Mini-Grand Rounds: The Outlook for Radiology in the Next Phases of the Pandemic and Beyond
David Larson, MD, MBA
Vice Chair, Education and Clinical Operations
Associate Professor, Radiology
7:00am – 7:30am, Zoom
The Stanford Radiology Mini-Grand Round live session events are by invitation only. Invites with link to Zoom video will be sent via email to Department faculty and staff only. Recordings will be made available to the public shortly after the event.
Judy Gichoya, MD
Emory University School of Medicine
Measuring Learning Gains in Man-Machine Assemblage When Augmenting Radiology Work with Artificial Intelligence
The work setting of the future presents an opportunity for human-technology partnerships, where a harmonious connection between human-technology produces unprecedented productivity gains. A conundrum at this human-technology frontier remains – will humans be augmented by technology or will technology be augmented by humans? We present our work on overcoming the conundrum of human and machine as separate entities and instead, treats them as an assemblage. As groundwork for the harmonious human-technology connection, this assemblage needs to learn to fit synergistically. This learning is called assemblage learning and it will be important for Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in health care, where diagnostic and treatment decisions augmented by AI will have a direct and significant impact on patient care and outcomes. We describe how learning can be shared between assemblages, such that collective swarms of connected assemblages can be created. Our work is to demonstrate a symbiotic learning assemblage, such that envisioned productivity gains from AI can be achieved without loss of human jobs.
Specifically, we are evaluating the following research questions: Q1: How to develop assemblages, such that human-technology partnerships produce a “good fit” for visually based cognition-oriented tasks in radiology? Q2: What level of training should pre-exist in the individual human (radiologist) and independent machine learning model for human-technology partnerships to thrive? Q3: Which aspects and to what extent does an assemblage learning approach lead to reduced errors, improved accuracy, faster turn-around times, reduced fatigue, improved self-efficacy, and resilience?
ZOOM LINK HERE
“High Resolution Breast Diffusion Weighted Imaging”
Jessica McKay, PhD
ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a quantitative MRI method that measures the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water molecules, which reflects cell density and serves as an indication of malignancy. Unfortunately, however, the clinical value of DWI is severely limited by the undesirable features in images that common clinical methods produce, including large geometric distortions, ghosting and chemical shift artifacts, and insufficient spatial resolution. Thus, in order to exploit information encoded in diffusion characteristics and fully assess the clinical value of ADC measurements, it is first imperative to achieve technical advancements of DWI.
In this talk, I will largely focus on the background of breast DWI, providing the clinical motivation for this work and explaining the current standard in breast DWI and alternatives proposed throughout the literature. I will also present my PhD dissertation work in which a novel strategy for high resolution breast DWI was developed. The purpose of this work is to improve DWI methods for breast imaging at 3 Tesla to robustly provide diffusion-weighted images and ADC maps with anatomical quality and resolution. This project has two major parts: Nyquist ghost correction and the use of simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) to achieve high resolution. Exploratory work was completed to characterize the Nyquist ghost in breast DWI, showing that, although the ghost is mostly linear, the three-line navigator is unreliable, especially in the presence of fat. A novel referenceless ghost correction, Ghost/Object minimization was developed that reduced the ghost in standard SE-EPI and advanced SMS. An advanced SMS method with axial reformatting (AR) is presented for high resolution breast DWI. In a reader study, AR-SMS was preferred by three breast radiologists compared to the standard SE-EPI and readout-segmented-EPI.
“Machine-learning Approach to Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors: A Multicenter Study”
Michael Zhang, MD
ABSTRACT: Clinicoradiologic differentiation between benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) is a diagnostic challenge with important management implications. We sought to develop a radiomics classifier based on 900 features extracted from gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted MRI, using the Quantitative Imaging Feature Pipeline and the PyRadiomics package. Additional patient-specific clinical variables were recorded. A radiomic signature was derived from least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, followed by gradient boost machine learning. A training and test set were selected randomly in a 70:30 ratio. We further evaluated the performance of radiomics-based classifier models against human readers of varying medical-training backgrounds. Following image pre-processing, 95 malignant and 171 benign PNSTs were available. The final classifier included 21 features and achieved a sensitivity 0.676, specificity 0.882, and area under the curve (AUC) 0.845. Collectively, human readers achieved sensitivity 0.684, specificity 0.742, and AUC 0.704. We concluded that radiomics using routine gadolinium enhanced, T1-weighted MRI sequences and clinical features can aid in the evaluation of PNSTs, particularly by increasing specificity for diagnosing malignancy. Further improvement may be achieved with incorporation of additional imaging sequences.
Ge Wang, PhD
Clark & Crossan Endowed Chair Professor
Director of the Biomedical Imaging Center
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, New York
AI-based tomography is an important application and a new frontier of machine learning. AI, especially deep learning, has been widely used in computer vision and image analysis, which deal with existing images, improve them, and produce features. Since 2016, deep learning techniques are actively researched for tomography in the context of medicine. Tomographic reconstruction produces images of multi-dimensional structures from externally measured “encoded” data in the form of various transforms (integrals, harmonics, and so on). In this presentation, we provide a general background, highlight representative results, and discuss key issues that need to be addressed in this emerging field.
AI-based X-ray Imaging System (AXIS) lab is led by Dr. Ge Wang, affiliated with the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies in the Biomedical Imaging Center. AXIS lab focuses on innovation and translation of x-ray computed tomography, optical molecular tomography, multi-scale and multi-modality imaging, and AI/machine learning for image reconstruction and analysis, and has been continuously well funded by federal agencies and leading companies. AXIS group collaborates with Stanford, Harvard, Cornell, MSK, UTSW, Yale, GE, Hologic, and others, to develop theories, methods, software, systems, applications, and workflows.
Mixed Reality for Surgical Guidance will take place on Thursday, April 1st from 9:00 – 10:30 am PDT.
The event will start with a one-hour panel discussion featuring Dr. Bruce Daniel of Stanford Radiology and the Stanford IMMERS Lab; Christoffer Hamilton of Brainlab, a surgical software and hardware leader in Germany; and Dr. Thomas Grégory of Orthopedic Surgery at the Université Sorbonne Paris Nord.
This panel will be moderated by Dr. Christoph Leuze of Stanford University and the Stanford Medical Mixed Reality (SMMR) program.
Immediately following the panel discussion, you are also invited to a 30-minute interactive session with the panelists where questions and ideas can be explored in real time.
Targeted violence continues against Black Americans, Asian Americans, and all people of color. The department of radiology diversity committee is running a racial equity challenge to raise awareness of systemic racism, implicit bias and related issues. Participants will be provided a list of resources on these topics such as articles, podcasts, videos, etc., from which they can choose, with the “challenge” of engaging with one to three media sources prior to our session (some videos are as short as a few minutes). Participants will meet in small-group breakout sessions to discuss what they’ve learned and share ideas.
Please reach out to Marta Flory, firstname.lastname@example.org with questions. For details about the session, including recommended resources and the Zoom link, please reach out to Meke Faaoso at email@example.com.
Join us for a panel on Behavioral XR on Thursday, June 3rd from 9:00 – 10:30 am PDT. The event will start with a one-hour panel discussion featuring Dr. Elizabeth McMahon, a psychologist with a private practice in California; Sarah Hill of Healium, a company developing XR apps for mental fitness based in Missouri; Christian Angern of Sympatient, a company developing VR for anxiety therapy based in Germany; and Marguerite Manteau-Rao of Penumbra, a medical device company based in California. This panel will be moderated by Dr. Walter Greenleaf of Stanford’s Virtual Human Interaction Lab (VHIL) and Dr. Christoph Leuze of the Stanford Medical Mixed Reality (SMMR) program. Immediately following the panel discussion, you are also invited to a 30-minute interactive session with the panelists where questions and ideas can be explored in real time.
Register here to save your place now! After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting.
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Sponsored by Stanford Medical Mixed Reality (SMMR)
Join us for the 11th biennial International Conference on Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart (FIMH). FIMH-2021 will celebrate 20 years of bringing together friends, colleagues, and collaborators to share and discuss the latest in cardiac and cardiovascular imaging, electrophysiology, computational modeling, and translational applications. The event will take place June 21-25, 2021 virtually, via Livestream, Zoom meeting workshops, and Spatial Chat networking.
Sponsored by: Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart Conference
Radiology Department-Wide Research Meeting
• Research Announcements
• Mirabela Rusu, PhD – Learning MRI Signatures of Aggressive Prostate Cancer: Bridging the Gap between Digital Pathologists and Digital Radiologists
• Akshay Chaudhari, PhD – Data-Efficient Machine Learning for Medical Imaging
Location: Zoom – Details can be found here: https://radresearch.stanford.edu
Meetings will be the 3rd Friday of each month.
Hosted by: Kawin Setsompop, PhD
Sponsored by: the the Department of Radiology
Stanford AIMI Director Curt Langlotz and Co-Directors Matt Lungren and Nigam Shah invite you to join us on August 3 for the 2021 Stanford Center for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Imaging (AIMI) Symposium. The virtual symposium will focus on the latest, best research on the role of AI in diagnostic excellence across medicine, current areas of impact, fairness and societal impact, and translation and clinical implementation. The program includes talks, interactive panel discussions, and breakout sessions. Registration is free and open to all.
Also, the 2nd Annual BiOethics, the Law, and Data-sharing: AI in Radiology (BOLD-AIR) Summit will be held on August 4, in conjunction with the AIMI Symposium. The summit will convene a broad range of speakers in bioethics, law, regulation, industry groups, and patient safety and data privacy, to address the latest ethical, regulatory, and legal challenges regarding AI in radiology.