campus locations, public Folio terminals are always connected to Folio. Most campus libraries have public terminals. Other public terminal locations include the Off-Campus Housing Office, the Stanford Bookstore, and the Undergraduate Advising Center.


Most workstations on campus (in public clusters, offices, or dorms) that are connected to SUNet, the campus network, can connect to the Forsythe computer where Folio runs.

From most Stanford computers:

        > telnet forsythetn
        Welcome to Stanford University ...
        Account? folio
        Enter your name or University ID:
        ... Enter your PIN and press RETURN:
From a TIP:

        TIP-xxxx>  term flow soft
        TIP-xxxx>  forsythetn
        Welcome to Stanford University ...
        Account? folio
        Enter your name or University ID:
        ... Enter your PIN and press RETURN:
At some terminal clusters, customized scripts may have been set up to help you get this far. For example, if you see this icon on a Mac, click on it to make your Folio connection.


From Netscape (or other Web browsers), use one of the following URLs to connect to Folio.

If you have a Stanford University ID:

If you don't have a Stanford ID:

At the "Account?" prompt, enter your Folio account number, or a normal Forsythe computer account number, or SOCRATES for access to the Stanford library catalog.

Your Web browser must be configured to specify which TELNET application to use for these TELNET URLs. In Netscape, go to "Preferences" under the "Options" menu. From the popup menu, select "Applications and Directories". In the "Supporting Applications" box there's an entry for "Telnet Application". Using the Browse... button you can navigate to the application that you'd like to use for TELNET resources on the Web. Many people use the program NCSA Telnet. It is available at


Set your communications software to 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, hardware (or rts/cts) flow control. Set your modem speed to the highest speed your modem supports. The current maximum data transfer throughput speed is 38,400 for the high speed modem pool so don't set it higher than that.

1. Set your modem to dial 415 / 498-1440

2. Username: forsythe      (or your Leland userid)

3. Password: forsythe      (or your Leland password)

4. TIP-xxxx> forsythetn

5. Welcome to Stanford University ...
   Account?   folio
   Enter your name or University ID:
   ... Enter your PIN and press RETURN:
The current phone number for the Stanford modem pool is 415 / 498-1440.

For details about dial-in connections, refer to:

For assistance making your Forsythe connection, contact ITSS Customer Assistance at 415 / 725-8181.


If you have a regular Forsythe computer account, log on as usual and type folio at the Command> prompt.

If You Don't Have a University ID

If you are affiliated with Stanford but do not have an ID card and wish to have access to library-related Folio resources, contact the Privileges Division in Green Library, or the Information desk in Lane Medical Library. They can provide a computer account that lets you log on to Forsythe to use Folio. To make your connection, telnet to (or follow the dial-in instructions given earlier) and at the "Account?" prompt, type the computer account given to you at the Privileges desk. (This will be a number similar to ED.A99 -- two letters followed by a period, followed by 3 letters/numbers.)

People not connected with Stanford may search the Stanford library catalog by telnetting to (or following the dial-in instructions given earlier) and typing Socrates at the "Account?" prompt.

In general, most other Folio resources besides Socrates, the library catalog, are available only to people with Stanford IDs or people who arrange for library privileges through Green Library or Lane Library.

IDs and PINs

In many cases, when you connect to Folio, you are asked to identify yourself by giving your Stanford University ID number (the number printed on your ID card) and your PIN -- the Personal Identification Number associated with your University ID.

Students connecting to Folio in order to use Axess are also asked for a PIN -- a confidential Personal Identification Number associated with your ID. (Axess is a Folio service where student records such as study lists and addresses are changed.) Every student receives information about IDs and PINs from the Registrar's Office.

Faculty and staff needing PINs should contact Customer Assistance at 5-8181.

In addition, you are required to supply your University ID and PIN when connecting to any Folio files that are restricted to faculty and students use only. These files include all Dialog resources, and Lexis-Nexis.

You may change your PIN in Folio by typing SET PIN and following the instructions. (But you need to know your old PIN in order to change to a new PIN.)

Stanford Health Services and Lucille Packard Childrens Hospital staff, and Lane Library cardholders: telnet to and login with Lane card number to access Folio from there. For further information contact Lane Library at 3-6831, or lane-info@krypton.

Forgot Your PIN?

If you have forgotten your PIN and you are a student, take a photo ID to the Registrar's Office during business hours to get a new one. All others should contact ITSS Customer Assistance at 5-8181.

Terminal Types, Unix Connections, Screen Height

In some cases, when you connect to Folio you are asked what kind of terminal or workstation you are using. The question looks like this:

        Account? folio
        Please enter your terminal type. Common choices:
           vt100     if using vt100 terminal emulation
           xterm     if running X-Windows
           samson    if using Samson communications software
        Type HELP for all terminal types that Forsythe recognizes.
        Type of terminal (press RETURN for VT100)?
If you have questions about terminal types, use the SUGGEST command in Folio to send a question to a Folio consultant.

Accessing Folio from a Unix Workstation

The "terminal type" appropriate for most Unix connections to Forsythe is XTERM. The default screen height associated with a terminal type of XTERM is 54 rows. In some cases, your terminal type may be set automatically to XTERM, with screen height of 54 rows, if your TELNET process does a "handshake" to determine terminal type. (This happens, for instance, if you connect using MacX.)

If 54 is an incorrect screen height, you can use the SET HEIGHT command in Folio to change it. (e.g. SET HEIGHT 35)

Another alternative is to specify an alternate form of the XTERM terminal type explicitly when you first connect to Forsythe. For example:

        > telnet forsythetn
        Welcome to Stanford University ...
        Account? folio xterm40
This would set your terminal type to XTERM, with a screen height of 40 rows.

If You Use a Large Screen

If your workstation has a larger-than-normal monitor, you can tell Folio how many rows of information to display on the screen at once with the SET HEIGHT command. For example, to use 35 lines for Folio screens, you could type SET HEIGHT 35. (Type this command from within Folio.)

PC-Samson and MacSamson

PC-Samson and MacSamson are terminal-emulation programs written at Stanford, with features that are customized for use with the Forsythe computer (where Folio runs).

Why should you use Samson? For Folio users, the reasons are:
* You will be able to use the SAVE command to download Folio search results to a file on your Mac or PC.
* You will be able to PRINT to a printer attached to your Mac or PC.

PC-Samson and MacSamson are free to Stanford faculty, staff, and students. To find out the easiest way to get a copy, talk to a network administrator or local computer expert in your area. Students and faculty may contact the consultants in Sweet Hall (consult@leland, or 725-2101). Staff may contact ITSS Customer Assistance (consult@forsythe, or 725-8181).

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A Sample Folio Session

Folio is very easy to use. No computer experience is required - just read the instructions on the screen to find out what to do next. Once you learn how to use one Folio file, it is easy to use another file.

Getting Help

Folio includes many help screens. If you get stuck, type HELP for information about what to do next.

Here are some useful help screens for beginners:

HELP  SEARCHING          these first 3 give an
HELP  DISPLAY            introduction to searching
HELP  OPTIONS            list of commands
HELP  TOPICS             list of help screens
Asking Questions

If you can't find the answers you need with HELP, you can send a message to the people responsible for Folio with the SUGGEST command. You'll receive a response in a day or two.

Getting Started

The next few pages show sample screens illustrating the most important features of Folio.

At the prompt YOUR RESPONSE, type a command -- an instruction to tell Folio what to do next. After typing a command, press the RETURN key to transmit your command to the computer.

Welcome Screen

Here is an example of the Welcome screen that you'll see when you first enter Folio. It gives instructions for how to start.

                              Welcome to Folio
                    Stanford's Campus Information System
              Featuring Socrates, the library's online catalog

  To select a file for searching: type SELECT   and press the RETURN key

  To search Socrates:             type FIND     and press the RETURN key

  For help getting started:       type HELP     and press the RETURN key

       New in Folio:  ABI/Inform file (indexes business periodicals)
       Type HELP FOLIO NEWS for details.

              Tip -- You can always type HELP if you get stuck.

  YOUR RESPONSE:  select 
Choosing a File to Search

The first step is to choose a file in which to search. If you already know the name of a Folio file, type SELECT followed by the file name. For example, type SELECT INSPEC to work in INSPEC.

If you don't know a file name, or if you are new to Folio and want to explore what's available, type SELECT alone to see a list of files to choose from. This is what you'll see first:

      If you already know a file name:    type the file name below.
      Otherwise:                          type a number from this list.
      If you need assistance:             type HELP.
      1. Library Catalogs & Guide to Stanford Libraries (20 selections)

      2. Reference Shelf                                (30 selections)
      3. General or Interdisciplinary Sources            (8 selections)
      4. Humanities Sources                             (10 selections)
      5. Science & Engineering Sources                  (18 selections)
      6. Social Sciences Sources                        (21 selections)

      7. Student Information/Stanford Academic Life      (6 selections)
      8. University Policies and Procedures              (3 selections)
      9. General Info. for the Stanford Community       (18 selections)

     10. Alphabetical list of all files                (116 selections)

Folio files are categorized in broad subject areas as shown above. Choose a category, and Folio will list the files in that category:

  Science & Engineering Sources  (18 selections)

  1. Agricola                Agriculture, biotech, lab animal science index
  2. BIOSIS                  Biological and biomedical index
  3. Biotechnology Abstracts (on CD-ROM) Biotech journals & patents index
  4. CAS Online              Chemical Abstracts (Faculty, Students only;
                               evenings and weekends)
  5. CAS Training            Learning CAS Online (Faculty, Students only;
                               24 hr access)
  6. Chemical Safety         Properties of hazardous materials at Stanford
  7. Computer Articles       (in MELVYL) Index to 200 computer magazines
  8. Computer Select         (on CD-ROM) Computer Select
  9. EI/Compendex            Engineering and technology index
 10. Enviro/EnergyLine       (on CD-ROM) Environment and energy index
 11. GeoRef                  Geology and geophysics index

   For next part of the list:      press the RETURN key.
   To return to the main menu:     type SELECT again.
   For details about a file:       type HELP followed by a file name.

When you select a file, you see a brief introductory screen.

  -EI/Compendex selected

  EI/Compendex indexes and abstracts the world's significant engineering

  This Folio file covers 1987 to CURRENT and is updated monthly.
  Type HELP UPDATES to learn when the file was last updated.

  Earlier coverage is available in the printed Engineering Index,
  located in the Engineering Library. For electronic access to
  earlier years, consult a reference librarian.

  For more information on this file:     type HELP.
  To search this file:                   type FIND.
  To search headings in sequence:        type BROWSE.
  To select a different file:            type SELECT.
  To see all your options:               type OPTIONS.
The next step is to search for the information you're interested in.

Entering a Search Request

Searches in Folio have 3 parts:

          command      index          value
          -------      -----------    ---------------
          FIND or      type of        specific
          BROWSE       information    word or phrase
                       to look up     to look for
Examples of searches:
          find          subject       chaos theory
          find          author        stegner
          find          tp            all i really need to know
          browse        thesaurus     chaos
          browse        author        tchaik
Each Folio file has its own list of indexes, depending on the kind of information in the file. For example, Socrates (the library catalog) and the other bibliographic files have author, title, and subject indexes. But the Off-Campus Housing file has indexes called city, rent, and type of housing.


* Type HELP INDEXES after selecting a file, to see a list of indexes available in that file.

* Instead of typing a complete search, just type the word FIND or BROWSE, and Folio will show a list of indexes to choose from.

What's the Difference Between FIND and BROWSE?

FIND gives you a list of records that contain the word or phrase you asked for. Sometimes you may need to look at a FULL display to see the specific place where your search words occur.

BROWSE lets you scan headings (such as author names, titles, subject headings) in alphabetical order, starting at the word or phrase you asked for. Next to each heading is a note indicating how many records are associated with each heading. Browsing is like flipping through a card file that's arranged alphabetically.

Most people probably start by searching with FIND. But here are examples of when BROWSE may be more helpful than FIND.

* When you're unfamiliar with the information in a file and want to browse through a selection of headings.

* When you're not sure how a name is spelled or how a title or subject heading is worded, you can give just a partial stem as your starting point to browse the possibilities.

Example of a FIND Search

(This example is from the Ei/Compendex file)

  YOUR RESPONSE:   find author andrew green 
  EI/Compendex / Search: Find AUTHOR ANDREW GREEN
  Result:167 citations (type HELP LARGE RESULT for information)

  1)  Green, Thomas A., et al.  "Open systems benefit energy control
      Power v 5 n 2 Apr 1992 p 45-50.  (Journal Article - English)
  2)  Green, W. A., et al.  "Transient waves in six-ply and eight-ply
      fibre composite plates."  COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY -
      Compos Sci Technol v 44 n 2 1992 p 151-158.
      (Journal Article - English)
  3)  Nasr-El-Din, H. A., et al.  "Recovery of residual oil using the
      alkali/surfactant/polymer process. Effect of alkali
      Sci Eng v 6 n 4 Jan 1992 p 381-401.  (Journal Article - English)
  4)  Green, M. A., et al.  "ASTROMAG superconducting magnet facility
      configured for a free-flying satellite."  CRYOGENICS - Cryogenics
      v 32 n 2 1992. p 91-97.  (Journal Article - English)

  ___________Citations continue; press RETURN to see next page__________
  To see more of a citation:        type DM (medium) or DF (full) and a
  To see other display options:     type HELP or OPTIONS.
  To begin a new search:            type FIND or BROWSE.
  YOUR RESPONSE:   df 4 
As explained at the bottom of the screen, press the RETURN key to see more, if your search result takes more than one screen.

To see a fuller form of a record, type DF followed by the record number (e.g. DF 4, as shown above). DF stands for Display Full.

  EI/Compendex / Search: Find AUTHOR ANDREW GREEN
  Result: 167 citations

  Citation 4
  TITLE:            ASTROMAG superconducting magnet facility configured
                      for a free-flying satellite.
  AUTHOR:           Green, M. A. (Univ of California, Berkeley, CA,
                      USA); Smoot, G. F.
  PUBLICATION:      Cryogenics v 32 n 2 1992. p 91-97
                    Full title: Cryogenics
  CONFERENCE:       1991 Space Cryogenics Workshop.  Cleveland, OH, USA,
                      June 18-20, 1991.  Ei Conference Number:  16314.
  DOCUMENT TYPE:    Journal Article
  LANGUAGE:         English
  ABSTRACT:  ASTROMAG is a particle astrophysics facility that was
    originally configured for the Space Station. The heart of the
    ASTROMAG facility is a large superconducting magnet which is cooled
    using superfluid helium. The

  ________This citation continues; press RETURN to see next page________
  To see brief citations:          type DISPLAY (or D) and a number.
  To see other display options:    type HELP or OPTIONS.
  To begin a new search:           type FIND or BROWSE.
FULL displays often take more than one screen. Press the RETURN key to see the rest of the record.

Did you notice that this FIND search found Greens who don't seem to be Andrew Green? The reason -- FIND for names of people usually checks initials to see if initials might match your search. For example, Thomas A. Green might be Andrew Green, so it is counted as a match.

Example of a BROWSE Search (This example is from the Ei/Compendex file)

  YOUR RESPONSE:   browse author andrew green 
  EI/Compendex / Search: Browse AUTHOR ANDREW GREEN
  Result filed under the following headings:

  -3) Author: Green, Alex  (2 citations)
  -2) Author: Green, Alex E S  (6 citations)
  -1) Author: Green, Alison J K  (1 citation)
   0) Author: Green, Andrew  (1 citation)
   1) Author: Green, Andrew A  (2 citations)
   2) Author: Green, Andrew J  (1 citation)
   3) Author: Green, Anna  (1 citation)
   4) Author: Green, Annette H  (1 citation)
   5) Author: Green, Anthony L  (2 citations)
   6) Author: Green, Arnold  (1 citation)
   7) Author: Green, Arthur  (1 citation)
   8) Author: Green, B  (4 citations)
   9) Author: Green, B D  (6 citations)
  10) Author: Green, B David  (2 citations)

  ___________Headings continue; press RETURN to see next page___________
  To see a heading's citations:    type D or DF (full) and a heading
  To see other display options:    type HELP or OPTIONS.
  To begin a new search:           type FIND or BROWSE.
Compare this result with the previous one. This BROWSE search shows a list of authors, starting with the one that matches your search value most closely. (The closest match to your search is at number 0.)

You can DISPLAY records associated with particular author headings. For example, DISPLAY 1 (D 1 for short) will show the 2 records for author Andrew A. Green:

  EI/Compendex / Search: Browse AUTHOR ANDREW GREEN
  Result filed under the following headings:

  Heading 1) Author: Green, Andrew A (2 citations)
  1.1)  Green, Andrew A., et al.  "Transformation for ordering
        multispectral data in terms of image quality with implications
        SENSING - IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens v 26 n 1 Jan 1988
        p 65-74.  (Journal Article - English)
  1.2)  Eberhardt, John E., et al.  "Mid-infrared remote sensing systems
        and their application to lithologic mapping."  IEEE TRANSACTIONS
        ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING - IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens
        v GE-25 n 2 Mar 1987
        p 230-237.  (Journal Article - English)

  __Citations for next heading continue; press RETURN to see next page__
  To see more of a citation:      type DM (medium) or DF (full) and a
  To see other display options:   type HELP or OPTIONS.
  To begin a new search:          type FIND or BROWSE.
The SCAN Command

To return to the list of headings, type SCAN. For example, after looking at records under heading 1, you might type SCAN 2 (S 2 for short) to review the list of headings again, beginning with number 2.

In some files, other display options are available. For example, the screen above refers to the DM command, to see a MEDIUM display (a brief citation, plus the abstract).

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Displaying Your Search Result

DISPLAY: The basic pattern of the DISPLAY command is:

     DISPLAY   record numbers   display name

     display 5          to see number 5  (in a BRIEF form)
     d 5                DISPLAY can be abbreviated to D
     d 5-8  (or  5/8)   to see 5 through 8
     d 5,  10-12,  7    to see 5, 10 through 12, and 7
DISPLAY NAMES: The display name is optional. If you omit it, you see a BRIEF form of a record. Other common display names:

     FULL        MEDIUM         EXPORT       CIRCULATION
DF: A shortcut for Display Full, to see the complete Folio record:

     df  7-L            FULL form of 7th through last records
     df  all            FULL form of all records in your result
DM and D EXPORT: Most periodical indexing files also have a MEDIUM display (brief citation plus abstract) and an EXPORT display (to help download to bibliographic software such as EndNote).

     dm 3               DM stands for Display Medium
     d export all       type HELP  EXPORT for more information
DC: The CIRCULATION display in Socrates lets you see if a specific title is checked out. Type HELP CIRCULATION for details.

     dc 10.4            DC is a shortcut for Display Circulation
CUSTOMIZING DISPLAYS: FULL displays usually have sections labeled with uppercase names. You can create a "customized" display by asking for specific sections. For example:

     d 10-20  TITLE  LOCATION
HELP SCREENS: You can always learn the display options in the file you're working in:

     * HELP  OPTIONS  (after you have a search result)
CONTINUOUS DISPLAYS: The CONTINUOUS option instructs Folio to display records without pausing at the end of each screen. This is useful if you are sending your Folio session to a logging file on your workstation. Example:

     dm all cont        (abbreviations are ok)
If you need to stop a CONTINUOUS display, press the BREAK key (or press CTRL and C at the same time).

SCAN COMMAND (Displaying headings): The SCAN command displays headings. It is useful after a BROWSE search, especially if you have DISPLAYed records under a heading and want to return to the heading list. Example:

     scan 7             to start the heading list at # 7
     s 7                SCAN can be abbreviated to S
In Socrates, SCAN is useful after both FIND and BROWSE.

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Making Copies of Folio Records

The DISPLAY command lets you look at your search result on the screen. The MAIL, PRINT, and SAVE commands let you send results by electronic mail, make printed copies, or download search results.

These 3 commands follow similar patterns (see examples below):

MAIL, PRINT, SAVE:  record numbers   display name   TO destination
                                    (FULL, MEDIUM,
                                     for example)
Electronic Mail

After you have a search result, use the MAIL command to send records to an email address. Example:

     mail 3  full  to  joestanford@leland

Type HELP PRINTERS for information about printers on campus.

* If you're in a library, you can often PRINT to a self-service printer in the library.

* If you're using a Mac or PC and have a printer attached to your workstation directly or through a local network, you can PRINT TO ATTACHED as long as you're using Samson.

* If you use the Forsythe computer for other work besides Folio, you may have a local printer whose name is known to Forsythe.

     print  1-10                    (Folio will ask where to print,
     print 10  6  15  medium          if you omit a destination)
     print  1/4  full  to  mydept   (a Forsythe printer name)
     print  all  to  attached

The SAVE command is available if you are using Samson. SAVE downloads your search result to a file on your Mac or PC.

     save  29  full                  (Folio will ask for a file-name)
     save  all  to  c:jobs.fol
     save  5  7  12  medium  to  c:  (on a Mac)
     (you'll get a dialog box asking where to save the file)
SAVE also works if you have access to the WYLBUR text editor. You may save search results in a WYLBUR dataset or in your active file (SAVE TO ACTIVE).

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Narrowing and Broadening a Search


Use the words AND, OR, NOT to combine search criteria to narrow or broaden a FIND search. For example:

     find author stegner and title candy
           (both the author Stegner and the title word candy must be

     find location menlo park or palo alto
           (either city will satisfy this search request)

     find subject environment not organization sierra club
           (the subject must have the word environment but the Sierra
           Club must not be listed as the organization)
AND and NOT narrow your search result (make it smaller), while OR broadens it (makes it larger). These words are referred to as Boolean operators or logical operators. Type HELP BOOLEAN in Folio for more information.

Add-On Searches

You can also do add-on or iterative searching with logical operators:

     YOUR RESPONSE:  find city menlo park
     -Result: 5 listings
     YOUR RESPONSE:  or city palo alto
     -Result: 15 listings
     YOUR RESPONSE:  backup
     -Result: 5 listings
You can add new criteria as many times as needed. Notice that the BACKUP command removes the last search value that you entered. Type HELP ADD-ON SEARCH for more information.


When you combine ANDs and ORs in the same search, they are processed from left to right unless you use parentheses. When parentheses are used, the operations within parentheses are performed first. Compare the results of these searches:

   without parentheses:   find title party and labor or labour
        (retrieves records with both "party" and "labor" and also
        records with "labour")

   with parentheses:      find title party and (labor or labour)
        (retrieves records with "party" and either "labor" or "labour")
The parentheses must follow either FIND or a logical operator:

   find author dickens and (t bleak or twist)    ---->        correct
   find author dickens and t (bleak or twist)    ---->      incorrect

[Top] [Files] [Connecting] [Terminal Settings] [Sample Session] [Displays] [Print, Mail, Save] [Narrowing Search] [LIMIT] [Tips] [More Info] [Command List]

The LIMIT Command

The LIMIT command lets you limit what's displayed from your search result, usually by year of publication or language or other criteria.

Here is an example:

     YOUR RESPONSE: find subject california pioneers
     -Result: 80 citations
     YOUR RESPONSE: limit year after 1985
     ... Here, your display will change to show only the items matching
         your LIMIT criteria
Tips for using LIMIT:

* LIMIT is available in Socrates and in many of the periodical indexes in Folio. To see if LIMIT works in the file you're searching, just type LIMIT after you have a search result.

* There are several help screens about LIMIT. Type HELP LIMIT COMMAND to read about limits available in the file you're working in.

* To remove a LIMIT, type BACKUP.

* You can combine limits with AND, OR, NOT just like you can combine search criteria (see page 11). Examples:

     limit language english or german and location engineering
     limit year after 1985 and language english
* You can use LIMIT after either FIND or BROWSE.

* Folio reports progress to you every 100 records or so, as it is checking to see which items match your LIMIT. This lets you stop the limit if it is working in a very large search result and finding nothing. The message looks like this:

     -100 citations examined; no additional citations match your
      LIMIT so far
     -Press the RETURN key to continue, or type CANCEL to stop
You can also type CANCEL here if you need to give some other command such as DF or PRINT. The limit is still in effect - the CANCEL here just stops Folio from looking any further in the search result for the time being.

* Your limit stays in effect until you type a new LIMIT command, or type the BACKUP command, or do a new search. (There is not a way to use the same limit for all searches.)

[Top] [Files] [Connecting] [Terminal Settings] [Sample Session] [Displays] [Print, Mail, Save] [Narrowing Search] [LIMIT] [Tips] [More Info] [Command List]

Other Tips for Using Folio

TRUNCATION (STEM SEARCHING) -- Use the # symbol to search on word stems, as a technique to broaden your search. For example: FIND DEPT BIOL# to find "biology" and "biological" etc. Type HELP STEM SEARCHING for details.

ABBREVIATIONS -- Folio commands can be abbreviated to three letters (sometimes fewer). Names of indexes and files may also be abbreviated to a distinctive stem. Other abbreviations: DF and DM.

CHAINING COMMANDS -- You can type a logical series of commands at once by using a double slash to connect the commands. With this technique you avoid waiting for Folio to respond after each command. Example:

In one step, this command shows the FULL display of a search result in the Housing file.

"COMMAND MODE" TO OMIT INSTRUCTIONS -- You can eliminate the instructions at the bottom of the screen (and thus leave more room for search results) by switching to Command mode. To do this, type COMMAND. To see the instructions again, type GUIDED to switch back to Guided mode.

WHEN IS A FOLIO FILE NOT A FOLIO FILE? -- Some selections in Folio actually consist of computer systems at other universities or on other computers besides the Forsythe computer where most of Folio resides. For example, through Folio you can search CD-ROM versions of several reference tools. And when you select MELVYL you are connecting to the University of California computer system. In these cases, the normal Folio commands described in this brochure are not applicable. You must read the introductory screens and help screens in these systems to learn what to do.

EXPORTING TO ENDNOTE -- The EXPORT display is available in many of Folio's periodical abstracting/indexing databases, to help you download citations to personal bibliographic software such as EndNote. Type HELP EXPORT for more information.

SENDING QUESTIONS -- Use the SUGGEST command to send questions or comments to the people responsible for Folio.

REQUESTING LIBRARY SERVICES -- In Socrates, you may REQUEST several library services:

     * type REQUEST REFERENCE to send a reference question to library
       staff. You'll receive a response in a day or two.
     * type REQUEST NOTIFICATION to be notified when items ordered by
       the library are available.
     * type REQUEST SAL PAGE to have Stanford Auxiliary Library
       materials paged (delivered) to Green Library.

LEAVING FOLIO -- Type END or LOGOFF to end your Folio session.

[Top] [Files] [Connecting] [Terminal Settings] [Sample Session] [Displays] [Print, Mail, Save] [Narrowing Search] [LIMIT] [Tips] [More Info] [Command List]

How to Get More Information

Try the HELP Command

If you'd like to learn more, try the HELP command in Folio.

There are help screens about each topic listed below. Type HELP followed by the topic (for example, HELP SEARCHING).

General Information about Searching

  Searching          SHOW SEARCH           Add-on Search
  FIND Command       Boolean Operators     BACKUP Command
  BROWSE Command     AND                   Parentheses
  Indexes            NOT                   Stem Searching
  Search Hints       OR                    Exclusion Words
                     LIMIT                 Punctuation

Displaying, Printing, Downloading a Search Result

  DISPLAY Command          MAIL Command    SAVE Command
  Labels of FULL Display   PRINT Command   SCAN Command

General Information

  Abbreviations        Guided Mode        REQUEST Command
  BEGIN Command        HELP Command       Screen Size
  Command Mode         Hours              SELECT Command
  Commands             News               SHOW HISTORY
  END Command          Options            Socrates
  Files                Password           SUGGEST Command
  Glossary             Phone Numbers
To learn more about a specific Folio file, type HELP followed by the file name. These help screens usually refer you to an office on campus where you can find out more.

Socrates Assistance

For help with Socrates searching, refer to A Reference Guide to Socrates (also available in printed form in campus libraries). Socrates workshops are offered at the beginning of most quarters. Inquire at a library reference desk for more information.

Guides to Folio Databases

Library staff have prepared a number of handouts and guides about the information sources in Folio.

Questions for Librarians

If you have a question for the reference staff in a Stanford library, use the REQUEST REFERENCE command in Socrates. Turn-around time is usually 24 hours.

Other general sources of information about library services:

Other Questions

If the help screens don't answer your questions, use the SUGGEST command in Folio to send a question or comment to staff responsible for Folio.

[Top] [Files] [Connecting] [Terminal Settings] [Sample Session] [Displays] [Print, Mail, Save] [Narrowing Search] [LIMIT] [Tips] [More Info] [Command List]

Checklist of Folio Commands

Getting Started
Begin a Folio session,                    BEGIN
   on public terminals
Begin a session,                          FOLIO
   after connecting to Forsythe           (at the Account? or
                                          Command> prompt)
Choose a file                             SELECT file-name
See all files available                   SELECT
Getting Help
Get info about your current situation     HELP
See all commands                          OPTIONS
See topics for which help is available    HELP TOPICS
Useful help screens for beginners         HELP SEARCHING
                                          HELP FIND
                                          HELP BROWSE
                                          HELP DISPLAY
                                          HELP SEARCH  HINTS
Searching Commands
Begin a search                            FIND
                                    (to find words or phrases)
     or                                   BROWSE
                                    (to scan headings alphabetically)
Review headings                           SCAN
Look at brief records                     DISPLAY
Look at fuller displays                   DF (DISPLAY FULL)
                                          DM (DISPLAY MEDIUM)
Narrow a search                           AND   or   NOT
Broaden a search                          OR
Remove last part of search                BACKUP
Limit by year, language, location         LIMIT
Try search in another Socrates file       RETRY
See your search                           SHOW SEARCH
See your commands                         SHOW HISTORY
Making Copies of Folio Records
Print search results                      PRINT
Send records by electronic mail           MAIL
Save records in a computer file           SAVE
Use EXPORT display (for EndNote)          MAIL EXPORT n
                                          SAVE EXPORT n
Use other displays                        MAIL  display name
                                          SAVE  display name
                                          PRINT display name
Making Suggestions and Requests
Ask a question or make a comment          SUGGEST
Ask to be notified when items ordered     REQUEST NOTIFY
     by the library are available
Send reference question to librarians     REQUEST REFERENCE
Request delivery of SAL items to Green    REQUEST SAL PAGE
Other Commands
Change screen size                        SET HEIGHT n
Change password                           SET PASSWORD
Change PIN                                SET PIN
Use Command Mode                          COMMAND
     (delete on-screen instructions)
Use Guided Mode                           GUIDED
     (restore on-screen instructions)
Leave Folio                               END
Leave Folio and logoff                    LOGOFF
Leave and let someone else logon          LOGON
Interrupt Folio to use WYLBUR             PAUSE
Return to Folio after PAUSE               GO
(Note: some of these commands are not available to all accounts.)

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